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IMPROVEMENT OF CERTAIN RIVERS AND HARBORS IN MASSACHU

SETTS.

Officer in charge, Lieut. Col. S. M. Mansfield, Corps of Engineers.

1. Newburyport Harbor, Massachusetts.The object of the improvement is to create a channel through the outer bar 1,000 feet wide and with a least depth of 17 feet at mean low water, or 247 feet at mean high water.

The project, adopted in 1880 and modified in 1883, is to build two converging rubble-stone jetties, so located as to give a proper direction to the current, and thereby produce and maintain the desired result. The estimated cost of the project was $375,000.

The original depth of water on the bar was 7 feet at mean low water.

To June 30, 1891, $234,712.75 had been expended, and the north jetty was 2,675 feet long, of which 2,300 feet had been completed. The south jetty was 1,300 feet long, of which 1,077 feet were completed.

The Plum Island Dike was 817 feet long, 54 feet high above mean low water (except near the center, where a weir was left temporarily), 150 feet long, and 2 feet above mean low water.

The sand catch in rear of the south jetty was in two branches, one 480 feet long, and one 572 feet.

All these works were in good order.

During the fiscal year 7,166 tons of rubble-stone were deposited in the north jetty, and at the date of this report this jetty is 2,485 feet in length fully completed, and in addition 190 feet are partly completed. The south jetty, the Plum Island Dike, and the sand catch remain essentially as on June 30, 1891. .

A survey of the bar was made during the latter part of June, 1892. It showed that the channel across the bar had straightened, widened, and deepened since the survey of 1891. It was now not less than 13,1 feet deep in a navigable channel at least 200 feet wide.

The advantages to be derived from the completion of the project are the deepening and widening of the channel across the bar, thereby affording a harbor of refuge on the inside of Salisbury Beach, and also affording easy access at high water to the wharves at Newburyport for vessels drawing 17 feet, approximately. July 1, 1891, balance unexpended

$22, 787. 25 June 30, 1892, amount expended during fiscal year

16, 311.04 July 1, 1892, balance unexpended ....

6, 476. 21 Amount appropriated by act approved July 13, 1892.

20,000.00 Ainount available for fiscal year ending June 30, 1893

26, 476. 21 Amount (estimated) required for completion of existing project..... 97,500.00 Submitted in compliance with requirements of sections 2 of river and

harbor acts of 1866 and 1867. (See Appendix B 1.)

2. Merrimac River, Massachusetts.-The object of the improvement is to straighten, deepen, and widen the natural channel of the river from its mouth to the Upper Falls, a distance of 214 miles.

The channel originally was narrow, crooked, and much obstructed by ledges, bowlders, and shoals; and below Newburyport by ledges, cribs, piers, and wrecks.

At mean low water vessels drawing not to exceed 7 feet could cros 3 the bar and proceed about 6 miles above Newburyport.

The mean rise or fall of the tide at the mouth of the river is 74 feet; at Haverhill bridge, 4 feet.

The project, originally adopted in 1870, proposed to remove obstructions from the Upper and Lower Falls, to remove Gangway Rock, to remove the wreck of the Globe, and to remove the “ boilers."

The cost was estimated at $69,025.

This project was revised and extended in 1874 to include the removal of rocks at Deer Island and Rocks bridges, and at Little Curriers Shoal, so that the channel should have the following depths at ordinary high-water stages of the river: From the mouth to Deer Island bridge (5 miles), 164 feet; thence to Haverhill bridge (124 miles), 12 feet; thence to the foot of Mitchells Falls (11 miles), 10 feet; through Mitchells Falls to the head of the Upper Falls (24 miles), not less than 41 feet, with the mill water at Lawrence running. This revised project was estimated to cost $147,000.

The total expenditures to June 30, 1891, were $230,866.72, and the river channel had been improved in accordance with the modified project, with the exception of the removal of the “boilers," upon which no work has been done.

No operations were in progress during the year, and the improvement remains in good order.

The funds made available by the act of September 19, 1890, were to be expended at Mitchells Falls, and as they were insufficient for any practicable benefit to commerce, they have been retained in the Treasury.

To complete the improvement so that the same depth of water which has been obtained through Mitchells Falls can be carried to Lawrence, additional work will be required at the falls above Haverhill, which is estimated to cost $11,000; and additional improvements could be made in the lower part of the river, which are estimated to cost $11,500, or a total of $22,500.

The improved channel is in good order. July 1, 1891, balance unexpended.

$10,000.00 June 30, 1892, amount expended during fiscal year

9.48 July 1, 1892, balance unexpended....

9,990.52 Amount appropriated by act approved July 13, 1892 ..

