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At shoal above Petty Rips, 300 cubic yards, in scows, at $1.50..

450.00 At Fort Point Rips, 10,567 cubic yards, in scows, at $1.50.

55, 850.50 Removal of ledge at Carters Ledges, 165 cubic yards, at $5.

825. 00 Removing bowlders from channel

500.00 Contingencies...

4, 252.00 Total.......

45, 800.00 If it should be thought advisable to add 50 feet to the length of the lock at Augusta, an improvement which is said to be desired, $25,000 would have to be added to this estimate, making a grand total of $70,800 as the cost of the whole improvement. Very respectfully, your obedient servant,


Assistant Engineer. Lieut. Col. PETER C. HAINS,

Corps of Engineers, U.S. A.






1. Newburyport Harbor, Massachusetts.
2. Merrimac River, Massachusetts.
3. Powow River, Massachusetts.
4. Ipswich River, Massachusetts.
5. Harbor of refuge, Sandy Bay, Cape

Ann, Massachusetts.
6. Gloucester Harbor, Massachusetts.
7. Manchester Harbor, Massachusetts.
8. Salem Harbor, Massachusetts.
9. Lynn Harbor, Massachusetts.

10. Winthrop Harbor, Massachusetts.
11. Boston Harbor, Massachusetts.
12. Weymouth River, Massachusetts.
13. Hingham Harbor, Massachusetts.
14. Scituate Harbor, Massachusetts.
15. Plymouth Harbor, Massachusetts.
16. Wellfleet Harbor, Massachusetts.
17. Provincetown Harbor, Massachusetts
18. Chatham Harbor, Massachusetts.


Boston, Mass., July 8, 1892. GENERAL: I have the honor to transmit herewith annual reports for the works of river and harbor improvements in iny charge for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1892. Very respectfully, your obedient servant,


Lieutenant-Colonel of Engineers. Brig. Gen. TIOMAS L. CASEY,

Chief of Engineers, U. 8. A.


IMPROVEMENT OF HARBOR AT NEWBURYPORT, MASSACHUSETTS. Newburyport is situated on the south bank, 24 miles approximately, from the mouth of the Merrimac River. The river empties into the Atlantic Ocean midway between Cape Ann and Portsmouth, or about 30 miles a little east of north from Boston in a direct line.

The outlet of the river between Plum Island and Salisbury Point is 1,000 feet wide and 30 feet deep at mean low water. At a distance of nearly a mile outside lies a sandy bar, thrown up by wave action, through which, previous to the improvement, a channel, variable in position, direction, and depth, was maintained by the current of the river, increased by the tidal prism in a large interior basin, due to a range of tides equaling 7 feet.

For 1,000 feet outward from the gorge toward the crest of the bar the current was able to maintain a channel of navigable width and 18 feet deep at mean low water, and for a further distance of 1,500 feet a

channel 12 feet deep. From the 18-foot contour line on the inside to the same on the outside the distance was 4,000 feet, and between the 12-foot contours the distance was 3,000 feet.

The depth on the crest of the bar was generally less than 7 feet at mean low water.

The object of the improvement is to create through the outer bar a channel 1,000 feet wide and at least 17 feet deep at mean low water, so that vessels may cross the bar and find a harbor at any stage of the tide, with as great draft as can reach Newburyport by the river at high tide.

The project submitted September 16, 1880, proposed two converging rubblestone jetties, their outer ends parallel for 1,000 feet, and about the same distance apart, and the protection of the beach in their vicinity. This was modified in 1882 so as to provide for the partial closing of Plum Island Basin, with a timber dike about 800 feet long and 54 feet above mean low water.

The direction of the south jetty and the character of the shore protection was modified in 1883. The north jetty, from Salisbury Beach, is to be 4,000 feet long, approximately, and the south jetty, from Plum Island, is to be 2,400 feet long, approximately.

Both are 15 feet wide on top, which is in a plane 12 feet above mean low water. The two jetties have slopes of 1 on 2 on the sea side, and of 1 on 1 on the harbor side.

A map showing the location of the jetties is published in the Annual Report of the Chief of Engineers for 1885.

Their form and dimensions are shown in the Report for 1881. The location and details of construction of the dike are given in the Report for 1883. The estimated cost of the improvement was $375,000.

The total appropriations to date have been $257,500.
The amount expended to June 30, 1891, was $234,712.75.

On June 30, 1891, the condition of the improvement was as follows: The north jetty was completed for 2,300 feet in length, and 375 feet in addition were partly completed; the south jetty had been completed 1,077 feet, and partly completed for an additional length of 223 feet, and its shore end had been strengthened by a durable sand catch; the dike had been completed so far as was prudent at the time for its safety. It was 817 feet long, 54 feet high above mean low water, except that near its center a weir had been left 150 feet long and 2 feet above mean low water. The least depth in the channel across the bar was 12.1 feet at mean low water. Operations were in progress under a contract with Mr. J. H. White to deposit in the north jetty 10,000 tons, more or less, of rubblestone,

This contract was completed during the year; a total of 11,445 tons of rubblestone was deposited under it, and the north jetty was completed for a length of 2,485 feet.

