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Amount (estimated) required for completion of existing project.....$1,803, 000.00 Submitted in compliance with requirements of sections 2 of river and

harbor acts of 1866 and 1867. (See Appendix E 5.)

6. East River and Hell Gate, New York.-Originally the channel of East River contained many dangerous rocky obstructions to navigation, lying both above and below mean low water. Especially was this the case at Hell Gate, where the bounding beaches had irregular and shoal rocky foreshores, and the inclosed water way had a few detached rocky isles with crests rising several feet above high-water mark.

At Hell Gate the channel turns at right angles around Hallets Point, Astoria, and the current runs with a velocity varying at different stages of the tide from 3 to 10 miles an hour over or around Way Reef, Pot Rock, Shell Drake, Frying Pan, Hallets Point, Negro Point, Holmes Rock, Hog Back, Heel Tap, Flood Rock, Hen and Chickens, Gridiron, Mill Rocks, The Negro Heads, Rhinelander Reef, and Bread and Cheese.

Hallets Point projected from the shore at Astoria under water 325 feet to the 26-foot contour, mean low water, and embraced an area of 3 acres.

The detached rocks in the inclosed water way had varying depthis over them. The Middle Reef, with an area of about 9 acres, lay in the middle of the channels of Hell Gate. It had a small backbone, projecting above high water, called Flood Rock, upon which vessels were frequently stranded at ebb tide when the currents swept directly over the rock. To the north ward, near the mouth of the Harlem River, lay the two Mill Rocks, both of which were usually visible at high water. To the eastward Frying Pan had only 11 feet, mean low water; Heel Tap, 12 feet; Pot Rock, 20 feet, and North Brother Island Reef, 16 feet.

The project of improvement adopted in 1867 provided for the removal to the depth of 26 feet, mean low water, of thr rocks and reefs that lay directly in the channel at Hell Gate, and for the construction of sea walls and dikes upon others that lay near the edge of the channel. The estimated cost of the project, revised in 1870, was $4,689,820.

Besides the obstructions before enumerated submerged rocks were known to exist at other points in the channel, such as Diamond Reet, 164 feet, mean low water, off the Battery; Coenties Reef, 14.3 feet, mean low water, off Coenties Slip; Shell Reef, 9 feet, mean low water, between Eighth and Tenth streets; Ferry Reef, 7 feet, mean low water, and Charlotte Rock, 141 feet, mean low water, opposite Thirty-fourth street; the Middle Ground, 113 feet, mean low water, off Sunken Meadow, at the entrance to Little Hell Gate, and Mid-Channel Reef, 161 feet, mean low water, at Baretto Point, opposite Rikers Island.

The project was enlarged in 1874, and the total cost estimated at $5,139,120 (Annual Report, Chief of Engineers, 1874, Part II, page 164). Besides the improvements already projected at Hell Gate, the new project provided for the construction of a riprap dike to connect the lill Rocks; sea walls upon Hog Back and Holmes Rock, and the removal to a depth of 26 feet, mean low water, of Diamond Reef, Coenties Reef, and the small rocks known as Scaly Rock, Blackwells Rock, and the Rock off Woolsey's bath house.

The project was enlarged in 1884 to provide for the removal of Pilgrim Rock, opposite Nineteenth street, to 24 feet, mean low water; again in 1689 for the removal of reef off Diamond Reef to 26 feet, mean low water, and Ferry and Charlotte Rocks opposite Thirty-fourth

street, to 26 feet mean low water, and again in 1890 for the removal of Shell Reef and Middle Ground to 18 feet, mean low water.

The amount expended up to the close of the fiscal year ending June 30, 1891, inclusive of outstanding liabilities, was $3,905,139.09. At that date Hallets Point, covering 3 acres, Way Reef, Shell Drake, Diamond Reef, North Brother Island Reef, Coenties Reef, and Scaly Rock had been removed to the depth contemplated in the project. Pilgrim Rock had been reduced to a least depth of 24 feet; Heel Tap had been broken to 26 feet and dredged to 20.5 feet, and the least depths on Frying Pan and Pot Rock were 18 feet and 22.8 feet at mean low water, respectively; Ferry Reef, off Thirty-fourth street, had been lowered from a least depth of 7.1 feet to a least depth of 19 feet, and 4,480 tons of rock had been reinoved from reef oft Diamond Reef. Flood Rock and connecting reefs, covering 9 acres, had been broken to 30 feet, and 156,504 tons of debris had been removed; the Negro Heads and Hen and Chickens and been reduced to 18 feet, mean low water, and a new 18-foot channel, 500 feet wide, had been opened across the reef. Sea walls had been built by the Government to connect Great and Little Mill Rocks, and by the city authorities on Bread and Cheese. Under contract, 3,4354 cubic yards of material and 9604 tons of bowlders had been removed from Shell Reef, off Ninth street. These results have been of the greatest value to navigation.