1,500.00 Amount available for fiscal year ending June 30, 1893

11, 490.52 (See Appendix B 2.)

3. Poworo River, Massachusetts.-Powow River is a tributary of the Merrimac River, into which it enters from the north about 34 miles above Newburyport.

From its mouth tide water extends 9,600 feet in a narrow, crooked channel, not navigable at low water.

The project proposed for its improvement is to dredge a channel 9,600 feet long, 60 feet wide, and 12 feet deep at mean high water, at an estimated cost of $77,000.

The river and harbor acts of 1888 and 1890 appropriated $8,000 for this work, provided a suitable draw was built in the bridge which crossed the mouth of the river.

The condition required by the proviso in the acts making appropriations for this improvement has been complied with, but the funds avail. able are inadequate to obtain any appreciable benefit to commerce and they will be retained in the Treasury until additional funds are pro

No expenditures were made during the year ending June 30, 1892, and the original condition of the river is unaltered. July 1, 1891, balance unexpended ..

$8,000.00 July 1, 1892, balance unexpended ...

8,000.00 Amount appropriated by act approved July 13, 1892.

4,000.00 Amount available for fiscal year ending June 30, 1893

12,000.00 Amount (estimated) required for completion of existing project...... 65,000.00 Submitted in compliance with requirements of sections 2 of river and

barbor acts of 1866 and 1867. (See Appendix B 3.)

4. Ipswich Rirer, Massachusetts.- Ipswich River empties into Plum Island Sound about 9 miles south of Newburyport, Mass. It is navigable from its mouth to the wharves at Ipswich, a distance of 3 miles. Before improvement, at low water, not to exceed 11 feet draft could be carried in a narrow channel.

The mean rise or fall of the tide is 8.4 feet.

The object of the improvement is to widen and deepen the natural channel of the river.

The original project was submitted in 1875. It proposed a channel 60 feet wide and 4 feet deep at mean low water.

No expenditures were made during the fiscal year.

Sealed proposals were invited by circular letter dated September 27, 1889, for the completion of the present partial project. No bids were received in response.

On April 10, 1890, bids were again invited by circular letter, and two proposals were received. Both were rejected, as the lowest would make the improvement cost at least twice the amount available, and no advantage to commerce would result from its partial completion.

The work of completing this improvement, as now proposed, has been publicly advertised three times, and it is evident that the small amount of work to be done in this locality, so difficult of access, will cost inore than similar work in more accessible places.

The condition of the improvement June 30, 1892, is the same as on June 30, 1891.

lhe prospective benefits to commerce are increased facilities and safety to navigation, July 1, 1891, balance unexpended

$2, 462.92 July 1, 1892, balance unexpended..

2, 462.92 Auount appropriated by act approved July 13, 1892

2,500.00 Amount available for fiscal year ending June 30, 1893 ....

4, 962.92 Amount (estimated) required for completion of existing project........

17,500.00 Submitted in compliance with requirements of sections 2 of river and

barbor acts of 1866 and 1867. (See Appendix B 4.)

5. Harbor of refuge, Sandy Bay, Cape Ann, Massachusetts. This bay is situated at the northeastern extremity of Cape Amn, Massachusetts. It is open to the full effect of easterly and northeasterly gales.

The proposed improvement contemplates the construction of a national harbor of refuge of the first class. The anchorage covered by the breakwater will contain 1,377 acres.

The estimated cost of the improvement is $5,000,000.
The original project of 1884 proposed to build only the substructure

of the breakwater of rubblestone, The present project, approved March 17,. 1802, proposes to build the entire breakwater of rubblestone.

The expenditures to June 30, 1891, were $322,321.37.

The condition of the improvement on June 30, 1891, was as follows: 407,173 tons of rubblestone bad been deposited in the substructure, essentially completing it as originally proposed between cross ranges 140 and 4110, under a contract with the Rockport and Pigeon Hill Granite companies. This contract was to expire June 30, 1892, but has been extended three months.

The prospective benefits to commerce and navigation by the construction of this harbor of refuge are, increased safety to life and property and a consequent reduction in freights and insurance. July 1, 1891, balance unexpended.....

$127, 678. 63 June 30, 1892, amount expended during fiscal year..

77, 020.52 July 1, 1892, balance unexpended..

50, 658.11 July 1, 1892, outstanding liabilities

$19, 627. 18 July 1, 1892, añiount covered by uncompleted contracts... 16, 351.53

35, 978. 71 July 1, 1892, balance available

14, 679.40 Amount appropriated by act approved July 13, 1892..

150,000.00 Amount available for fiscal year ending June 30, 1893.