During the latter part of June, 1892, a survey of the bar was made. It shows that the channel crossing the bar has changed but slightly in direction since the survey of 1891, but has deepened so that the least depth at mean low water is 13.1 feet in a navigable channel at least 200 feet wide. The distance across the bar between the 18-foot contours is 2,100 feet. On the outside of the bar some advance of the deep-water contours is noticed. Inside the bar and between the jetties, no important change is noted in the deep-water contours.

At the date of this report the north jetty is completed for a length of 2,485 feet, and partly completed for 190 feet in addition. The south jetty and the dike are in the same condition as on June 30, 1891.

From notes furnished by Mr. Hiram F. Mills, engineer of the Essex

Company at Lawrence, Mass., it is seen that the spring freshet in the Merrimac River this year was less than the average spring freshet in duration and extent.

To complete the improvement, an appropriation of $117,500 will be required, all of which could be expended to advantage during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1894, in the extension of both jetties to their full projected lengths.

The advantages to be derived from the completion of the project are the deepening and widening of the channel across the bar, thereby affording a harbor of refuge on the inside of Salisbury Beach, and giving easy access at high tide to the wharves at Newburyport for vessels drawing 17 feet, approximately.

This work is located in the collection district of Newburyport, Mass., of which Newburyport is the port of entry. The nearest light-house is on Plum Island, at the entrance of the harbor.

The accompanying commercial statistics for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1892, have been furnished by the collector of customs for Newburyport, Mass.

The dates and amount of appropriations for this work are as follows: Act of

Act of-
June 14, 1880.

August 11, 1888..

$25,000 March 3, 1881.

September 19, 1890

25, 000 August 2, 1882.

40, 000
July 5, 1884


257, 500 August 5, 1886

37, 500

Money statement. July 1, 1891, balance unexpended.

$22, 787.25 June 30, 1892, amount expended during fiscal year

16, 311.04 July 1, 1892, balance unexpended

6, 476. 21 Amount appropriated by act approved July 13, 1892

20,000.00 Amount available for fiscal year ending June 30, 1893.

26, 476. 21 Amount (estimated) required for completion of existing project. 97,500.00 Amount that can be profitably expended in fiscal year en ling June 30,1894 97,500.00 Submitted in compliance with requirements of sections 2 of river and

harbor acts of 1866 and 1867.


Amount of revenue collected, 1890, $1,955.68; 1892, $361.96.

[blocks in formation]

* Feet.

Average draft of vessels entering the harbor is 10 feet; maximum draft, 15 feet.

The coal business at this port is annually increasing, but there being no inspector statistics can not be given.

B 2.


The mouth of the Merrimac River is 15 miles northwest from Cape Ann, Massachusetts. Tide water extends up it a distance of 19 miles, or to the foot of the “Upper Falls,” 11 miles above Haverhill, Mass.

Seven incorporated cities and the largest mills in New England are directly interested in its improvement.

Before improvement the channel was narrow and crooked and much obstructed by ledges, bowlders, and shoals.

At mean low water vessels drawing not to exceed 7 feet could enter the river and proceed to South Amesbury, 9 miles from the mouth. The sea bar at the mouth of the river has been improved under specific appropriations for improvement of Newburyport Harbor, while many sunken rocks and wrecks of piers and vessels lying inside the bar have been removed by general appropriations for the improvement of the river.

The object of the Merrimac River improvement is to straighten, widen and deepen the natural channel from the bar to head of tide water at the upper falls of a group known as “Mitchells Falls."

The rise or fall of the tide at the mouth is 7.7 feet; at Haverhill Bridge, 4 feet.

No plan of the river above Newburyport has been published in the reports of the Chief of Engineers.

The project originally adopted in 1870 proposed to remove obstructions from the Upper and Lower Mitchells Falls, and to remove the gangway rock and the “ Boilers” in Newburyport Harbor.

The cost was estimated to be $69,025.

This project was modified in 1874 so as to include the removal of rocks in and near the draw of the bridge at Deer Island, 2 miles above Newburyport, and Rocks Bridge, and at Little Curriers Shoal, East Haverhill, so that the channel should have the following depths at ordinary high-water stages of the river:

From the mouth to Deer Island Bridge, 5 miles, 164 feet; thence to Haverhill Bridge, 124 miles, 12 feet; thence, to the foot of Mitchells Falls, IIazeltine Rapids, 1.4 miles, 10 feet; thence, through Mitchells Falls to the head of the Upper Falls, 24 miles, not less than 44 feet, when the mill water at Lawrence is running.

This revised project was estimated to cost $147,000. The total appropriations to date have been $240,866.72. The total expenditures to June 30, 1891, were $230,866.72. The excess of expenditures over the estimate is due to the removal of rocks and other obstructions that were unknown and removal not contemplated when the estimate was made, and by the expense of necessary surveys and examinations not provided for in the estimate.

The condition of the improvement June 30, 1891, was as follows:

The modified project of 1874 was completed with the exception of the removal of the “Boilers,” upon which no work had been done.

During the year ending June 30, 1892, no active operations have been in progress. The funds made available by the act of September 19, 1890, were appropriated for the improvement of Mitchells Falls, and as the amount was deemed insufficient for any practicable benefit to commerce, my recommendation that the funds be retained in the Treas. ury until further funds are provided, or until by subsequent legislation

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