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distance, except at the points in Cathlamet Bay, where there is but 19 feet. The average rise of tide in this bay is 7 feet.
The original project under which this improvement has been carried on with modifications and extensions was adopted in 1877. Some dredging work had been done previous to that time. It contemplates that a navigable low-water channel having a depth of 20 feet should be maintained by means of permanent constructions to protect the banks, contract the rivers in wide places, direct the currents, and control the amount of water that should pass through sloughs having a detrimental influence upon the main channel. While these constructions were being put in place, and until their influence was fully developed, dredging was resorted to in several localities to give a temporary relief to commerce.
The amount expended by the United States in this improvement since the adoption of the project July 1, 1877, is $649,805.97. It appears that previous to that date $221,780,46 had been expended in various operations looking to the improvement of the Willamette and Columbia rivers between Portland and the sea. The aggregate of the appropriations and allotments including proceeds from sales of property to other appropriations up to June 30, 1892, is $889,745.71. In addition to this amount the citizens of the city of Portland have in various ways expended a considerable sum, the exact amount of which can not now be ascertained, in assisting to keep open a deep channel to the sea.
The amount available for this work at the end of the present fiscal year is $15,686.88.
The high water of last August in the Columbia washed away the earth around the east end of the dam at the head of Martin Slough. Before this could be repaired there was an opening eroded 142 feet wide and from 24 to 42 feet deep. This slough and the one just above, known as Burke Slough, were the original cause of the Martin Island Shoal. This opening was closed during September and October. The total cost of the work was $8,500.
The dam at Burke Slough was strengthened by the adition of 200 cords of fascines and 500 tons of rock. The cost of this repair was $1,290.
The chute on the south side of Swan Island, in the Willamette River, was closed by a dam 6,570 feet long, the top of which is 4 feet above low water. This dam is made of piles, brush, and rock, and cost $24,599.58. The work was done by contract.
Since the dam was completed it has been submerged by back water from the Columbia River. Its effect upon the bar at Swan Island would under this condition be nothing. The results will be developed after the next Willamette high water.
Dredging was done at Swan Island Bar during September and October to the extent of 21,860 cubic yards, at a cost of 124 cents per yard; including all repairs and other expenses.
A project, with plans and estimates, for improving the Lower Willamette and Columbia rivers, so as to secure a navigable channel having at low water a depth of 25 feet from Portland to the sea, was called for by the river and harbor act approved September 19, 1890. The report upon this project, with drawings and estimates, has been submitted and is published as House Ex. Doc. No. 38, Fifty-second Congress, first session, and as Appendix U U 9 of this report. This project having received the approval of the Secretary of War, the Port of Portland, a corporation existing under the laws of the State of Oregon, applied for and was granted permission to assist in carrying it into execution, subject, however, to certain conditions looking to the protection of the in
terests of the United States in the matter, and with the distinct understanding that the United States shall not incur any liability on account of the work done by the Port of Portland, and that the War Department does not counsel, advise, or encourage the expenditure proposed by this corporation.
Under this permission the Port of Portland has practically finished the following work called for in the approved project: 4,000 feet of diking between the foot of Swan Island and St. Johns. At Post-Office Bar 6,300 feet of diking. The work at these two places was practically finished April 30. This is all the permanent work in the Willamette River called for by the project. Since their completion the dikes have been covered by back water from the Columbia. Under these conditions these dikes will have little or no effect upon the channel. When the Columbia River recedes and they can direct the currents of the Willamette favorable results may be expected.
In the Columbia River 11,750 feet of diking was built at Walker Island. This was completed May 28.
The 15,000 feet of diking at Snag Island, in Cathlamet Bay, called for by the project, is now under contract by the Port of Portland, and in process of construction.
In addition to the above work the Port of Portland has removed with the city dredge 32,725 cubic yards of material from the bar between the foot of Swan Island and St. Johns, leaving at that place a channel 100 feet wide, 21 feet deep, at low water; also 40,205 yards from Post-Office Bar, leaving a channel 150 feet wide, 21 feet deep; also 24,650 yards from the bar at Walker Island, leaving a channel 100 feet wide, 20 feet deep.
Of the work called for by the project, there are the additions to the present dike at St. Helens and the dike at Martin Island Bar that have not been commenced; also, practically, the whole of the dredging is yet to be provided for.
At the end of the fiscal year the effect of the work done under the project by the Port of Portland can not be ascertained. The Columbia River is at its high summer stage and over the top of all the dikes excepting those in process of erection in Cathlamet Bay. July 1, 1891, balance unexpended
$61,912. 22 June 30, 1892, amount expended during fiscal year.