164, 679. 46 Amount (estimated) required for completion of existing project...... 4,400,000.00 Submitted in compliance with requirements of sections 2 of river aud

harbor acts of 1866 and 1867. (See Appendix B 5.)

6. Gloucester Harbor, Massachusetts.—Gloucester Harbor is an important center for the fishing fleet of New England, about 20 miles north of Boston. Its inner harbor was originally obstructed by suuken rocks and shoals, preventing free movement of vessels, and the approaches to the whirves were shallow, varying from 1 to 12 feet. The outer barbor was open to all southerly winds.

The first project submitted in compliance with the act of July 11, 1870, proposed to clear the harbor of sunken rocks ard to build a stone breakwater from Eastern Point to Round Rock Shoal. The operations in execution of this general project, under the acts of July 11, 1870, and Juue 10, 1872, have been confined solely to the removal of isolated sunken rocks specially obstructive to the navigation of the inner harbor.

The act of June 10, 1872, appropriated $10,000, which sum was applied to the removal of Clam Rock, Pinnacle Rock, rock off J. Friends wharf, rock off Pew's wharf, and a portion of Babsons Ledge.

The act of August 5, 1885, appropriated $7,000 for a survey of the harbor and for continuing work on Babsons Ledge.

The survey was completed in December, 1886, and a report and general project based on this survey were published in the Report of the Chief of Engineers for 1857, page 500.

The revised project proposed to remove from the inner harbor 1014 cubic yards of rock known to exist, and 216,000 cubic yards, scow measurement, of material, at an estimated cost of $6.5,000; and to construct the breakwater fiom Eastern Point to Round Rock Shoal, recommended in the project of 1884, at an estimated cost of $7.72,000.

The amount expended to June 30, 1991, was $24,648.60, and at that date the condition of the improvement was as follows: Clam Rock,

Pinnacle Rock, rock off J. Friend's wharf, and rock off Pew's wharf had been reduced to the level of the surrounding bottom, and Babsons Ledge to 14 feet at mean low water. Two channels of approach to the wharves in Harbor Cove had been dredged; each was 40 feet wide and 10 feet deep at meau low water; the eastern one was 550 feet long, the western 1,000 feet long.

During the fiscal year 47,298 cubic yards were dredged from Harbor Cove and the main harbor, and at the date of this report the condition of the improvement is as follows: The channels in Harbor Cove have been widened to 140 feet, 10 feet deep at mean low water. In the main harbor 15 feet depth at mean low water has been obtained in front of the wharves so far as the steamboat wharf, except over four small ledges, uncovered by the dredging near the Halibut Company's wharf. Nothing has been done on the breakwater. July 1, 1891, balance unexpended

$15, 351.40 June 30, 1892, amount expended during fiscal year

12, 043.77 July 1, 1892, balance unexpended....

3, 307.63 Amount appropriated by act approved July 13, 1892.

40,000.00 Amount available for fiscal year ending June 30, 1893..

43, 307.63 Amount (estimated) required for completion of existing project 752, 000.00 Submitted in compliance with requirements of sections 2 of river and

harbor acts of 1866 and 1867. (See Appendix B 6.)

7. Manchester Harbor, Massachusetts.- Manchester Harbor is situated about 51 miles northeast from the entrance of Salem Harbor, Massachusetts.

Its outer roadstead contains 300 acres approximately, with 5 fathoms of water. Its entrance channel is 100 feet wide and 6.4 feet deep at mean low water up to Proctors Point; it then shoals rapidly to a depth of 14 feet at the “ Narrows,” 1,400 feet from Proctors Point, and for a further distance of 2,500 feet to the town wharves, no low-water channel exists.

The project for its improvement is based on the survey provided for in the act of August 5, 1886. It proposes to dredge a channel from Proctors Point to the town wharves, 4,000 feet long, 60 feet wide, and 4 feet deep at mean low water, at an estimated cost of $14,300.

The total appropriations for this improvement to date have been $14,300.

The total expenditures to June 30, 1891, were $321.47, and operations were in progress under a contract to dredge 22,000 cubic yards. This contract was satisfactorily completed in July, 1891, by the removal of 22,052 cubic yards.

At the date of this report the improved channel is 35 feet wide, 4 feet deep, at mean low water, from Proctors Point to the railroad bridge, a distance of 2,900 feet. July 1, 1891, balance unexpended..

$7, 178.53 June 30, 1892, amount expended during fiscal year

6, 800. 62 July 1, 1892, balance unexpended...

377.91 Amount appropriated by act approved July 13, 1892

6, 800.00 Amount available for fiscal year ending June 30, 1893

7, 177.91 (See Appendix B 7.) 8. Salem Harbor, Massachusetts.-Salem Harbor is 12 miles north

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