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it can be applied to some other part of the river where its expenditure will be of benefit to commerce, was approved by the Secretary of War August 29, 1891.
The project, as modified in 1874, has been completed with the exception of the removal of the “ Boilers," but from 1883 to 1886 additional improvements were recommended as follows: For that part of the river below Mitchells Falls(1) To remove sunken rocks and shoals from Mitchells Falls....
$1,500 (2) To remove the “Boilers" to a depth of 5 feet at mean low water, 350 cubic yards, at $25
8, 750 Contingencies
1, 250 Total ....
11,500 To extend the improvement so that the same depth of water as is now obtained through Mitchells Falls can be carried to Lawrence (a distance of 5 miles from the head of the falls) was in 1882 estimated to cost, for dredging through Gages Shoal and Andover Bar and remov. ing bowlders and ledges, $11,000.
The improved channel is in good order.
This work is located in the collection district of Newburyport, Mass., of which Newburyport is the nearest port of entry. The nearest light-houses are the Plum Island Lights and the Newburyport Upper Harbor Lights.
Commercial statisties are included in statement for Newburyport Harbor.
No increase in the tonnage of the river is apparent since the improvement was commenced, and no new lines of water transportation have been established.
The dates and amounts of appropriations for this work are as follows:
Act of May 23, 1828. $32, 100.00 March 3, 1875.
12,000.00 April 23, 1830. 3, 506.72 June 18, 1878.
10,000.00 March 2, 1831 16, 000.00 March 3, 1879.
5,000.00 March 2, 1833 4, 900.00 June 14, 1880.
12, 000.00 June 28, 1834. 3, 860.00 March 3, 1881
9, 000.00 July 11, 1870. 25, 000.00 August 2, 1882
9,000.00 March 3, 1871 25, 000.00 July 5, 1884
3,500.00 June 10, 1872.
25, 000.00 September 19, 1890. 10,000.00 March 3, 1873.
25, 000.00 June 23, 1874.
240, 866. 72 Appropriations made since 1870 have been expended on the approved project of that date and its modifications.
IMPROVEMENT OF POWOW RIVER, MASSACHUSETTS.
Powow River is a tributary of the Merrimac River, which it joins from the north about 3} miles above Newburyport. The tide enters the river a distance of about 9,600 feet, following the channel or to a dam just above the town of Amesbury, Mass.
The present channel is narrow, exceedingly crooked, and is not navigable at low water. The mean range of the tide at the mouth of the river is 6.7 feet.
The general project for the improvement of the river was proposed January 24, 1885. It was based on the survey provided for in the river and harbor act of July 5, 1884.
This project proposed to make a channel 9,600 feet long, 60 feet wide on the bottom, and 12 feet deep at mean high water, at an estimated cost of $77,000.
Two appropriations have been made for this improvement, viz, by the river and harbor act of August 11, 1888, which appropriated $3,000 for dredging:
Provided, That this sum shall not be expended until the towns of Amesbury and Salisbury, or either of them, shall have caused such a draw to be placed in the present bridge over said river as may be approved by the Secretary of War.
And by the river and harbor act of September 19, 1890, $5,000, with a similar proviso.
On April 10, 1889, the Secretary of War approved the plan of the proposed bridge.
On May 11, 1892, the chairman of the selectmen of the town of Amesbury, Mass, stated that the bridge over the Powow River had been reconstructed in accordance with the approved plans.
The available funds are insufficient to afford any appreciable benefit to commerce by their expenditure, and they will be retained in the Treasury until additional funds are provided.
To complete the improvement will require an appropriation of $69,000. Of this amount $30,000 could be expended to advantage during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1894.
This work is located in the collection district of Newburyport, Mass., of which Newburyport is the nearest port of entry. The nearest light-houses are the Newburyport Upper Harbor Lights.
Commercial statistics are included in statement for Newburyport Harbor. No increase in the tonnage of the river is apparent and no new lines of water transportation have been established.