43, 752.94 July 1, 1892, balance unexpended
18, 159. 28 July 1, 1892, amount covered by uncompleted contracts
2, 472.40 July 1, 1892, balance available....
15, 686.88 Amount appropriated by act approved July 13, 1892.
150,000.00 Amount available for fiscal year ending June 30, 1893..
165, 686.88 Amount (estimated) required for completion of existing project.. 153, 600.00 Submitted in compliance with requirements of sections 2 of river and
harbor acts of 1866 and 1867. (See Appendix U U 3.)
4. Willamette River above Portland, Oregon.-The project for this improvement was adopted in 1878. It consists in snagging operations, bar scraping, contraction of water over shoals, and rock removal, with the object of giving easy navigation for liglit-draft boats from Portland to Eugene City, Oregon, a distance of 172 miles. The month of the Yamhill River, 40 miles above Portland, was the head of an inconvenient low-water navigation in a draft of 21 feet; only 1 foot could be carried above.
During the low water of last season boats drawing 18 inches of water could ascend as far as Corvallis.
The total amount appropriated for this work to the end of the fiscal year since the present project was adopted is $124,000. At the commencement of the present fiscal year there was a balance on hand of $6,464.42.
The work done during the season consisted of snagging operations, covering the river from Portland to Ingrams Bend, 2 miles below Harrisburg, à distance of 150 miles, and in concentrating the water over shoal places by closing chutes and building wing dams. This work was done by the crew of the United States snag boat Corvallis.
During the season there were 577 suags removed and 940 feet of wing dams was built, which resulted in giving 24 feet at low water as high up as Salem and extending the period for navigation above that point fully a month. This work, however, is but temporary, and in the nature of things much of it may have to be done over again.
The whole of the funds available for work under this appropriation was not expended at this time, when it might have been to good advantage to the upper portion of the river. A small portion was held in reserve to relieve any urgent necessity that might arise upon the river below Oregon City. July 1, 1891, balance unexpended
6, 464. 42 June 30, 1892, amount expended during fiscal year.
3, 350.49 July 1, 1892, balance unexpended ...
3, 113.93 Amount appropriated by act approved July 13, 1892.
*30,000.00 Amount available for fiscal year ending June 30, 1893
33, 113. 93 (See Appendix U U 4.)
5. Cowlitz River, Washington.— The project for the improvement of this river, which was adopted in 1882, contemplates the removal of sand bars, rocks, snags, overhanging trees, and other obstructions in the channel from its mouth to a point about 50 miles above. Work has been done to Toledo, 30 miles above the mouth. The ruling depth at low water prior to this was 14 inches. It is now 30 inches, when the low water can be kept concentrated on one or two troublesome bars. The original estimate was $5,000 for the first year and an annual expenditure thereafter of $2,000 per year. The total amount that has been appropriated for this work is $19,000.
The snag boat Corvallis was sent into this river September 23, and worked there until the end of October. Her operations extended to Toledo. Fifty snags and sunken stumps were removed from the channel and a wing dam 400 feet long was built at Toutle River Bar. It extends from the right bank of the Cowlitz obliquely downstream, and concentrated the water so as to give a navigable channel at that place. The dam was built of short piles driven into the gravel, with logs and brush held down by gravel and rock. The work was done by the crew of the boat. The work was discontinued on account of a rise in the river. It could not be economically prosecuted at that time.
A crew was shipped for this boat and sent into the river again June 23. The work to be done at this time is the building of wing dams at Keegans Bar, about 3 miles below Toledo, for the purpose of increasing the depth of water at that point. At the end of the year, June 30, this work was in progress. This work will exhaust the balance of the appropriation of 1890 that is now available.
* Of which $3,000 is to be used in improving Yamhill River.
July 1, 1891, balance unexpended...
$3, 917.27 June 30, 1892, amount expended during fiscal year
1, 901.96 July 1, 1892, balance unexpended.....
2, 015. 31 Amount appropriated by act approved July 13, 1892
3,000.00 Amount available for fiscal year ending June 30, 1893
5, 015. 31 (See Appendix U U 5.)
6. Youngs and Klaskuine rivers, Oregon.- The project for this improvement contemplates the removal of snags, sunken logs, and overhanging trees from Youngs River as far up as the lower end of the cutoff, a distance of 7 miles, and also from the channel of the Klaskuine as far up as Kamm's Wharf, a distance of 2 miles. The latter river emp. ties into the former 6 miles above Youngs Bay.
