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18. Harbor of refuge at Stonington, Connecticut.-Stonington Harbor lies on the north side of the eastern entrance from the ocean into Long Island Sound, and its breakwaters are for the purpose of making the harbor a harbor of refuge for vessels entering and leaving this eastern entrance of the Sound. Stonington Harbor originally was an open bay unprotected from southerly storms and obstructed by a shoal having a low-water depth of but 6 feet at the shoalest part. Between 1827 and 1831 about $37,000 was spent in constructing piers or breakwaters in the inner harbor for the protection of the general harborage. Between 1871 and 1873 $46,166 was appropriated for a survey of the harbor and for dredging the harbor to 12 feet depth; this work being finished in 1875. Between 1875 and 1879 $112,500 was appropriated for the construction of a western breakwater about 2,000 feet long, extending to 18 feet depth of water, and for dredging the harborage to 12 feet depth inside this breakwater; this work being completed in 1880.
The present approved project of 1880, as modified in 1882, provides for the construction of a similar eastern breakwater at a total cost, as estimated in 1882, of $143,000. The extent of the western end of the eastern breakwater bas not yet been fully determined.
One hundred and thirty thousand five hundred dollars was appropriated, and $127,299.80 was paid out on this work up to June 30, 1891; this expenditure resulting in the extension of this eastern breakwater to a total length of 2,377 feet.
The balance on hand will be expended in extending the eastern breakwater farther to the westward. July 1, 1891, balance unexpended
$3,200.20 June 30, 1892, amount expended during fiscal year
3, 161.62 July 1, 1892, balance unexpended
38. 58 July 1, 1892, outstanding liabilities
30. 16 July, 1, 1892, balance available....
8. 12 Amount appropriated by act approved July 13, 1892
12, 500.00 Amount available for fiscal year ending June 30, 1893..
12, 508. 12 (See Appendix ( 18.)
19. Removing sunken vessels or craft obstructing or endangering narigation.— Wreck of schooner Weybosset. From the wreck of this vessel, whose removal was completed in June, 1891, the recovered property was sold for $120 at public auction in July, 1891, and the proceeds covered into the Treasury.
Wreck of schooner Lucy Jones.—This vessel, loaded with brimstone, was sunk by collision in February, 1892, near the Cross Rip Light-ship in eastern Nantucket Sound Her spars and rigging were in February and March removed to 50 feet depth below low water.
Wreck of schooner Allie Oakes.—This vessel, loaded with lime, foundered in August, 1891, near Hyannis Breakwater, northern Nantucket Sound; and her wreck was removed by contract completed November 17, 1891.
Wreck of schooner Andrew J. York.—This vessel, loaded with paving stone, was sunk by collision in September, 1891, about 7 miles northwest from Nantucket Light; and her wreck was removed by contract completed January 29, 1991.
Wreck of schooner Mary E. Oliver.-This vessel, loaded with feldspar rock, foundered in October, 1891, near Vineyard Haven Harbor, southern Nantucket Sound; and her wreck was removed by contract completed April 20, 1892. The property recovered from the wreck was
sold for $304.75 at public auction in May, and the proceeds covered into the Treasury.
Wreck of schooner Python.—This vessel, loaded with marble dust, was sunk by collision in September, 1891, near the bell buoy on Pollock Rip, eastern entrance to Nantucket Sound; and her wreck was removed by contract completed April 7, 1892.
Wreck of schooner Edith T. Gandy.—This vessel, loaded with paving blocks, foundered in October, 1891, about 2 miles southwest of Shovelful Light-vessel, eastern Nantucket Sound; and her wreck was removed by contract completed June 9, 1892.
Wreck of schooner Florence Nowell.—This vessel, loaded with paving stone, was sunk by collision in October, 1891, near Pollock Rip Lightship, eastern entrance to Nantucket Sound; and her wreck was removed by contract completed April 20, 1892.
Wreck of schooner J. B. Woodbury.—This vessel, wrecked in about 1875, was reported in April, 1892, as lying about 2 miles south of the life-saving station at Monomoy, and as endangering the safety of the life-saving boats and other craft. The wreck has been advertised, and bids have been solicited for its removal.
Wreck of schooner Bertha J. Fellows.—This vessel, wrecked in about 1885, was reported in April, 1892, as lying about three-quarters of a mile' north of the life-saving station at Monomoy, and as endangering the safety of the life-saving boats and other craft. The wreck has been advertised, and bids have been solicited for its removal.
(See Appendix C 19.) EXAMINATIONS AND SURVEYS, DE IN COMPLIANCE WITH PROVISIONS OF RIVER AND HARBOR ACT APPROVED SEPTEMBER 19, 1890.
The required preliminary examinations of the following localities were made by the local engineer in charge, Major Livermore, and reports thereon submitted through Col. Henry L. Abbot, Corps of Engineers, Division Engineer, Northeast Division. It is the opinion of Major Livermore, and of the division engineer, based upon the facts and reasons given, that these localities are worthy of improvement. The conclusions of these officers being concurred in by me, Major Livermore was charged with and has completed their survey and submitted reports thereon. The reports were transmitted to Congress and printed as executive documents of the Fifty-second Congress, first session.
