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Milford Harbor is in the collection district of New Haven; it is about 9 miles west from Fort Hale, New Haven Harbor. The nearest light-house is on Stratford Point, 4 miles to westward.

Money statement. July 1, 1891, balance unexpended.

$2,571.95 June 30, 1892, amount expended during tiscal year..

2, 396. 49 July 1, 1892, balance unexpended....



Vessels arriving and departing.
[Draft, 3 to 10 feet; tonnage, 10 to 200 tons.)

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The chief articles of commerce are: Coal, lumber, oysters, and general merchandise, including fish oil and fertilizers from Welch's Point, of which no complete statistics have been received. They would probably differ but little from those of 1890, when the aggregate freight tonnage was about 12,000 tons. Most of the coal, lumber, and general merchandise are now transported by rail.

No new lines of transportation have been established during the year.

D 9.

IMPROVEMENT OF HOUSATONIC RIVER, CONNECTICUT. The Housatonic is a long, shallow river, running southward through Massachusetts and Connecticut, and emptying into Long Island Sound just east of Stratford Point, about 15 miles southwest from New Haven. At Derby, 13 miles above its mouth, it receives the discharge of the Naugatuck, a small rapid river. This point, which has been regarded as the head of navigation, is nearly the head of tide water. About a mile above there is a dam across the Housatonic River, furnishing large water power. For at least 5 miles below Derby the water is always fresh.

The original depth on the worst bars in the river (6 in number) was from 3.5 to 4.5 feet at mean low water; there was also a bar across the river's mouth with about 4 feet low-water depth.


In pursuance of a resolution of the House of Representatives, dated December 20, 1869, authorizing a survey of the Housatonic River below Derby, which resolution was referred by the Secretary of War to the Chief of Engineers for report as to the necessity for the survey," an examination of the river from Derby to Long Island Sound was made by Col. D. C. Houston, Corps of Engineers, who reported January 8, 1870, and recommended a detailed survey of all that part of the river, at an estimated cost of $5,000. This report was printed in House Ex. Doc. No. 62, Forty-first Congress, second session.

By act of Congress approved July 11, 1870, a survey of Housatonic River below Derby, Conn., was directed, and an allotment of $2,700

was made for a survey " sufficient to determine the prominent obstructions to navigation.” In his report on this survey, dated January 23, 1871, and printed in House Ex. Doc. No. 95, Forty-first Congress, third session, also in the Annual Report of the Chief of Engineers for 1871, page 781, Gen G. K. Warren, Corps of Engineers, submitted the following estimates for making a channel 7 feet deep at mean low water, to be 200 feet wide over the bar at the mouth of the river and 150 feet wide in the river, the channel at the river's mouth to be protected on the east side by a breakwater from Milford Beach, Jetty at Sow and Pigs Reef

$4,000 Removing Drews Rock, 357 cubic yards.

2,000 Dredging inside the bar at the mouth.

18, 486 Dredging on the bar at the mouth..

12, 000 Construction of breakwater at mouth

368, 475 The breakwater was to be built of riprap, up to 11 feet above mean low water, and of dimension stone above; it was to be 6 feet wide on top, rising to 11 feet above low water, and was to extend to the 6-foot curve, an estimated length of 4,200 feet.

March 3, 1871, the first appropriation for improvement of the river was made, and work in accordance with the project was begun. In 1872 the project was modified to adinit of a jetty connecting Drew Rock with the west bank, instead of removal of the rock. This was done on the ground of economy, and the jetty was built in 1872. The result has been to form a bar below the jetty, which required such frequent dredging that it was found expedient to remove the rock as originally projected. This was done in 1887-1888, .

Appropriations were not made in sufficient amounts to warrant beginning the breakwater as originally designed, and in 1879 Col. Barlow proposed to substitute for it a riprap jetty, at an estimated cost of $12,000.

In 1882 the estimate was changed to $20,250, the contemplated jetty being 6,000 feet long, and rising only to low-water level. Such a jetty could subsequently be built higher, if necessary, and there seems no doubt that this would have to be done before any useful effect could be realized. Therefore in my annual report for 1887 (see Annual Report of the Chief of Engineers for 1887, Part I, page 607) I presented revised estimates for a breakwater, modifying the originally proposed method of construction to one for using riprap only, experience at harbors ou Long Island Sound having shown this construction to be as durable as dimension work, and more economical.

At the same time, estimates based on recent surveys for dredging, necessary to make the channel 7 feet deep, with width of 200 feet at the mouth of the river, and 100 feet above, were submitted. The latter width was adopted in 1883, because, up to that time the originally proposed width of 150 feet had never been obtained.

Following are the estimates for breakwater and for dredging submitted in 1887: For a breakwater 5,750 feet long, extending from Milford Beach 3,250 feet

in a course about south-southeast, thence parallel with and 500 feet from the channel, 2,500 feet further to the 12-foot curve; inside the bend, to be built up to 3 feet above mean low water, top width 6 feet, side slopes 1 upon 1, outside the bend to be built up to 6 feet above high water, top width 12 feet, outer slope 1 on 2, and inner slope 1 on 1

$175,000 For dredging at the mouth of the river anı at six bars in the river, 146,000

cubic yards, at 16 cents, with about 15 per cent added for contingent expenses.

27,000 Total.

202, 000 to which should be added about $1,000 aunnally required for maintenance of channels.