The amount expended during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1892, inclusive of outstanding liabilities, was $160,546.81, and was applied in removing, by hired labor, 20,872 tons of broken stone from Flood Rock, by the use of the two United States engineer dredges; in removing 1,211.2 tons of rock by use of the United States steam-drill scow from reef off Diamond Reef, completing its removal to the contemplated depth of 26 feet, mean low water; in removing 1,763 tons of rock, by use of the United States steam-drill scow and the United States engineer dredge Hell Gate from Ferry Reef, off Thirty-fourth street, reducing the least depth over it to 24 feet, mean low water; in removing, by use of the United States engineer dredge Hell Gate 158 tons of large bowlders from upper end of Shell Reef, and in removing under contract 52,8034 cubic yards of fine material and 2,507} tons of bowlders from Shell Reef, off Ninth street, and 392 cubic yards of small broken stone and 323 tons of bowlders from Middle Ground opposite Sunken Meadow. July 1, 1891, balance unexpended....

$203, 577.89 June 30, 1892, amount expended during fiscal year

137, 651. 48 July 1, 1892, balance unexpended

65, 926. 41 July 1, 1892, outstanding liabilities.

$22, 895.33 July 1, 1892, amount covered by uncompleted contracts..... 1, 357.5+

24, 252. 87 July 1, 1892, balance available

41, 673.54 Amount appropriated by act approved July 13, 1892

150,000.00 Amount available for fiscal year ending June 30, 1893.

191, 673.54 Amount (estimated) required for completion of existing project 888, 810. 67 Submitted in compliance with requirements of sections 2 of river and

harbor acts of 1866 and 1867. (See Appendix E 6.)

7. Newtown Creek, New York.-This is a tidal stream, about 4 miles long, running through the eastern part of Brooklyn, and emptying into the East River opposite Thirty-fourth street, New York City.

It had formerly a depth of 121 feet, mean low water, at the mouth, gradually decreasing to 4 feet at the head.

The original project for improvement, adopted in 1880, but modified in 1883, provided for a channel 200 feet wide and 21 to 22 feet deep, mean low water, extending from the mouth up to Vernon Avenue Bridge, and from that point up to the head of navigation on both branches, a channel decreasing from 175 feet to 100 feet in width, and from 18 feet to 10 feet in depth, at an estimated cost of $255,569.

The amount expended up to the close of the fiscal year ending June 30, 1891, inclusive of outstanding liabilities, was $136,026.07. At that date the channel from the entrance to Vernon avenue bridge was 175 feet wide at the entrance and 150 feet wide near the bridge, and 21 feet deep. The channel from Vernon Avenue Bridge to Central Oil Works was 80 feet wide and 18 feet deep; from Central Oil Works to Queens County Oil Works, 25 feet wide and 15 feet deep; from Queens County Oil Works to Penny Bridge, 25 feet wide and 12 feet deep. The channel from Maspeth avenue to Metropolitan avenue was 100 feet wide and 10 feet deep, mean low water. In the English Kills branch the channel was 100 feet wide and 10 feet deep from Nichols's Chemical Works to a point 700 feet to the eastward.

The amount expended during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1892, inclusive of outstanding liabilities, was $12,554.08, and was applied in dredging 15,648 cubic yards of material in the reach from Central Oil Works to Penny Bridge, to gain depths varying from 12 to 15 feet, mean low water. A survey made in April, 1892, shows that the depths in the various reaches have materially decreased by shoaling since work was suspended. At that date the channel from the entrance to Vernon Avenue Bridge was 175 feet wide and 18 feet deep, mean low water; the channel from Vernon Avenue Bridge to Central Oil Works was 80 feet wide and 16 feet deep; from Central Oil Works to Queens County Oil Works, 50 feet wide and 14 feet deep, and from Queens County Oil Works to Penny Bridge, 50 feet wide and 10 feet deep. The channel from Maspeth avenue to Metropolitan avenue is 100 feet wide and 9 feet deep, mean low water. In the English Kills branch the channel is 100 feet wide and 8 feet deep from Nichols's Chemical Works to a point 700 feet to the eastward.

The cause of the habitual shoalings immediately following dredging is the absence of bulkheads to confine the banks.

The existing channel is not adequate in width or depth to the de. mands of commerce, and the adopted project for improvement should be completed as early as practicable by inethods which will carry the improvement progressively from the mouth to the head of navigation. July 1, 1891, balance unexpended...

$13, 605.94 June 30, 1892, amount expended during fiscal year

12,554. 08 July 1, 1892, balance unexpended....

1, 051.86 Amount appropriated by act approved July 13, 1892.

35,000.00 Amount available for fiscal year ending June 30, 1893.

36, 051.86 Amount (estimated) required for completion of existing project.... 78,000.00 Submitted in compliance with requirements of sections 2 of river and

harbor acts of 1866 and 1867. (See Appendix E 7.)

8. Buttermilk Channel, New York Harbor.—Buttermilk Channel lies between the city of Brooklyn, N. Y., and Governors Island, New York Harbor, and was formerly obstructed at its upper end, where it joins the East River, by a shoal, over which there was a least depth of 94

feet at mean low water. The crest of this shoal lay about 800 feet distant from the line of the Brooklyn wharves.

