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By act of Congress approved March 2, 1867, a survey of the river was ordered, which was made in the following season, and which embraced all the principal bars and obstructions between Hartford and Long Island Sound. With the report on this survey, dated January 11, 1868, and printed on page 754, et seq., of the Annual Report of the Chief of Engineers for 1868, was presented a project for improving this part of the river. It proposed dredging at Hartford, Clay Banks, Pratts Ferry, Glastonbury, and Pistol Point to make channels 8 feet deep at low water and 100 feet wide; dredging at Saybrook Bar to make a channel 84 feet deep and 200 feet wide; piling for shore protection at Hartford and Wethersfield, and the removal of Chester Rock, at a total estimated cost of $70,000. An estimate of $10,000 for annual maintenance was submitted. All the dredging done up to 1880 was, in accordance with this project, extended to make 9 to 93 feet depth instead of 8 feet, and also to include Press Barn, Dividend and Mouse Island bars. The piling at Hartford was built in 1871, and the removal of Chester Rock was begun in the same year, but abandoned by the contractor soon after beginning.
January 22, 1873, a project for building three jetties at Saybrook and for dredging was approved by the Secretary of War. The jetties were to be of a double row of piles, 20 feet apart, filled with stone to a height of 8 feet above low water. The dredging was to be 9 feet deep and 400 feet wide.
The estimated cost was: Dredging
$17, 850 Jetties..
318.760 Total .
336, 610 Before work on the jetties was begun the plan of construction was modified to one for building them of riprap stone, triangular cross sections rising to a level of highest water, i. e., about 5 feet above mean low water, this plan being much more economical than the previous one.
The jetties were begun in 1873, and two of them were completed in 1881. The third has not been built and may not be needed; the west jetty has since been extended, and both have been repaired and strengthened.
In 1880 a project was adopted for permanent works of improvement at six of the worst bars (see Annual Report of the Chief of Engineers for 1880, Part I, page 396 et seq). This project provided for riprap wing dams, mattress, shore protection, and rectification of the banks at the following places, viz:
with dredging to make and maintain a permanent channel. The proj. ect did not provide for extension and repair of the Saybrook jetties, nor did the estimate include any amount for annual dredging to maintain channels, nor for dredging between the jetties at. Saybrook, nor for any work whatever at Pistol Point, Mouse Island, Haddam Island, and Calves Island bars, where dredging has since been required. All of these have consumed a large part of the appropriations made since.
Under this project, extended as above, up to the fall of 1887, a training wall of riprap 3,689 feet long had been built at Hartford Bar (instead of the proposed wing dam), and a riprap wing dam, 5,300 feet long, had been built at Glastonbury Bar, both to the height of 3 feet above low water; part of the Hartford training wall was subsequently built to 4 feet above low water; the west jetty at Saybrook had been extended to the 16-foot curve, the east jetty to the 12-foot curve, and a channel 130 feet wide and 12 feet deep had been dredged between them, besides maintaining the required depths in this part of the river, by annual dredging, at a cost of from $5,000 to $10,000 each year.
In 1887 it had become evident that the proposed plan of permanent improvement would not materially reduce the amount of dredging annually required, and that no effectual substitute could be recommended which would not be very expensive; and in December, 1887, a new proj. ect was adopted, under which future operations were to be confined to completing the jetties at the mouth of the river to a height of 5 feet above high water, with a top width of 6 feet, widening the channel between the jetties to 400 feet, with a depth of 12 feet at mean low water, and annual dredging to maintain the channel from Hartford to Long Island Sound, at an estimated cost as follows: For completing jetties
$60,000 For dredging between jetties.
20,000 Total ..... For average annual maintenance of channel from Hartford to Long Island Sound.
The reasons for this change of project are fully given in a letter printed in the annual report of the Chief of Engineers for 1888, Part I, pages 536–538.
In 1889 a modification of this project was adopted, which provides for raising the dike at Hartford to a leight of 15 feet above low water, at an estimated cost of $50,000, making the total estimate for completion at that time $130,000. The reasons for this modification are given in detail in letters to the Chief of Engineers, of October 14 and October 24, 1889, printed in the Annual Report of the Chief of Engineers for 1890, Part I, pages 614, 615.
By the river and harbor act of 1890, $12,500 was appropriated for this river, which, according to the project, was applied to annual mainte. mance of channels, and up to July 1, 1891, 37,763 cubic yards of sand had been removed from the channels near and below Hartford, under a contract not then completed.
OPERATIONS DURING THE FISCAL YEAR ENDING JUNE 30, 1892.
At the beginning of the year a contract with the Hartford Dredging Company, of Hartford, Conn., was in force to furnish dredging plant and to operate it at the rate of $8.20 per actual working hour of dredge. The contract was completed September 3, 1891.
