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and spur dikes, and shore protection works to deepen the water over Dry Stocking Bar, at the mouth of Hoquarton Slough, and to remove snags and overhanging trees from Hoquarton Slough.
The amount expended to June 30, 1891, was $4,922.95.
The amount expended during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1892, was $709.90.
No work was done beyond making a survey.
The appropriations, in three acts, amount to $20,700. July 1, 1891, balance unexpended....
$777.06 June 30, 1892, amount expended during fiscal year.
709.90 July 1, 1892, balance unexpended....
67. 16 Amount appropriated by act approved July 13, 1892.
15, 000.00 Amount available for fiscal year ending June 30, 1893.....
15, 067. 16 Amount (estimated) required for completion of existing project..... 85,000.00 Submitted in compliance with requirements of sections 2 of river and
harbor acts of 1866 and 1867. (See Appendix T T 6.)
7. Entrance to Nehalem Bay, Oregon.-Nehalem Bay at high water is about 2 miles long by 13 miles wide at the widest part, and is connected with the ocean by a narrow channel extending in a southerly direction about 3 miles. This channel varies in width from 1,000 to 2,000 feet at high tide; it is separated from the ocean by a low sandy peninsula, about 2 miles long and 4 mile wide. The entrance channel south of this peninsula is shifting, its northern and southern limits being about 1 mile apart. The channel across the bar at the entrance is ordinarily 5 to 6 feet deep.
The plan of improvement is to hold the channel in its southern position by building two high-tide stone jetties; the northern starting from the above-mentioned peninsula, and the southern to start from the mainland; these to converge to an entrance width of about 500 feet, and then, if necessary, to run parallel for a sufficient distance to secure a bar depth of 8 feet at low water.
The cost, as estimated in 1891, will be $712,338.
The amount expended during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1892, was $415.08.
No work was done beyond making a survey.
The appropriation, in one act, amounts to $10,000. July 1, 1891, balance unexpended
$10,000.00 July 30, 1892, amount expended during fiscal year.
415. 08 July 1, 1892, balance unexpended.
9,584.92 (See Appendix T T 7.)
8. Upper Columbia and Snake rivers, Oregon anil Washington.-Under the above head it has been deemed proper to officially include the continuous Columbia and Snake rivers from Celilo, at the head of the Dalles, to Lewiston.
The Upper Columbia and Snake form a continuous line of navigable river, but broken by many rapids which render navigation difficult and dangerous. These rapids are in nearly every instance caused by rocky bars with occasional bowlders. The channels before improvement were crooked and narrow, the ruling depth at low water over many of the bars was 2 to 3 feet, and some were practically impassable at low water.
Previous to 1877, $20,000 had been appropriated for the work of improvement, and had been expended in surveys and rock removal at the principal rapids.
In 1877 a project was approved which provided for the removal of bowlders and reefs, and for scraping gravel bars in the Columbia and Snake as far as Lewiston.
The estimated cost was $132,000.
The general result of all work done and of natural forces had been to lower the bed of the river about 11 feet, but the surface was lowered also, so that the navigable depth was not increased. The removal of bowlders and reefs had been very beneficial by making navigation less dangerous.
No work had been done since 1889, and a number of large bowlders had been brought into the river by ice and freshets.
The amount expended during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1892, was $8,275.04.
Two hundred and ninety-three cubic yards of reef and bowlder rock was removed. The benefit to navigation was very great. Boats can carry more than double their previous loads, and with greater safety.
The present project or plan of improvement consists in removal of bowlders, gravel bars, and rock ledges, and putting in such contraction works as may be necessary.
The estimated cost of the work has not been accurately determined because of the lack of continuous and full surveys, and because from the nature of things it can not be, as many of the obstructions which it is necessary to remove are continually recurring.
The appropriations, made in fourteen acts, amount to $271,000. July 1, 1891, balance unexpended
$16, 557. 77 June 30, 1892, amount expended during fiscal year
8, 275. 04 July 1, 1892, balance unexpended
8, 282. 73 July 1, 1892, outstanding liabilities
25.00 July 1, 1892, balance available.....
8, 257.73 Amount appropriated by act approved July 13, 1892
'15, 000.00 Amount available for fiscal year ending June 30, 1893
23, 257. 73 (See Appendix T T 8.)
9. Columbia River between head of Rock Island Rapids and foot of Priest Rapids, Washington.—The portion of the Columbia River from the head of Rock Island Rapids to the foot of Priest Rapids is about 60 miles in length. The banks for the greater part of the distance are precipitous bluffs from 1,000 to 3,000 feet high. The neighboring country is rocky and sterile. The principal obstructions to navigation are Rock Island, Cabinet, and Priest rapids.
