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The above figures show an increase in freight tonnage of 56,000 tons over that reported for 1890.

One new line of transportation has been established since July 1, 1891.

D 13

IMPROVEMENT OF HARBOR AT WILSONS POINT, CONNECTICUT.

Wilsons Point Harbor is a bay on the north shore of Long Island Sound, about 14 miles west from the mouth of Norwalk River or Harbor.

The lower half of the harbor is about half a mile wide, with depth decreasing from 16 feet gradually to 6 feet at Wilsons Point; the upper half is from 1,000 to 500 feet wide, with depth of 3 feet or less at low tide. The harbor is sheltered by the mainland and by Sheffield Island (the most westerly of the Norwalk islands), from all quarters except the southwest; it is partly sheltered from the south west by “Bell Island,” an island separated from the mainland by a marsh and narrow creek.

Wilsons Point Harbor has been used to some extent for many years as a harbor of refuge and place to lie up for the night by fishing boats and oyster steamers, and occasionally by barges caught out in storins.

There is no settlement upon the shores of the harbor, except a collection of summer cottages on Bell Island.

A few years ago the Danbury and Norwalk Railroad Company (now a branch of the Housatonic Railroad Company) made Wilsons Point their terminus, and subsequently the New England Terminal Company was formed to construct docks, car yards, and coal sheds, and to operate in the interest of the Housatonic Railroad and its connections. A large dock was built, with transfer bridges, by which freight cars were taken on board steamers, and freight carried to New York City without unloading and reloading.

PROJECTS FOR IMPROVEMENT.

March 3, 1888, a letter was sent by the Hon. William P. Frye, United States Senator, to the Secretary of War, asking that a special examination of Norwalk Ilarbor be made with reference to a developing business which urgently required further improvements. This letter was referred to me for report. Upon inquiry it was learned that the business referred to was that of the railroad terminus at Wilsons Point, and that it was desired that the United States undertake dredging a channel 15 feet deep and 300 feet wide up the harbor to the vicinity of the railroad wharves. There was no money available for a detailed

examination of the locality, but estimates for dredging based upon recent U. S. Coast Survey charts were made as follows: 230,000 cubic yards, at 20 cents

$46,000 Contingencies, 15 per cent.

6, 900 Total.

52, 900 The river and harbor act of 1888 made appropriation for Norwalk Harbor, Conn., of $28,000, with provision as follows:

Twenty-five thousand dollars of which shall be expended in dredging and deepening the channel in the lower harbor up to Wilsons Point.

Up to July 1, 1891, the channel had been made 15 feet deep at mean low water, and 480 feet wide from Long Island Sound up nearly to the wharves, with an additional width of 200 feet on the east side near the wharves for a length of 750 feet; close to the wharves the channel dredged by the New England Terininal Company is 12 feet deep.

OPERATIONS DURING THE FISCAL YEAR ENDING JUNE 30, 1892.

With the approval of the Chief of Engineers, dated February 14, 1891, dredging was begun February 22, 1892, under open agreement with A. J. Beardsley & Son, the rate being 84 cents per cubic yard, the same as paid under the previous,contract.

One lundred and seventy-nine thousand cubic yards of mud and sand have been dredged from the channel, making a depth of 15 feet at mean low water; the west side of the channel to the wharves was widened by about 220 feet, and a chanuel on the west side of the wbarves was dredged 200 feet wide and about 1,300 feet long, parallel to and 75 feet distant from the wharves.

Work uuder this agreement was completed June 23, 1892.

PRESENT CONDITION OF IMPROVEMENT.

The channel close to the docks dredged by the Terminal Company is 12 feet deep at mean low water; outside of this is a channel 15 feet deep, extending out to deep water in Long Island Sound, about 700 feet wide, with an additional width of 200 feet on the east side for a distance of 750 feet south from the wharves.

The 15-foot channel has been extended northward parallel to the wharves and 75 feet from them, with a width of 200 feet. These channels are all in good condition, and afford easy access to the wharves for vessels of considerable depth.

PROPOSED OPERATIONS. The improvement of this harbor is completed as far as now designed; no further work is projected and no appropriation is required.

Appropriations for improving harbor at Wilsons Point have been made as follows:

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* Part of an appropriation of $28,000 for Norwalk. Harbor, directed by the appropriation act to be expended at Wilsons Point.

Wilsons Point is in the Fairfield collection district, and is about 14 miles south west from Bridgeport, the port of entry.

Norwalk Lighthouse, on Sheffield Island, is about half a mile south of the harbor.

The nearest work of defense is Fort Schuyler, Throgs Neck, at the head of Long Island Sound, about 29 miles southwest.

$18, 215. 69

9,881.99

Money statement.
July 1, 1891, balance unexpended..
June 30, 1892, amount expended during fiscal year
July 1, 1892, balance unexpended...
July 1, 1892, outstanding liabilities
July 1, 1892, balance available....

.8, 333. 70 6, 212.87

2, 120.83

COMMERCIAL STATISTICS FOR THE CALENDAR YEAR 1891.

No commercial statistics for this harbor have yet been received. The amount of commerce reported for 1890 was 221,202 tons; it was probably somewhat greater for 1891.

D 14.

IMPROVEMENT OF FIVE-MILE HARBOR, CONNECTICUT. This harbor is an inlet on the north shore of Long Island Sound, about 2 miles west of the mouth of Norwalk Harbor, Connerticut. It is about 1 mile long and from 300 to 800 feet wide. About three-quarters of a mile above its mouth it runs bare at low tide. At the mouth the depth is about 3 feet, increasing to 9 feet at a point about 750 feet out into the sound. The mean rise of tide is about 7 feet.

