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15. Plymouth Harbor, Massachusetts.—Plymouth Harbor is 30 miles south of Boston.
The object of its improvement is to perpetuate the harbor by the preservation of Long Bea 'h, which forms it, and to deepen and widen the channels of approach to an enlarged anchorage basin in front of the town wharves.
The various devices employed for the preservation of Long Beach are described in the Anual Report of the Chief of Engineers for the year 1877.
The original project for improvement was adopted in 1875 and modified in 1877 and 1884. The modified project proposed an improved channel 2,286 feet long, 150 feet wide, and 9 feet deep at mean low water, leading to an anchorage basin 866 feet long, 150 feet wide, and 9 feet deep.
The expenditures to June 30, 1891, were: For beach protection..
$127, 553. 77 For dredging.
42, 713. 13
170, 266.90 The condition of the improvement on June 30, 1891, was as follows: The improved channel was 130 feet wide; the basin was 800 feet long and averaged 150 feet wide; both were 9 feet deep at mean low water. Some repairs were needed on Long Beach.
During the fiscal year 11,676 cubic yards were dredged from the basin, thus completing it. One thousand three hundred feet of the bulkheads protecting Long Beach were repaired.
At the date of this report the basin is completed, the improved channel is 130 feet wide, and Long Beach is in fair repair, but needs additional works of protection at its southern end. July 1, 1891, balance unexpended...
$9, 171.39 June 30, 1892, amount expended during fiscal year
6, 878.74 July 1, 1892, balance unexpended.
2, 292. 65 July 1, 1892, outstanding liabilities
299 35 July 1, 1892, balance available....
1, 993. 30 Amount appropriated by act approved July 13, 1892
9,500.00 Amount available for fiscal year ending June 30, 1893
11, 493. 30 (See Appendix B 15.)
16. Wellfleet Harbor, Massachusetts.- Wellfleet Harbor is 12 miles southeast of Provincetown, on Cape Cod Bay.
The object of its improvement is to provide a navigable channel from the inner anchorage, the “ Deep Hole,” to the town wharves.
The project originally proposed in 1871 was to dredge two channels of approach to the town wharves and to remove several dangerous sunken rocks.
The removal of the sunken rocks was effected by an appropriation provided by the act of June 10, 1872.
The present project is to dredge a channel from the “ Deep Hole” to the town wharves, 4,200 feet long, 100 feet wide, and 6 feet deep at mean low water.
The expenditures to June 30, 1891, were $11.339.79.
Two hundred and four cubic yards of rocks had been removed from the harbor, and the channel connecting the “Deep Hole” with the towu wharves was 25 feet wide, 4 feet deep at mean low water.
No operations were in progress during the fiscal year, as the funds available were not considered sufficient to give any appreciable benefit to commerce.
The condition of the improvement at the date of this report is the same ås on June 30, 1891. July 1, 1891, balance unexpended.
$4, 619. 63 July 1, 1892, balance unexpended.
4, 649.63 Amount (estimated) required for completion of existing project...... 22, 000.00 Submitted in compliance with requirements of sections 2 of river and
harbor acts of 1866 and 1867. (See Appendix B 16.)
17. Prorinceton Harbor, Massachusetts.—Provincetown Harbor is situated at the extremity of Cape Cod, about 40 miles southeast from Boston Light. It is one of the most valuable harbors of refuge on the Atlantic coast. The entire commerce of New England and a very large local fishing interest are directly benefited by its maintenance, which depends entirely on the preservation of the sandy beaches which inclose it. Since 1826 the project has been a general one, and provides for the preservation of the harbor by building dikes, bulkheads, and sand catches, and extensive plauting of beach grass to repair and prevent storm damages to the beaches.
From the nature of the work it can at no time be considered completed. A special dike across House Point Island Flats, to be built contingently, was recommended in the annual report for 1886.
A plan of the harbor was published in the Annual Report of the Chief of Engineers for 1886.
The amount expended to June 30, 1891, was $142,558.47, and at that date operations were in progress for the construction of a bulkhead 2,000 feet long west of Wood End Light. This bulkhead was completed during the year. A total length of 3,213 feet, including spurs, was constructed.
During the fiscal year the breakwater protecting the end of Long Point was extended 150 feet southeast.
At the date of this report the works of preservation are in good order, but additional protection is required at the east end of Long Point to secure the light-house tract. July 1, 1891, balance unexpended...,
$8, 832.97 June 30, 1892, amount expended during fiscal year..