1. Menemsha Bight, Massachusetts, an outlet into 'Vineyard Sound, on the north shore of the island of Marthas Vineyard, with a view of preventing the closing of said inlet.—The improvement desired at this locality is the formation of a harbor of refuge for light-draft vessels by the construction of jetties and shore protection, estimated to cost $25,000. While this locality is regarded by Major Livermore and Colonel Abbot as worthy of improvement, it is the opinion of these officers that in view of the difficulty of maintaining the improvement and of its large cost the demands of commerce do not justify the work being undertaken at the present time. Printed as House Ex. Doc. No. 60. (See also Appendix C 20.)
2. Canapitsit Channel, Massachusetts, between the island of Cuttyhunk and Nashavena (Neshawana), with a view of deepening the same and clearing the channel from obstructions to navigation. The improvement proposed contemplates removing bowlders and dredging in the channel to a depth of 6 feet at mean low tide. The cost of this work is estimated at $4,800. It will also be necessary to place a beacon on the rocks lying in 12 feet of water to the south of the channel. Printed as House Ex. Doc. No. 59. (See also Appendix C 21.)
IMPROVEMENT OF CONNECTICUT RIVER, MASSACHUSETTS AND CON
NECTICUT, AND OF RIVERS AND HARBORS ON LONG ISLAND SOUND, CONNECTICUT AND NEW YORK, AND ON SOUTHERN SHORE OF LONG ISLAND, NEW YORK.
Officer in charge, Col. D. C. Houston, Corps of Engineers.
1. Mystic River, Connecticut.—This is a tidal river about 4 miles in length, extending northward from Fishers Island Sound. Its natural depth for the lower 2 miles was 15 feet or more at low tide, in a very crooked and narrow channel; thence for a mile farther, to the village of Mystic, the depth shoaled to about 9 feet.
Above Mystic there has been little navigation. In 1888 an examination of the river was made, and subsequently a project was adopted for dredging to carry the depth of 15 feet at mean low water, with width of 100 feet up to the highway bridge, and to widen five bends in the stream, at an estimated cost of $30,000.
Up to July 1, 1891, $1,644.33 had been expended in dredging to deepen the channel near Mystic; this was the first work done, and the improvement was not then sufficiently advanced to affect navigation or commerce.
During the past fiscal year the channel was deepened to 15 feet at and near Mystic, making an available depth of 15 feet at mean low water up to the village wharves, where the previous depth has been about 9 feet; and the sharp turn at the mouth of the stream was widened by from 25 to 75 feet.
The total amount appropriated for improving Mystic River is $20,000.
Future appropriations will be applied to dredging in accordance with the project. July 1, 1891, balance unexpended....
$8, 355, 67 June 30, 1892, amount expended during fiscal year
8, 130. 07 July 1, 1892, balance unexpended ...
225. 60 Amount appropriated by act approved July 13, 1892
10,000.00 Amount available for fiscal year ending June 30, 1893.....
10, 225, 60 Amount (estimated) required for completion of existing project...... 10,000.00 Submitted in compliance with requirements of sections 2 of river and
harbor acts of 1866 and 1867. (See Appendix D 1.)
2. Thames River, Connecticut.—This river is a tidal stream extending from the city of Norwich 15 miles south to Long Island Sound. For 11 miles above its mouth the depth ranges from 13 to 80 feet.
Until 1889 improvements were confined to a stretch of 31 miles below Norwich, in which the most troublesome bars lay. In 1829 the channel depth over these bars was about 6 feet at mean low water.
In 1836 a project was adopted for making the channel 100 feet wide and 14 feet deep at mean high water (11 feet at low water), by dredg. ing and by building piers.
In 1878 a channel 14 feet deep at low water was projected, and in 1882 a modification was adopted providing for a channel 200 feet wide and 14 feet deep at mean low water, to be obtained by dredging and by building five dikes or training walls along the outer sides of the channel curves. The estimated cost was $208,080, and a balance of $20,000 from previous appropriations was then available. In 1888 the project was extended to include making 16 feet depth as far up as Allyn Point,
and 14 feet from there to Easter Point at an additional cost of $10,000,
Up to July 1, 1891, three of the proposed dikes had been completed, and the fourth nearly so; and the channel had an available depth froin' Norwich to Easter Point (34 miles) of nearly 12 feet, with width of 75 feet or over; from Easter Point to Allyn Point, 14 feet depth with 175 feet width; below Allyn Point, 16 feet depth with 200 feet width. At extreme high water the depth was sufficient for the commerce of the river, but the channel was too narrow for convenience and safety.
During the past fiscal year the channel for 2 miles above Fort Point (about 3 miles below Norwich) was made fully 12 feet deep, and widened to 100 and 125 feet; from Fort Point to Easter Point (about a half mile) it was deepened to 14 feet at mean low water, facilitating navigation of the upper part of the river.