The estimated cost of this improvement was $1,600. The total amount appropriated for the work has been $1,600. The total amount expended is $1,206.79, which has resulted in a channel of 7 feet depth at high tide to the limits named. The balance now available, $393.21, will be sufficient to complete the project. No work was done during the year. No further appropriation is asked. July 1, 1891, balance unexpended
$393.21 July 1, 1892, balance unexpended
393. 21 (See Appendix U U 6.)
7. Gauging waters of Columbia River, Oregon and Washington.--The object of these gaugings is to ascertain and keep a record of the fluctuations of the Columbia River, with the view to gathering information that may be useful in works of improvement on the river, and also by gauges established at various points to indicate to pilots, captains, and others interested in navigation the stage of water on crossings and places of difficult navigation.
A self-registering tide gauge has been in operation at Astoria, Ore. gon, and one at Cathlamet, Wash., during the entire year.
Daily sheets from the Astoria gauge were exhibited on a bulletin board in that city. These show the stage of water and condition as to roughness on the bar at the mouth of the river, and are of great service to commerce. July 1, 1891, balance unexpended...
$962. 32 June 30, 1892, amount expended during fiscal year.
516.00 July 1, 1892, balance unexpended.
446.32 (See Appendix U U 7.)
EXAMINATIONS AND SURVEYS, MADE IN COMPLIANCE WITH PROVISIONS OF RIVER AND HARBOR ACT APPROVED SEPTEMBER 19, 1890.
The required preliminary examinations of the following localities were made by the local engineer in charge, Maj. Handbury, and reports thereon submitted through Col. G. V. Mendell, Corps of Engineers, Division Engineer, Pacific Division. It is the opinion of Maj. Handbury and of the division engineer, based upon the facts and reasons given, that these localities are worthy of improvement. The conclusions of these officers being concurred in by me, Maj. Handbury was charged with and has completed their survey and submitted reports thereon. The reports were transmitted to Congress and printed as executive documents of the Fifty-second Congress, first session.
1. Willamette River, Oregon, for improvement of navigation at Clackamas Rapids and Ross Island and near city of Corvallis.—The proposed
improvement at Ross Island contemplates closing the middle and east chutes at that locality by dams to a leight of 4 feet above low water, and to assist the erosion thus caused in the west chute or chamel by such dredging as may be necessary to form a channel 100 feet wide and 14 feet deep at low water. It is also proposed to improve the bar about a mile above the head of Ross Island, in front of the town of Sellwood, by dredging a channel through it 100 feet wide and 14 feet deep, and by constructing a contracting dike about 400 feet long from one or the other bank. The estimated cost of the work proposed at these locali.. ties is as follows: Ross Island: Construction of dams.
13,000 Sellwood bar:
4, 800 Contingencies. Total ..
55, 900 The proposed improvement at Clackamas Rapids contemplates removal of the old dam at the head of the rapids; construction of a dike to a height of at least 10 feet above low water, extending from a point just above the junction of the right bank of Willamette River with the left bank of Clackamas River 6,000 feet down the Willamette, so as to turn the current of the Clackamas more nearly parallel with that of the Willamette and impound the detritus brought down by the Clackamas on the shoals below its mouth and inclosed by the dike; and construction of a dike 6 feet high and 800 feet long to contract the channel at Jennings Shoal at the foot of the rapids. The total cost of this work is estimated at $78,000. Col. G. H. Mendell, Corps of Engi. neers, Division Engineer, Pacific Division, states that a preferable plan would be to store the débris in the Clackamas before it reaches the Willamette, and that before the work is begun an examination should be made to determine if this is practicable.
The proposed improvement at Corvallis contemplates clearing the chute in the first bend above Corvallis of obstructions, such as fallen trees and driftwood, and cutting away trees and underbrush along its banks, so as to provide a passage for the water during high stages, and thus improve the regimen of the river in this vicinity. The cost of this work is estimated at $5,000.
The total estimate of cost of the work proposed in the Willamette River at these localities is as follows: Ross Island
$55, 900 Clackamas Rapids Corvallis
138, 900 Printed as House Ex. Doc. No. 28. (See also Appendix U U 8.)
2. The Lower Willamette and Columbia rivers, Oregon, with a vierd of securing 25 feet at low water from Portland to the mouth of the Columbia.The project presented in Maj. Handbury's report of September 8, 1891, as amended by reports of the division engineer, dated October 5, 1891, and of The Board of Engineers, dated October 14, 1891, is submitted as the project for this work required by the act of September 19, 1890. The improvement proposed contemplates the formation, by dredging, dike construction, etc., of a channel 25 feet deep from Portland to the Pacific Ocean, at an estimated cost of $772,464.
Printed as House Ex. Doc. No. 38. (See also Appendix U U 9.)