At Rock Island Rapids the river has cut around both sides of a large island of rock. The channel is obstructed by reefs, rocks, and sharply projecting points. These dam up the water to such an extent that it escapes over lines of very steep slope. Above the head of the island the channel is nearly choked by extensive deposits of gravel. The river 'has a fall of 10 feet in 3,000 feet, and 124 feet in 8,000 feet at a stage of about 4 feet above low water.
At Cabinet Rapids a mass of basaltic rock projects from the left bank nearly two-thirds across the river, deflecting the current and
causing it to impinge upon the nearly vertical rocks of the right bank. The channel is also obstructed by masses of rock.
The fall here is 10 feet in about 8,000 feet.
At Priest Rapids there are seven principal rapids in about 10 miles. The total fall in flris distance is 72 feet at low water; 634 feet at high water.
In all these rapids the river runs through and over hard, rough, and jagged basaltic rocks.
The plan of improvement under which existing work has been carried on consists in removing rocks at the three rapids, and putting in at convenient locations iron posts and ringbolts, to which ascending boats could make fast their lines and wind themselves up with steam capstans.
The estimated cost was $550,000.
In addition to this, the survey was to be continued from Rock Island Rapids to the boundary line.
This project was approved October 18, 1890.
The amount expended up to June 30, 1891, was $31,291.13, of which $2,691.91 was for the survey.
The work so far done was at Priest and Cabinet rapids. The results were not marked. The removal of the rocks would have rendered navigation safer, had there been any navigation, which there was not.
The survey had progressed rapidly so that the work from the boundary line to the mouth of the Spokane was nearly finished.
The amount expended during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1892, was $28,195.29, of which $7,227.95 was for the survey, and $20,967.34 for the work of improvement.
The work of improvement was confined to Cabinet and Rock Island Rapids.
Āt Cabinet Rapids a number of rocks and points have been shattered by blasting. Should the high water, as is expected, carry away the débris, these rapids will be improved to as great an extent in the way of rock removal as seems necessary.
At Rock Island Rapids obstructions in the channel near the right bank have been removed.
At both localities a nuniber of ringbolts have been put in at various points.
The total appropriation by act of September 19, 1890, is $70,000, of which $10,000, or as much thereof as may be necessary, may be used for the survey of the Columbia River from the international boundary line to Rock Island Rapids. July 1, 1891, balance unexpended..
$38, 708.87 June 30, 1892, amount expended during fiscal year..
28, 195, 29 July 1, 1892, balance unexpended.
10, 513.58 July 1, 1892, outstanding liabilities
25.00 July 1, 1892, balance available
10,488.58 (See Appendix T T 9.)
10. Chehalis River, Washington.—The possibly navigable portion of the Chehalis River from Claquato to the mouth is about 90 miles long. This may well be considered in three sections.
First. From the mouth to Montesano, a distance of 13 miles, there is a depth of 18 feet at high water. This portion of the river can be traversed by coasting vessels.
Second. From Montesano to Elma, 16 miles, there is in general sufficient water for light-draft boats, but navigation is obstructed by logs
and fallen trees, and in summer by scarcity of water on the bars. This portion of the river is slightly affected by the tides.
Third. Above Elma the river is practically blockaded during the summer and autumn by snags and general lack of water; it becomes a succession of pools and shoals, the latter having sometimes only 6 inches to 12 inches of water.
The plan of improvement contemplates the removal of snags, overhanging trees, jams, drift heaps, shoals, and other obstacles to navi. gation.
The amount expended to June 30, 1891, was $10,614.60. The river between Montesano and Gray Harbor was put into good condition for navigation.
The amount expended during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1892, was $100.68.
The river from Montesano to the bay has been kept open and free from dangerous snags.
The appropriations, made in five acts, amount to $13,000. July 1, 1891, balance unexpended...
$2,385.40 June 30, 1892, amount expended during fiscal year.
100. 68 July 1, 1892, balance unexpended....
2, 284. 72 (See Appendix T T 10.) 11. Skagit, Stillaguamish, Nooksack, Snohomish, and Snoqualmie rivers, Washington.-These rivers rise in the Cascade Range and flow to the west into Puget Sound between the forty-eighth and forty-ninth paral. lels of latitude. The Snoqualmie is a branch of the Snohomish. The aggregate length of all is estimated at about 250 miles.