Future appropriations will be applied to dredging and, if necessary, to repair and extension of the dikes. July 1, 1891, balance unexpended.
$28, 901: 78 June 30, 1892, amount expended during fiscal year.
24, 360.83 July 1, 1892, balance unexpended....
4, 540.95 Amount appropriated by act approved July 13, 1892.
30, 000.00 Amount available for fiscal year ending June 30, 1893.
31,540.95 Amount (estimated) required for completion of existing project...... 55, 600.00 Submitted in compliance with requirements of sections 2 of river and
harbor acts of 1866 and 1867. (See Appendix D 2.)
3. Connecticut River, Massachusetts and Connecticut.-Above Hartford.-From Holyoke, Mass., 34 miles above Hartford, down to Enfield Falls or Rapids, a distance of 18 miles, there is a fair channel 4 to 5 feet deep.
Enfield Rapids extends about 5 miles over a rocky and uneven bed, with a total fall of 32 feet. From the foot of Enfield Rapids to Hartford, a distance of 11 miles, the river bed is broad and sandy, with a channel from 2 to 5 feet deep at low water.
Several years ago the Connecticut River Company constructed a small canal around Enfield Rapids, through which boats of 3 feet draft and 80 feet length can pass.
The several projects under which work has been done have been for dredging at Barbers Landing and for wing dams. In 1878 plans and estimates were submitted for construction of a canal 8 feet deep around Enfield Rapids. These estimates were revised in 1880. The estimated cost of the canal was $1,322,805. It was not considered advisable to commence construction with a less sum than $450,000, which has not yet been appropriated.
Up to the close of the present fiscal year $100,000 has been appropriated for this part of the river, of which $91,059.70 has been expended. All the work done has been dredging, and the construction and repair of 7 wing dams.
No work was done during the past fiscal year.
The last appropriation for this part of the river was made in 1880, and the last work done was repair of wing lams in 1856. Except the fixing and defining of the channel by wing dams, the results of the improvement so far made have not been permanent.
The funds on hand from previous appropriations are sufficient for
* Of which $10,000 may be expended in improvement of Shaws Cove, New London Harbor.
such repairs and temporary improvement as may be needed during the ensuing fiscal year; no other work is at present contemplated. July 1, 1891, balance unexpended
$8, 940.30, July 1, 1892, balance unexpended
8, 940. 30 Connecticut River, below Hartford.-Between Hartford and Long Island Sound, a distance of 50 miles by course of channel, the depth on the bars was formerly 5 feet at low water, the worst places being between Hartford and Middletown, a distance of 19 miles, and at Say. brook Bar at the mouth of the river. Dredging was carried on and small wing dams were constructed by private parties, and by a State corporation up to 1868, with no permanent benefit.
In 1868 a project for improvement by the United States was submitted, under which a pile dike was built at Hartford, and annual dredging done on the bars below Hartford, until 1883.
In 1873 a project for the construction of three jetties on Saybrook Bar was adopted. Two of these have been built; the third will probably not be required.
In 1880 a project for permanent improvement of six of the worst bars between Hartford and Middletown was adopted; it contemplated building riprap wing dams, rectifying the banks, and protecting the caving banks by mattresses, at a total estimated cost of $330,487. It was afterwards found necessary to extend the project to include annual dredging at these and other bars, and the extension and repair of the Saybrook jetties.
Iwo of the contemplated works have been built, a training wall at Hartford Bar, and a wing dam at Glastonbury Bar, their total cost being $40,715.34. In addition to the work included in the estimate of $330,487, the east and west jetties at Saybrook bave been extended and repaired, and a channel 130 feet wide and 12 feet deep has been dredged between them, and from $5,000 to $10,000 has been annually expended in dredging to maintain a depth of 9 feet on the bars between Hartford and Saybrook.
Experience has shown that on account of the frequency and height of freshets in this river the permanent works projected in 1880 would be inadequate to maintain the desired depth, or even to materially reduce the amount of dredging annually required. Therefore, in December, 1887, a new project was adopted, confining future operations to the completion of the Saybrook jetties to a height of 5 feet above high water with a top width of 6 feet, and widening the channel between the jetties to 400 feet with a depth of 12 feet at mean low water, at an estimated cost of $80,000, with annual dredging to maintain a 9-foot channel between Hartford and Long Island Sound, at an average cost of $10,000 per year.
In 1890 an extension of the project was adopted to provide for raising the Hartford Dike to about 15 feet above low-water level, at an additional estimated cost of $50,000.
Up to July 1, 1891, riprap dikes had been built at Hartford and Glastonbury Bars, two riprap jetties at Saybrook Bar, at the river's mouth, a channel 130 feet wide and 12 feet deep had been dredged through Saybrook Bar, and channels of 9 feet depth had been made, and as far as practicable maintained by annual dredging.
The Hartford Dike and jetties at Saybrook are in good condition; the jetties have secured the permanency of the entrance channel, and the dike has partly secured the channel at Hartford Bar; the Glastonbury Dike is mostly covered by sand. The channel at the entrance re. tains nearly full width and depth.