July 1, 1891, balance unexpended
$8,000.00 July 1, 1892, balance unexpended
8,000.00 Amount appropriated by act approved July 13, 1892
4,000.00 Amount available for fiscal year ending June 30, 1893.....
12,000.00 Amount (estimated) required for completion of existing project....
65,000.00 Amount that can be profitably expended in fiscal year ending June 30, 1894 30,000.00 Submitted in compliance with requirements of sections 2 of river and
harbor acts of 1866 and 1867.
IMPROVEMENT OF IPSWICH RIVER, MASSACHUSETTS.
Ipswich River empties into Plum Island Sound 9 miles south of Newburyport, Mass., and at the same distance west of Cape Ann. The head of navigation is 3 miles above the mouth.
The entrance of Plum Island Sound is 2 miles east of the mouth of the river. Six feet depth at mean low water can be carried over the bar at the entrance to the sound, and between the bar and the mouth of the river there is a good anchorage, with from 3 to 5 fathoms of water.
Before improvement the channel of the river from its mouth to Barras Turn, a distance of 2 miles, was at least 60 feet wide and 4 feet deep at mean low water. From Barras Turn to the town wharves, a distance of 1 mile, the channel was narrow and crooked, and had at some places but 13 feet depth at mean low water. The mean rise or fall of the tide is 8.4 feet.
The original projeet for improvement was submitted December 6, 1875. It proposed a channel 60 feet wide and 4 feet deep at mean low water from Barras Turn to the town wharves, at an estimated cost of $25,000.
On November 5, 1883, the original project was divided into three partial projects:
1. The removal of the ledges at Heards Point and opposite Nabbys Point to a depth of 2 feet at mean low water, to open a navigable channel of that depth, at a cost of $15,900.
2. To dredge tbe shoals at Labor-in-Vain and The Shoals so as to open a channel 4 feet deep at mean low water and 60 feet wide, at a cost of $2,200.
3. To straighten the channel by making a cut across Barras Turn, and to build a jetty to close the old channel, at a cost of $6,900.
In the annual report of 1887 it was recommended that the general project be modified by limiting the present improvement to opening a channel 60 feet wide and 4 feet deep through The Shoals and Laborin. Vain, and extending it to the Deep Hole opposite the town wharves.
A chart showing this limited project was published in the Report of the Chief of Engineers for 1887.
The amount which has been appropriated for this improvement to date is: By act ofAugust 5, 1886
$2,500 August 11, 1888
5, 000 The amount expended to June 30, 1891, was $2,537 08, and a channel had been dredged 4 feet deep at mean low water, 60 feet wide at Laborin-Vain, and 40 feet wide at The Shoals.
During the fiscal year no operations were in progress.
Proposals were twice invited during the year 1889, and it is evident that the work will cost more than the original estimate. The expenditure of the small amount available would result in no appreciable benefit to commerce; it therefore will be retained in the Treasury until ad ditional funds are provided.
The condition of the improvement at date is the same as on June 30,
To complete the original project would require an appropriation of $20,000, but the present proposed partial project, it is believed, will Inlly meet all the reasonable demands of the present commerce of the river, and this it is estimated can be effected by an additional appropriation of $2,500.
Ipswich River is in the collection district of Newburyport, Mass. The nearest light-house is the Ipswich Light on Castle Neck, about 13 miles southeast from the mouth of the river.
Commercial statistics are included in those of Newburyport Harbor,
No increase in the tonnage of the river is apparent and no new lines of water transportation have been established.
2, 462.92 2,500.00
harbor acts of 1866 and 1867.
4, 962. 92
HARBOR OF REFUGE, SANDY BAY, CAPE ANN, MASSACHUSETTS.
Sandy Bay is situated at the northeastern extremity of the promontory of Cape Ann, which forms the northern limit of Massachusetts Bay. The shore lines of the bay form a little less than a right angle, and their directions are nearly north and south, and east and west. The rocky island of Straitsmouth forms the eastern extremity of one shore line, and the steep headland of Andrews Point the northern end of the other.