In their original condition these rivers had enough water for steamer navigation, but were obstructed by snags, fallen trees, and log jams. They were the highways of the country, travel on land being
almost impossible on account of the heavy timber, dense underbrush, and fallen logs.
The plan of improvement contemplates the removal of snags, logs, trees, and other obstructions to navigation. For this purpose a snag boat with full outfit has been provided, which passes from one river to another as necessity requires.
The amount expended to June 30, 1891, was $62,118.51. No permanent results were aimed at or obtained. Obstructions were removed as they occurred, and the rivers were kept open for navigation.
The amount expended during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1892, was $5,377.07.
As a result the rivers were kept clear and navigation was greatly benefited.
The appropriations, in seven acts, amount to $84,500. July 1, 1891, balance unexpended
$7, 381. 49 June 30, 1892, amount expended during fiscal year.
5, 377.07 July 1, 1892, balance unexpended
2, 004. 42 July 1, 1892, outstanding liabilities.
200.00 July 1, 1892, balance available.....
1, 804. 42 Amount appropriated by act approved July 13, 1892*
15,000.00 Amount available for fiscal year ending June 30, 1893
16, 804.42 (See Appendix T T 11.)
* This appropriation was made under the title “improving Puget Sound and its tributary waters, Washington."
EXAMINATIONS AND SURVEYS, MADE IN COMPLIANCE WITH PROVISIONS OF RIVER AND HARBOR ACT APPROVED SEPTEMBER 19, 1890.
The required preliminary examination of Olympia Har bor, Washington, from deep water in Budds Inlet to Fourth Street Bridge, in the city of Olympia, and separately from said bridge to the mouth of the Des Chutes River at Tumwater, was made by the local engineer in charge, Capt. Symons, and report thereon submitted, through Col. G. H. Mendell, Corps of Engineers, Division Engineer, Pacific Division. It is the opinion of Capt. Symons and of the division engineer, based upon the facts and reasons given, that Olympia Harbor, from deep water in Budds Inlet to Fourth Street Bridge, is worthy, and from the bridge to mouth of Des Chutes River at Tumwater is not worthy of improvement. This opinion being concurred in by me, no further survey from Fourth Street Bridge to Tumwater was ordered, but Capt. Symons was charged with and has completed survey of Olympia Harbor from deep water in Budds Inlet to the bridge, and submitted report thereon.
The proposed improvement of Olympia Harbor below the Fourth Street Bridge contemplates dredging a channel from deep water in Budds Inlet to the wharves near the bridge, 12 feet deep at low water and 250 feet wide between pile and brush bulkheads built 400 feet apart, beyond which the dredged material is to be deposited, and the formation of a basin at the upper end of the cut near the bridge, 12 feet deep at low water, with an extreme length of 1,600 feet and maximum width of 500 feet, the bulkhead to be continued around the sides and end of the basin so as to deflect the current of the Des Chutes River, provision being made, however, to allow small boats to pass through the draw of the bridge. The cost of this work is estimated at $275,000.
The reports were transmitted to Congress and printed as House Ex. Doc. No. 32, Fifty-second Congress, first session. (See also Appendix TT 12.)
The required preliminary examinations of the following localities were made by the local engineer in charge, Capt. Symons, and reports thereon subinitted through Col. G. H. Mendell, Corps of Engineers, Division Engineer, Pacific Division. It is the opinion of Capt. Symons, and of the division engineer, based upon the facts and reasons given, that these localities are worthy of improvement. The conclusions of these officers being concurred in by me, Capt. Symons was charged with and has completed their survey and submitted reports thereon. The reports were transmitted to Congress and printed as executive documents of the Fifty-second Congress, first session.
1. Tillamook Bay and Bar, Oregon.--The proposed improvement of Tillamook Bay contemplates forming a connection between the north and middle channels above Bay City by dredging a channel 200 feet wide at bottom and 6 feet deep at low water, and constructing a dike along the west side of this channel and extending across the middle channel so as to divert the current through the cut for the purpose of maintaining it; constructing a dike to close the south channel and to turn its current into the middle channel, for the improvement of Junction Bar; and closing, by a dike, one of the channels at the outlet of Hoquarton Slough, for the improvement of Dry Stocking Bar. The total cost of this work is estimated at $100,000. No improvement of the bar at the entrance of the bay is proposed at the present time. Printed as House Ex. Doc. No. 35. (See also Appendix T T 13.)
2. Swinomish Slough, Washington, with the rier of constructing a ship channel through the same, connecting Saratoga Passage and Skagit Bay with Padilla Bay.—The improvement recommended for the accommoda