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work to completion and issue new charts of the river as quickly as possible.
Shoals off Pelée Spit Light-House, and Littles Point, Lake Erie.-Imformation with regard to dangerous shoals in these localities having been received, estimates for their survey were made, amounting to $1,000 and $610 respectively. Allotments of these amounts having been made from the appropriation, Col. Poe was directed to proceed with the work. Active operations were prevented by unfavorable weather until May 20, 1892, when a lake survey party left Detroit for the localities of the shoals. This party remained in the field until the close of the fiscal year, being very much delayed by heavy weather. Their work was entirely completed, however, a new and very dangerous shoal having been located off Point Pelée, Ontario, and less water being found on the shoal off Littles Point than had previously been discovered.
(See Appendix CCC 1.)
Waverly Shoal, Lake Erie.—The survey of this shoal was made in the latter part of September, 1891. For details see report of Maj. Amos Stickney, Corps of Engineers, dated January 16, 1802.
(See Appendix CCC 2.)
Shoals in the St. Lawrence River.-Surveys of reported shoal places in the St. Lawrence River, made under the direction of Maj. M. B. Adams, Corps of Engineers, have developed six shoals, two east of the northern end of Grenadier Island, two below Crossover Light-House, one S. by W. 1 W. of Coles Ferry Light-House, and one SSE. I E. of the same point.
The bottom of the St. Lawrence River is very irregular, and obstructions are apt to remain undiscovered even though numerous soundings have been made. Considering the great and growing importance of the commerce, it would be well to thoroughly sweep the navigable channels to give assurance of the nonexistence of undiscovered obstructions within a depth of 20 feet below the surface. This work must be left to the future when sufficient funds become available.
(See Appendix CCC 3.)
Discharges of Niagara Rirer.-Measurements of discharges have been made and the results will be published after the observations have been reduced.
Resurvey of the lake front at Chicago. A resurvey of this front was ordered so as to show the changes wrought in the hydrography since the former survey and to show in greater detail the conformation of the reefs and shoals along the city front and landings. The immediate reason for the survey was that all obstructions and dangers could be buoyed and marked for the safety of the great numbers of passengers who, it is to be supposed, will visit the grounds of the World's Columbian Exposition in 1893, by means of steamers, etc., from the various landings along the city front. The survey and the plotting of the notes are progressing under the supervision of Capt. W. L. Marshall, Corps of Engineers.
(See Appendix C 0 C 4.)
Survey of Black Creek Shoal, Lake Ontario.- This survey was made in October last, and the details are given in the report of Capt. Dan C. Kingman, Corps of Engineers, dated October 28, 1891,
(See Appendix CCC 5.)
An effort has been made to keep all the charts up to date. A number have been corrected, and in some cases where certain special exam. inations have been required, the only practicable way to make them has been in connection with river and harbor improvements in the immediate vicinity. This very important work has been seriously impeded by lack of funds.
As soon as the funds available will permit it is proposed to prepare and publish general charts of lakes Superior and Michigan, each on one sheet, there being a great demand for these charts at present; also to prepare and publish coast charts of lakes Huron and Superior in order to complete the set of charts of the lakes.
These projects or something of a similar nature will have to be carried out if the charts are to be rendered of the greatest service to navigators. The work already done, particularly the location of the dangerous shoals in Lake Erie, has fully demonstrated the necessity which exists for work of this character. The lake marine is of too great importance to the country at large for any effort looking towards its safety to be spared. When the Government sells charts to navigators these eharts should embody the latest and most accurate information concerning the localities to which they refer, and everything should be done to render navigation safe and certain.
The low water of recent years combined with the great increase in size and number of vessels has resulted in the larger and more expensive vessels discovering dangers previously unknown, and discovering them by the costly process of striking them. All dangers so discovered should at once be surveyed and located upon the charts in order to prevent the repetition of similar accidents at the same point. Localities deemed perfectly safe for navigation when smaller vessels were used are now regarded with suspicion by the larger vessels, and it is essential that certain special areas should be reëxamined.
St. Marys River is one of the localities on the lakes where new surveys are essential in order that the charts may be rendered of the greatest service; the surveys upon which the present charts are based were made between 1853 and 1857, and since that time the region tributary to the river has undergone an enormous development. More than 9,000,000 tons of freight now pass through the river annually, and extensive works of improvement have been completed and are in progress. Since the original surveys were made the draft of vessels has increased from 94 and 12 feet to 16 feet and will shortly be increased to 20 feet. The river is a difficult one to navigate with the large vessels of the present time, and new charts are absolutely essential. The records of the former survey and of the river improvement will prevent all duplication of work, and will permit the survey to be pushed to completion as quickly as possible.