Following the line of the proposed breakwater, the bay is 22 miles wide, and it has a depth of 2 miles approximately.
The bay on the land side is perfectly protected by steep high hills, but it fronts the northeast, and is open to the full force of the violent northerly and easterly gales of this coast.
The great seas of the ocean are broken, however, in a degree by the sunken rocky ledges called Averys Ledge, the Dry and Little Salvages, the Flat Ground, and Abners Ledge, which are directly at the mouth of the bay. Insidethese entrance ledges the bay is entirely unobstructed, and has an average depth of 50 feet at mean low water.
A plan of the bay, showing the proposed breakwater, was published in the Annual Report of the Chief of Engineers for 1886, page 582.
The original project for improvement was submitted in 1884. It proposed a continuous breakwater 9,000 feet long, divided into two branches; one starts at Averys Ledge and runs in a direction a little west of north to Abners Ledge, a distance of 3,600 feet; the other extends 5,420 feet from Abners Ledge in a northwesterly direction, and terminates at the 81-foot contour off Andrews Point.
The axis of the proposed breakwater is approximately at the inner
edge of the ledges at the entrance of the bay, and about 1 mile inside the Salvages and Flat Ground, which receive the first shock of easterly storm waves.
The southern entrance to the proposed harbor lies between Straitsmouth Island and Averys Ledge, and is to be 1,800 feet wide and at least 30 feet deep. The northern entrance, near Andrews Point, is 2,700 feet wide and 80 feet deep.
They are so located with reference to each other that vessels can enter and leave the harbor with any wind.
The harbor formed by the breakwater covers an anchorage of 1,377 acres, in which the depth exceeds 24 feet at mean low tide.
The original project proposed to build the substructure of the breakwater to the level of 22 feet below low water of a mound of rubblestone, 40 feet wide on top.
On March 2, 1892, the project was modified to include the entire breakwater by a report of the special board of engineers constituted for that purpose.
This project was approved March 17, 1892, and it proposes to construct the entire breakwater of rubblestone, with the following section: On the sea side, from the bottom to 15 feet below mean low water, a slope of 1 on 1'}; thence, to mean low water, 1 on 3; thence to 18 feet above mean low water, 1 on 1; the width on the crest, 20 feet; and the rear slope 1 on 13. to mean low water; thence, to the bottom, 1 on 1.
The axis of the eastern branch of the breakwater is indicated by an iron spindle on Averys Ledge when in range with the south light-house on Thatchers Island. Cross ranges are established by iron pipes let into the rocks on Dry and Little Salvages, which mark points at intervals of 100 feet from the spindle (initial point) on Averys Ledge. The axis of the north branch is cross range 3,640.
The estimated cost of the improvement is $5,000,000, to which must be added $2,500,000 for buoyage, lighting, and defense of the harbor.
These estimates are based upon consecutive annual appropriations of not less than 10 per cent of the original estimates of cost.
Should operations be suspended at any time from want of funds, or annual appropriations be reduced to small sums for a series of years, the expense for the final construction will be proportionally increased.
The amount which has been appropriated to date is $ 150 000.
The total amount expended to June 30, 1891, was $322,321.37. At that date 407,173 tons of rubblestone had been deposited in the breakwater, essentially completing its substructure between cross ranges 140 and 3,740.
During the fiscal year 108,515 tons of rubblestone were deposited in the breakwater, under a contract dated December 4, 1890, with the Rockport and Pigeon Hill Granite companies, essentially completing the substructure of the breakwater between cross ranges 140 and 4,740.
On June 10, 1892, this contract was extended three months from July 1, 1892, at the request of the contractors.
To complete the project will cost $1,550,000, approximately.
During the year ending June 30, 1894, $250,000 could be expended to advantage.
The prospective benefits to commerce and navigation by the coustruction of this harvor of refuge are increased to life and property, and a consequent reduction in freight and insurance.
Sandy Bay is situated in the collection district of Gloncester, Mass.
The nearest light-honse is Straitsmouth Light, situated on Struitsmoutlı Island, at the southern entrance to the bay.