5, 019. 62 July 1, 1892, balance unexpended
3,783. 35 Amount appropriated by act approved July 13, 1892
1,500.00 Amount available for fiscal year ending June 30, 1893.
5, 283. 35 (See Appendix B 17.)
18. Chatham Harbor, Massachusetts.-Chatham Harbor is at the eastern end of Nantucket Sound, about 15 miles east of Hyannis, Mass.
Its outer anchorage (Chatham Roads) is a valuable harbor of refuge from northerly and easterly gales. The inner harbor (Stage Haibor) is small, but well landlocked, and has 8 to 12 feet depth at mean low water. Its entrance is obstructed by three bars, on which the greatest depth at mean low water is 4 feet.
The project for the improvement of this barbor, submitted December 19, 1890, proposes to dredge a channel through the three obstructing bars, 6 feet deep at mean low water, 100 feet wide at the inner bar, 150 feet wide at the middle bar, and 200 feet wide at the outer bar, at a cost of $10,000
The total appropriations to date have been $5,000 by the river and harbor act of September 19, 1890.
The amount expended to June 30, 1891, was $398.81, and the original condition of the harbor remained unaltered.
At the date of this report the improved channel through the middle and inner bars is 6 feet deep at mean low water and 100 feet wide. Not less than 5 feet at mean low water can now be carried into the harbor. July 1, 1891, balance unexpended.
$1, 601. 19 June 30, 1892, amount expended during fiscal year
4, 003. 31 July 1, 1892, balance unexpended ...
597. 85 S Amount (estimated) required for completion of existing project ... 5,000.00 Submitted in compliance with requirements of sections 2 of river and
barbor acts of 1866 and 1867. (See Appendix B 18.)
IMPROVEMENT OF RIVERS AND HARBORS ON SOUTHERN COAST OF
MASSACHUSETTS, IN RHODE ISLAND, AND ON EASTERN COAST OF
Officers in chage, Maj. W.R. Livermore, Corps of Engineers, to December 7, 1891, and Capt. W. H. Bixby, Corps of Engineers, since that date, with Lieut. William W. Harts, Corps of Engineers, under his immediate orders since May 20, 1892; Division Engineer, Col. Henry L. Abbot, Corps of Engineers.
1. Harbor of refuge at Hyannis, Massachusetts.—This harbor, before improvement, was an open roadstead, exposed to southerly storms. In the years 1827-1838 a breakwater of riprap granite 1,170 feet long was constructed, covering an anchorage of about 175 acres, the entrance to which has a depth of about 154 feet. Between the years 1852 and 1882 extensive repairs were made in increasing the width of its base and the size of the stone forming its sides and top.
The depth of water immediately inside the breakwater being insufficient for many vessels that seek the harbor for refuge, the present project of 1884 for the improvement of the harbor contemplates dredging the area protected by the breakwater to a depth of 154 feet at mean low water at a total further cost estimated in 1884 at $45,662.
Eighty-one dollars and twenty cents was already on hand, $28,000 has been since appropriated, and $22,829.17 has been paid out on this work up to June 30, 1891.
The 154 foot anchorage area has been increased by about 11 acres, about one-third of the area to be dredged.
At the beginning of the last fiscal year work was in progress, and this work was continued until July 16, 1891, with plant owned by the Government and a hired tug.
About 1.1 acres were dredged in the 15-foot anchorage area protected by the breakwater.
The balance on hand will be applied to dredging in the area protected by the breakwater. July 1, 1891, balance unexpended
$5, 252.03 June 30, 1892, amount expended during fiscal year
5, 246. 43 July 1, 1892, balance unexpended
5. 60 July 1, 1892, outstanding liabilities.
Amount appropriated by act approved July 13, 1892
Amount (estimated) required for completion of existing project....... $11, 662.00 Submitted in compliance with requirements of sections 2 of river and
harbor acts of 1866 and 1867. (See Appendix C 1.) 2. Harbor of refuge at Nantucket, Massachusetts—This harbor is the only one between the harbors of Marthas Vineyard (Vineyard Haven and Edgartown) and Provincetown, a distance of about 100 miles, except the small barbor of Hyannis, on the north side of Nantucket Sound. It has deep water inside, and the object of improvement is to make it a barbor of refuge for vessels plying between ports north and south of Cape Cod.
Before the commencement of the present work there was a shoal about 1} miles in width outside the entrance, through which the channel or line of best water was only about 6 feet deep, and very crooked and subject to changes in location.
The present approved project of 1880, as modified in 1885, is to construct jetties of riprap stone, projecting from either side of the present entrance to the harbor, for the purpose of concentrating the strength of the tidal currents and excavating a channel of 15 feet depth by scour, and to complete the work by dredging, at a total cost, as estimated in 1885, of $375,000.