Since 1818 Five Mile River has been largely engaged in oyster-growing, and in this business now employs about 137 vessels.

These vessels can only enter or leave the harbor at high tide, consequently during their busy season they are obliged to lie up for the night at other and less convenient harbors.

PROJECT FOR IMPROVEMENT.

By act of Congress approved August 5, 1886, a survey or examination of this harbor was ordered, which was made in the following fall, and reported on under date of December 7, 1886, and printed in the Annual Report of the Chief of Engineers for 1887, Part I, page 639

In this report a project for improvement was proposed, which consisted in dredging a channel 8 feet deep at mean low water and 100 feet wide, to extend up the harbor, and to be about 6,000 feet long; the estimated cost was $25,000. This project was adopted in 1888, when work under it was ordered by the appropriation of $5,000 made by act of Congress of August 11, 1888.

Up to July 1, 1891, 22,938 cubic yards had been dredged under this project, making the channel about 1,500 feet long, 50 feet wide, and 8 feet deep at mean low water.

OPERATIONS DURING THE FISCAL YEAR ENDING JUNE 30, 1892.

At the beginning of the fiscal year a contract for dredging was in force, entered into with Mr. George B. Beardsley, under date of February 27, 1891, rate 14.6 cents per cubic yards, measured in scows.

Work under this contract was begun August 25, and completed October 9, 1891, the total amount dredged being 30,000 cubic yards. The previous dredged channel, 1,500 feet long, about 50 feet wide, and 8 feet deep at mean low water, was widened to 60 feet and extended about 950 feet to a point opposite Monsells Dock.

PRESENT CONDITION OF IMPROVEMENT.

Under the existing project the channel has been dredged from deep water in Long Island Sound about 2,450 feet up the harbor, with width of 60 feet and depth of 8 feet at mean low water. It retains its depth fairly.well, the only shoaling being from a slight falling in of its banks.

PROPOSED OPERATIONS.

With future appropriations it is proposed to widen and extend the harbor channel, as contemplated by the project.

Appropriations for improving harbor at Five Mile River have been made as follows:

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Five Mile River is in the Fairfield collection district, and is about 13 miles west of Bridgeport, the port of entry.

The nearest light-house is on Sheffield Island, nearly 2 miles from the mouth of the harbor.

The nearest work of defense is Fort Schuyler, at the head of Long Island Sound, 27 miles southwest.

Money statement.

July 1, 1891, balance unexpended

$5, 126. 87 June 30, 1892, amount enpended during fiscal year..

5, 013. 83 July 1, 1892, balance unexpended

113. 04 Amount appropriated by act approved July 13, 1892.

5,000.00 Amount available for fiscal year ending June 30, 1893......

5, 113.04 Amount (estimated) reqnired for completion of existing project....

10,000.00 Amount that can be profitably expended in fiscal year ending June 30, 1894 10,000.00 Submitted in compliance with requirements of sections 2 of river and

harbor acts of 1866 and 1867.

Abstract of contract for improving Five Milc River Harbor, Connecticut, in force dur

ing fiscal year ending June 30, 1892.

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* Part of a contract for dredging in the harbors of Bridgeport, Black Rock, Five Mile River, and Norwalk.

COMMERCIAL STATISTICS FOR THE CALENDAR YEAR 1891.

Bushels of oysters raised
Value of oysters raised
Steamers employed...
Sail vessels employed
Draft of above vessels
Tonnage of above vessels
Value of above vessels..

720, 000 $132, 000

25

112 .feet.. 11 to 8 tons.. 2 to 175

$222, 000

About 10,000 tons of coal were landed here during the year 1891, and this would be largely increased but for the delay in discharging because of shoal water.

No new lines of transportation have been established since July 1, 1891.

D 15

IMPROVING STAMFORD HARBOR, CONNECTICUT.

This is a small harbor on the north shore of Long Island Sound, about 6 miles east of the New York State line. The harbor consists of a bay about a mile long and a mile broad, and of the mouth of the Mill River, a small stream which is dammed at Oliver Street Bridge, the head of the harbor. The original low-water depth for a mile below the bridge was from 1 to 3 feet in a crooked channel, and the 6-foot curve in the bay was about 6,600 feet below the bridge; the wharves are all in the upper half of this distance.

The mean rise of the tide is 7.9 feet.

PROJECTS FOR IMPROVEMENT.

By act of March 2, 1829, Congress appropriated $100 for making a survey of the harbor of Stamford, Conn., with a view to its improvement. The survey was made by Capt. Hartman Bache, U. S. Engineers, in 1829. In his report on the same, dated May 10, 1830, Capt. Bache recommended excavating the channel (proposing to build a steam dredge for the purpose), the cost being estimated as follows: For a channel 12 feet deep at ordinary high water (about 4 feet at mean low water):

$13, 250.00 For a channel 10 feet deep at ordinary high water

21, 035. 20 No money was appropriated for carrying out this plan.

The river and harbor act of 1882 authorized a survey of this harbor, which was made in the following year. 'In his report on this survey, dated December 12, 1883 (printed in Senate Ex. Doc. No. 50, Fortyeighth Congress, first session, also in annual report of the Chief of Engineers for 1884, Part I, page 672), Col. McFarland, U. S. Engineers, submitted a project for dredging a channel 80 feet wide and 5 feet deep at mean low water, from deep water in the bay up to Oliver Street Bridge, estimated to cost as follows: Dredging, 80,000 cubic yards of mud, at 20 cents....

$16, 000 Contingencies.....

4,000 Total ....

20,000 It was not intended to include the removal of the ledge under and just below the bridge.

The beginning of the work under this project was approved by the

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