During the fiscal year the dredge worked 8274 hours, and 58,058 cubic yards of material, mostly sand, were removed, making a total of 95,821 cubic yards removed under this contract from May 19, 1891, to September 3, 1891. The total number of hours worked was 1,350. Part of the time two dredges were employed.
During the fiscal year navigable channels of 9 feet depth at low water were made as follows:
The varying stages of water in the river made it necessary to move from one bar before the channel there was completed, to begin work upon another where the need was more urgent.
Following are the results of work done under this contract, making channels of navigable width (generally 60 feet), and of 9 feet depth at low water:
The average cost per cubic yard of this dredging, not including inspection or contingent expenses, was 11.55 cents.
After the available funds were exhausted, it is understood that dredging was continued by private parties.
PRESENT CONDITION OF IMPROVEMENT. Nothing has been done towards annual maintenance of channels since the spring freshets; the bars on the upper part of the river have available low-water depths of 5 to 8 feet, except where they have been dredged by private parties.
The channel between the Saybrook Jetties, dredged 12 feet deep and 130 feet wide, retains nearly that depth and width.
The Harttord Dike is in fair condition; the Glastonbury Dike, built on a convex bank, is now pearly covered by the advance of the bank.
Both jetties at Saybrook are in fair condition. They should be built up to the dimensions provided for in the project, to make them permanent. The length of dikes and jetties is as follows:
Feet. Hartford Dike
3, 698 Glastonbury Dike.
5, 300 Say brook: West Jetty
2, 550 East Jetty
Future appropriations will be applied to maintenance of the 9-foot channel in the river, completing the dike at Hartford, raising the jetties at Saybrook, and dredging between them.
Appropriations for improving the Connecticut River below Hartford have been as follows:
Dredging at Saybrook Bar
Pistol Point, and Chester Rock.
Say brook Jetties..
Dividend, Pistol Point, and Salmon River, Hartford Dike..
Dividend, Pistol Point, Mouse Island, and between Saybrook Jetties;
extending west jetty at Saybrook.. Dredging at Hartford, Clay Banks, Naubne, Press Barn, Glastonbury,
Dividend, Pistol Point, and Haddam Island; repairs of Hartford Dike, and Saybrook Jetties Compensation for previous dreiging.
Annual dredging at Hartford, Clay Banks, Press Barn, Glastonbury,
420, 105. 22
The Connecticut River is in the collection district of Hartford. By course of river the distance from Holyoke, Mass., to Hartford, Conn., is about 34 miles, and from Hartford to Long Island Sound about 50 miles.
There is a light-house on Say brook Point, on the west shore of the river, at its mouth, and another at the end of the west jetty, besides which there are three small beacon lights in the lower part of the river, which are maintained by tho United States.
Fort Trumbull, New London Harbor, Connecticut, about 16 miles east from Saybrook Point, is the nearest work of defense.
July 1, 1891, balance unexpended
$11, 274. 67 June 30, 1892, amount expended during fiscal year.
10, 888.61 July 1, 1892, balance unexpended
386.06 Amount appropriated by act approved July 13, 1892,
20,000.00 Amount available for fiscal year ending June 30, 1893
20, 386. 06 Amount (estimated) required for completion of existing project.. 110, 000.00 Amount that can be profitably expended in fiscal year ending June 30, 1894 90,000.00 Submitted in compliance with requirements of sections 2 of river and
harbor acts of 1866 and 1867.
Abstract of contract for improving Connecticut Rirer, in force during the fiscal year end
ing June 30, 1892.
COMMERCIAL STATISTICS FOR THE CALENDAR YEAR 1891, BELOW HARTFORD.
The decrease in freight tonnage as compared with that of 1890 is attributed to the temporary substitution of a semiweekly for a daily service, made necessary by the burning of steamer City of Richmond and to dullness in the stone trade,
No new lines of transportation have been established since July 1, 1891.
IMPROVEMENT OF HARBOR OF REFUGE AT DUCK ISLAND HARBOR,
CONNECTICUT. Duck Island Harbor is a bay on the north shore of Long Island Sound, between headlands known as Menunketesuck and Kelseys Points, respectively on the east and west sides of the harbor. It is about 1 miles west of the mouth of the Connecticut River, and midway between the harbors of New Haven and New London. In this distance of 46 miles there is no secure harbor of sufficient size and depth to shelter any considerable part of the general commerce of the Sound. Duck Island Harbor has a large anchorage area with depths of 16 feet or more at low tide, and with good holding bottom. It is sheltered from the north by the mainland, partly sheltered from the east by Menunketesuck Point, and slightly sheltered from the south by Duck Island, an island about 900 feet loug (north and south), by 300 feet wide, situated