The organized districts in connection with river and harbor work now established at the chief cities on the lakes will greatly facilitate keeping all of the charts up to date, and will insure the maximum results with the minimum cost.
In view of the great importance of this work to the lake marine an appropriation of $50,000 for surveys and other expenses connected with correcting and extending the charts of the northern and northwestern lakes is most earnestly recommended, as the conditions now existing are urgent and require that this amount should be available at the earliest possible moment, and an appropriation of $3,000 is recommended for the printing and distribution of the charts.
(See Appendix CC 1.)
Annual water levels of the northern and northwestern lakes.-Tables and diagrams showing the monthly means of water levels from July 1, 1887, to June 30, 1892, at Charlotte, Lake Ontario; and Oswego (from June 30, 1890), Erie, and Cleveland, Lake Erie; Milwaukee, Lake Michigan; Escanaba, Green Bay; Sand Beach, Lake Huron; Marquette, Lake Superior; and Sault Ste. Marie, being in continuation of those published in the Annual Report of the Chief of Engineers for 1887, will be found in Appendix CCC 6.
CONSTRUCTION AND IMPROVEMENT OF ROADS AND BRIDGES IN YEL
LOWSTONE NATIONAL PARK.
Officer in charge, Maj. William A. Jones, Corps of Engineers, with Lieut. Hiram M. Chittenden, Corps of Engineers, under his immediate orders; Division Engineer, Col. O. M. Poe, Corps of Engineers.
The construction of roads and bridges in the Yellowstone National Park was commenced in a systematic manner in 1883, when the direction of the work was placed in the hands of an officer of the Corps of Engineers. A number of small appropriations had been expended in the endeavor to make it possible to reach the main objects of interest; access was rendered possible, but only after a tiresome trip attended with considerable danger. Since 1883 the work has remained in the charge of the Engineer Department.
At the outset the engineers adopted a project which has since been followed. It embraces a belt-line road, cornmencing at Gardiner, on the north boundary line of the park; thence to Mammoth Hot Springs; thence to Upper Geyser Basin via Norris Geyser and Lower Geyser basins; thence to the outlet of Yellowstone Lake via Shoshone Lake and the west arm of Yellowstone Lake, crossing the Continental Divide of the Rocky Mountains twice; thence to Yancey via the Falls and Grand Canyon of the Yellowstone River; thence to Mammoth Hot Springs, completing a circuit of about 145 miles. There are also included in the project a road from the west boundary line of the park to intersect the road along the Yellowstone River between the lake outlet and the falls, via Lower Geyser Basin; a road from Norris Geyser Ba. sin to the falls of the Yellowstone; a road from Yancey to the east line of the park, and short branch roads to points of interest, comprising in all about 225 miles of new roads with necessary bridges and culverts. Estimated costs as revised in 1889, $444,779.42.
The act of Congress approved March 3, 1891, changed the project of the part of the belt line between Lower Geyser Basin and Yellowstone Lake by requiring the road to be built by the shortest practicable route" from Fountain Geyser to the thumb of Yellowstone Lake. This change did not materially affect the cost.
At the beginning of the year 62.85 miles of new roads had been constructed, which, in connection with parts of old roads kept in condition, enabled tourists to visit Mammoth Hot Springs, Norris Geyser Basin, Lower Geyser Basin, and Upper Geyser Basin, and the Falls and upper end of the Grand Canyon of the Yellowstone River. A commencement by contract work had been inade toward opening up the Shoshone and Yellowstone lakes regions to travelers.
Total amount expended upon the project since commencement of work in 1883, to June 30, 1891, including outstanding liabilities, $259,779.42.
Contracts had been entered into May 16, 1891, with Wyatt & Scott, for 7.5 miles, and William Z. Partello for 20.3 miles, i. e., from the thumb of Yellowstone Lake to the Grand Canyon via the lake outlet. Messrs. Wyatt & Scott prosecuted their contract to completion. Mr.
Partello failed to enter upon his contract, but the officer in charge had anticipated such action and was prepared to carry on the work by day's labor, which he did.
In addition, the construction of the road from Fountain Geyser to the thumb of Yellowstone Lake, “by the shortest practicable route," was carried on by day's labor. By the close of the season of 1891 all of the above roads were completed, except two short sections which were opened sufficiently for travel, thus opening to tourists the last 53 miles of that part of the belt line commencing at Norris Geyser Basin; thence to Upper Geyser Basin via Lower Geyser Basin; thence to the thumb of Yellowstone Lake, “by the shortest practicable route;" thence to the Grand Canyon via Yellowstone Lake outlet; thence to Norris Geyser Basin.