One hundred and seventy thousand dollars was appropriated, and $152,771.78 was paid out on this work up to June 30, 1891; the expend. itures resulting in the construction of the west jetty to a point 3,955 feet from the shore, and the east jetty to a distance of 831 feet from its initial point on shore, which is the outer end of the middle of the three northwest spurs built on Coatue Beach some years ago, and the foundation was laid and the jetty partially completed for an additional distance of 191 feet.
At the beginning of the fiscal year work on the east jetty was in progress. This work was continued until August 14. The east jetty was extended about 1,300 feet.
The balance available is to be applied to the further extension of the east jetty and raising low places in the west jetty, together with a little dredging, if necessary. July 1, 1891, balance unexpended..
$17, 228. 22 June 30, 1892, amount expended during fiscal year
17, 114.80 July 1, 1892, balance unexpended
113. 42 July 1, 1892, outstanding liabilities
113, 42 Amount appropriated by act approved July 13, 1892 ....
25, 000.00 Amount (estimated) required for completion of existing project....... 180,000.00 Submitted in compliance with requirements of sections 2 of river and
harbor acts of 1866 and 1867. (See Appendix C 2.)
3. Marthas Vineyard inner harbor at Edgartown, Massachusetts.-The inner harbor at Edgartown lies in the northern part of the water way or strait that separates Chappaquiddick Island from the east end of Marthas Vineyard. It extends southward about 1.4 miles from Chappaquiddick Point opposite Edgartown, and averages about one-fifth of a mile in width.
This harbor is so completely landlocked as to form a safe harbor of refuge for small vessels, but the contracted width of the entrance and the resulting velocity of the tidal currents make it difficult to pass through.
The present project of 1889 provides for the removal to 10 feet depth of a shoal known as the Middle Ground in the central portion of the harbor at a total cost, as estimated in 1889, of $4,500.
Two thousand dollars was appropriated and $13.25 was paid out on this work up to June 30, 1891; these expenditures being for prepara: tions for carrying on the work by hired labor.
During the last fiscal year dredging was commenced on July 16 and continued until August 5, by which about half the shoal was removed.
It is proposed to apply the balance of the funds on hand to the completion of the project. July 1, 1891, balance unexpended...
$1,986. 75 June 30, 1892, amount expended during fiscal year.
1, 920.76 July 1, 1892, balance unexpended
65. 99 July 1, 1892, outstanding liabilities
11. 39 July 1, 1892, balance available....
54.60 Amount appropriated by act approved July 13, 1892.
2,500.00 Amount available for fiscal year ending June 30, 1893
2,554.60 (See Appendix ( 3.)
4. Harbor at Vineyard Haren, Massachusetts.—The plan of improvement of 1887 as modified in 1889 contemplates the protection of the points of land at the entrance to the harbor known as East Chop and West Chop by the construction of jetties and other works along the shore to stop the wearing away of the chops by the action of the storm waves, at a total cost, as estimated in 1882, of $60,000.
Thirty-five thousand dollars was appropriated, and $27,906.86 was paid out on this work up to June 30, 1891; these expenditures resulting in the construction of a wharf and three jetties at West Chop and a track, jetty, and sea wall at the East Chop.
During the last fiscal year work was commenced on August 14 and continued to September 5, by which the jetties and sea wall were extended and strengthened, and about half the needed work completed.
The balance available will be applied to continuing the work of protection, mainly at the East Chop. July 1, 1891, balance unexpended
$7,093. 14 June 30, 1892, amount expended during fiscal year.
6, 997. 17 July 1, 1892, balance inexpended
95.97 July 1, 1892, ontstanding liabilities
44. 69 July 1, 1892, balance available
51. 28 Amount appropriated by act approved July 13, 1892
7,500.00 Amount available for fiscal year ending June 30, 1893..
7, 551.28 Amount (estimatel) required for completion of existing project
17,500.00 Submitted in compliance with requirements of sections 2 of river and
harbor acts of 1866 and 1867. (See Appendix C 4.)
5. Warehon Harbor, Massachusetts. The object of the improvement is to deepen and widen the channel leading from Buzzards Bay to Wareham. The commerce of Wareham is carried on in sailing vessels, and the channel is üo be made a beating channel for such vessels. Another object of the improvement is the raising of Long Beach.
Before improvement the ruling depth in the harbor was about 7 feet at mean low water in a narrow and very crooked channel. Long Beach,