January 27, 1888, a letter further explaining the reasons for the new estimate for breakwater was submitted to the Chief of Engineers, and was subsequently printed as Senate Ex. Doc. No, 103, Fiftieth Congress, first session, and also in the Annual Report of the Chief of Engineers, for 1888, Part I, page 554.

July 1, 1891, dredging was in progress upon the bar at Shelton, at the head of navigation, to restore the 7-foot channel at that point, which had been completely filled by freshets of the previous winter and spring, and a contract for extension of the breakwater was in force, but work had not then been begun.

The river bars generally had depths of from 4 to 5 feet at mean low water, and the breakwater was 3,290 feet long, the first 3,250 feet being built to about half tide, and the last (southerly) 40 feet being built to 4 feet above high water,


At the beginning of the year a contract was in force with Brown & Fleming, of New York City, to furnish and place in the breakwater about 20,000 tons of riprap granite, at the rate of $1,33 per ton, with a supplementary agreement, dated June 29, 1891, to admit of the use of New York City stone (gneiss) at the rate of $1.23 per ton.

Work under this contract was begun July 15, 1891, and completed May 28, 1892, the total amount of stone delivered and placed under this contract being 17,150 tons of New York City stone, extending the breakwater 1,282 feet, and making its total length 4,57:2 feet.

Parts of the breakwater were undermined by the currents during the winter and spring of 1890–91. This required prompt repair, and as the existing contract provided only for extension of break water, with the approval of the Chief of Engineers, stone was purchased in open market for immediate use, and from July 10 to August 11, 1891, 2,654 cubic yards of riprap were purchased and placed in the work, where needed for such repairs, at the rate of $2 per cubic yard.

At the beginning of the year work was in progress under a contract with Richard Parrott, of Newburg, N. Y., to furnish dredging plant and operate it at the rate of $10 per actual working hour of dredge.

During the fiscal year the dredge worked 28747 hours, removing 13,613 cubic yards of material, mostly sand. The contract was completed November 11, 1891.

The total amount of material removed under the contract was 15,789 cubic yards in an actual working time of 3327 hours.

All the work was on Shelton Bar, where a channel was dredged about 1,400 feet long, with width of 60 feet, and depth of 7 feet at mean low water.


The breakwater is now 4,572 feet long, and contains about 33,637 tons of stone; for 3,250 feet nearest the shore end, it is built to about half tide level; the outer 1,322 feet are built up to 4 feet above high water, with top width of 5 feet.

During the freshets of the past winter and spring the channel dredged in 1891 shoaled so that the present available depth on the bars in the river is from 4 to 5 feet at mean low water; on the outer bar the depth is about 6 feet but the channel has shifted so as to leave the entrance crooked.


With the available funds it is proposed to straighten and widen a channel through the outer bar, also to deepen the channel through a shoal, about 1 mile below Stratford.

Future appropriations should be applied to making and maintaining the channel in the river, and to completing the breakwater as provided for in the approved project.

The estimated cost of completing this improvement is $132,000 to which should be added about $4,000 annually for maintenance of channels and for repairs.

Appropriations for the Housatonic River have been made as fol: lows:

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The Housatonic River is the boundary between the collection districts of New Haven and Fairfield. The nearest work of defense is Fort Hale, New Haven Harbor, about 15 miles east. The nearest light-house is on Stratford Point, at the mouth of the river.

Money statement.

July 1, 1891, balance unexpended..

$10, 196.46 June 30, 1892, amount expended during fiscal year.

29, 151. 78 July 1, 1892, balance unexpended.

11, 014.68 July 1, 1892, outstanding liabilities

5, 901.00 July 1, 1892, balance available.....

5, 1.13, 68 Amount appropriated by act approved July 13, 1892.

20,000.00 Amount available for fiscal year ending June 30, 1893 .

25, 113. 68 Amount (estimated) required for completion of existing project. 112, 000.00 Amount that can be profitably expended in fiscal year ending June 30, 1894 100, 000.00 Submitted in compliance with requirements of sections 2 of river and

harbor acts of 1866 and 1867.

Abstract of contracts for improving Housatonic River, Connecticut, in force during the

fiscal year ending June 30, 1892.

Name and address of con.


Date of con


Subject of contract.

Rate of pay.



Brown & Fleming, New Dec. 23, 1890 Delivery of riprap $1.33 per ton
York City

granite and con.

Contract completed struction of

May 28, 1892; 17,150 breakwater.

tons of New York Brown & Fleming, New June 29, 1891 Substituting New $1.23 per ton City stone delivered York City. Supplemen.

York City stone.

and placed. tary to above. Richard larTott, New | Mar. 23, 1891 Hire of dredging $16 per actual Completed Nov. 11. burg, N. Y.


working 1891; 15,789 cubio hour

of yards removed dur. dredge. 33237 working hours

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115, 855

704, 007

At Stratford, near mouth of river.

Vessels arriving and departing.

Number. Tonnage.

Large vessels :

Sailing vessels

Barges in tow.
Small vessels.

Oystermen (sail vessels).


60.000 38.000 22, 500





155, 500

Freight received and shipped.



Oyster sliells


125 12, 300 40,000


12, 5'10 25,000 800.000


92, 025


The total tonnage of river freight as above reported is 208,480, being an increase of 69,680 tons over that reported for 1890.

No new lines of transportation have been established upon this river since the last annual report.

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