The estimates of " amount required for existing projects," which are annually submitted, only apply to the construction of new roads. They do not cover current repairs and maintenance. It is proposed to apply the sum of $150,000 asked for towards graveling weak places in completed roads; graveling new roads; completing road between Grand Canyon, Yancey, and Mammoth Hot Springs; repairs and maintenance of completed roads and old wagon trails.
Amount expended during fiscal year ending June 30, 1892, including outstanding liabilities, $75,000. July 1, 1891, balance unexpended...
$132, 980. 73 June 30, 1892, amount expended during fiscal year.
132, 885.81 July 1, 1892, balance unexpended.
94.92 July 1, 1892, outstanding liabilities
94.92 Amount (estimated) required for completion of existing project... 197,000.00 Amount that can be protitably expended in fiscal ending June 30, 1891.. 150,000.00
(See Appendix D D D.)
MILITARY AND OTHER MAPS.
The following maps and plans have been photolithographed and an edition printed:
Map of pier head and bulkhead lines for the west shore of Upper New York Bay from Jersey City to Constables Point, N. J.
Map of pier head and bulkhead lines for the south shores of Raritan and Sandy Hook bays from the mouth of Cheesequake Creek to Highland Bridge across Shrewsbury River, New Jersey.
Map of pier head and bulkhead lines for Gravesend Bay, New York Harbor, from Fort Hamilton to western end of Coney Island, New York.
Map of pier head and bulkhead lines for Great and Little Mill rocks and the Government dike connecting them, Hell Gate, New York.
Map of Boston Harbor, Massachusetts. Charles River from Market Street bridge to the Watertown dam. Boston Harbor Line Board, sheet N.
Map of Boston Harbor, Massachusetts. South Boston Flats. Bos. ton Harbor Line Board, Sheet 0.
Davis Island lock and dam, Ohio River, in 12 sheets. Detail drawings of lock and dam, No. 7, Great Kanawha River, West Virginia, in 15 sheets.
Detail drawings of Kampsville lock and dam, Illinois River, Illinois, in 14 sheets.
Map of the Department of the Columbia, 4th edition, 1892.
RECONNAISSANCES AND EXPLORATIONS.
The following officers have been on duty at the headquarters of the military departments engaged in preparing such maps and making such surveys as were required by their respective commanding officers:
Capt. William L. Marshall, Corps of Engineers, at headquarters Department of the Missouri until April 23, 1892, since which date Lieut. Cassius E. Gillette, Corps of Engineers.
Capt. Charles H. Clark, Ordnance Department, at headquarters Department of the Columbia until September 4, 1892, since which date Maj. Tully McCrea, Fifth U.S. Artillery.
Capt. Charles A. Worden, Seventh U. S. Infantry, at headquarters Department of the Platte.
Lieut. James E. Runcie, First U.S. Artillery, at headquarters Department of California until April 3, 1892; Lieut. Leonard A. Lovering, Fourth U. S. Infantry, until May 16, 1892; since which date Lieut. Charles G. Lyman, Second U. S. Cavalry.
Lieut. Cassius E. Gillette, Corps of Engineers, engineer officer Department of the Missouri, reports, that no fieldwork has been done during the year, and that the office work has consisted in the preparation of maps, tracings, reproductions, etc., for use of the department commander and other officers connected with department headquarters, the most important of the work having been in connection with the campaigli against hostile Sioux of Dakota, 1890–91.
(See Appendix E E E 1.)
Maj. Tully McCrea, Fifth U. S. Artillery, acting engineer officer Department of the Columbia, reports that operations included minor surveys on the Vancouver Barracks military reservation, having reference to the location of roads and fences, and the preparation of plans for the extension of the sewerage system. Maps, tracings, and solar prints have been prepared and issued as required for official purposes, and additions have been made to the military maps of the department as new information became available.
(See Appendix EEE 2.)
Capt. Charles A. Worden, Seventh U. S. Infantry, acting engineer officer Department of the Platte, reports that a survey was made in October, 1891, of the northern, eastern, and southern boundary lines of the Fort Omaha military reservation. Work has been continued on the compilation of the map of the department east of the 103d meridian, which will be completed for reproduction and publication in a few weeks. Instruments have been received from the engineer depot, Willets Point, N. Y., and instruments, note books, maps, tracings, and blue prints have been supplied to the various posts from time to time. Maps of the department west of the 103d meridian, and large-scale blue print maps of northwestern Wyoming have also been issued to troops in the field.
(See Appendix E E E 3.)
Lieut. Charles G. Lyman, Second U. S. Cavalry, in charge of engineer office Department of California, reports that the oftice work involved the preparation of original drawings, tracings, and blue prints, coloring, mounting, and distribution of maps, the care and preservation of surveying and other instruments in store and issuing the same for use at the different posts and to the quartermaster's department. No fieldwork of any importance has been entered into during the year.
(See Appendix E EE 4.)