The original project of improvement, adopted in 1881, provided for the removal to a depth of 26 feet, mean low water, of such parts of the shoal as came within 850 feet of the Brooklyn wharves, which would take off the crest of the shoal and give elsewhere a depth of not less than 15 feet, mean low water.

The estimated cost of the improvement was $210,000. In view of the increasing importance of the wharves on the Brooklyn shores and the difficulty experienced by deep-draft vessels in getting up to them by reason of this shoal, the project of improvement was modified in 1885 so as to provide for the removal of the entire shoal to a depth of 26 feet, mean low water, at an estimated additional cost of $150,000, making the total estimated cost of the project $360,000.

The amount expended to the close of the fiscal year ending June 30, 1891, inclusive of outstanding liabilities, was $321,926.56, and was applied in dredging. The shoal had been entirely removed to a depth of 26 feet, mean low water.

The amount expended during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1892, inclusive of outstanding liabilities, was $12,051.98, and was applied to payment of liabilities outstanding at the beginning of the fiscal year.

There is a balance of $24,843.25 remaining from the appropriation of September 19, 1890, available for application toward the further improvement of Buttermilk Channel by excavation from the shoal oppo. site Red Hook Point. This balance and the appropriation of $100,000 made by the river and harbor act of July 13, 1892, will be applied in widening and deepening the existing channel at the southern entrance as far as the funds available will permit. The improved depth will be 26 feet at mean low water. July 1, 1891, balance unexpended.

$36, 895. 23 June 30, 1892, amount expended during fiscal year.

12, 051.98 July 1, 1892, balance unexpended....

24, 843. 25 amount appropriated by act approved July 13, 1892..

100,000.00 Amount available for fiscal year ending June 30, 1893..

124, 843. 25 Amount (estimated) required for completion of existing project 429,000.00 Submitted in compliance with requirements of sections 2 of river and

and harbor acts of 1866 and 1867. (See Appendix E 8.)

9. Gowanus Bay, New York-Red Hook, Gowanus Creek and Bay Ridge channels.-Gowanus Bay is a part of New York Harbor, lying at the mouth of Gowanus Creek, in the southwestern part of the city of Brooklyn.

The depth of water in the channel of Gowanus Creek and Bay was originally only from 7 to 12 feet at mean low water, which was wholly insufficient for the passage of vessels employed in the commerce of the district.

The plan of improvement, adopted in 1881, provided for a depth of 18 feet to the channels in the bay leading np to the mouth of the creek on both the north and south sides, and for carrying the improveinent with the same depth up the creek to Hamilton Avenue Bridge, a distance of 1 mile.

The channel's widths were to be 200 feet, except for the last few hun. dred feet up to the bridge, in which distance the width would gradually decrease.

The estimated cost of this improvement was $192,564.90.

The project of 1881 was modified in 1888 by increasing the depth to 21 feet and the width to 400 feet, while to facilitate the handling of vessels in the contracted space near the mouth of Gowanus Creek more room was provided for by cutting away the angle on the south side at an estimated total cost of $600,000.

The amount expended on the Red Hook and Gouanus Creek channels up to June 30, 1891, inclusive of outstanding liabilities, was $155,004.99. At that date this channel, from the entrance to Erie Basin to Twentyeighth street, was 150 feet wide and 21 feet deep, mean low water; thence to the foot of Percival street, 100 feet wide and 21 feet deep, and the triangular slips at the foot of Court, Bryant, and Smith streets, had been dredged to 21 feet.

The improvement of Bay Ridge channel, extending from Twentyeighth street south and west to Sixtieth street, south shore, which, under the project of 1881 was suspended in 1884, was resumed in May, 1891, under a specific appropriation of $100,000 contained in the river and harbor act of September 19, 1890, which provided for a channel 400 feet wide and 21 feet deep. Up to June 30, 1891, the sum of $18,450.15, inclusive of outstanding liabilities, had been expended under contract. At that date the improved channel, beginning at Fortysecond street, had been carried north a distance of 1,800 feet, 30 feet wide and 21 feet deep, and south a distance of 650 feet, 35 feet wide and 21 feet deep.

The amount expended during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1892, on the Red Hook and Gowanus Creek channels, inclusive of outstanding liabilities, was $39,081.95, and was applied in removing 154,918 cubic yards of material under contract. When work was suspended, on exhaustion of appropriation, May 17, 1892, this channel, from the entrance to Erie Basin to Twenty-eighth street, was 230 feet wide and 21 feet deep, mean low water, and thence to the foot of Twenty-third street, 150 feet wide and 21 feet deep, mean low. water.

The amount expended on the Bay Ridge Channel during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1892, inclusive of outstanding liabilities, was $95,833.35, and was applied in removing 365,025 cubic yards of material under contract. When work was suspended on exhaustion of appropriation, June 18, 1892, this channel was 120 feet wide and 21 feet deep, mean low water, from Twenty-eighth street south to Thirty-ninth street; thence 90 feet wide and 21 feet deep to Sixtieth street, opposite Bay Ridge.

The beds of both channels have been lowered from 5 to 15 feet, and as the material removed has been sand, the banks, having no confining bulkheads, have correspondingly increased their slopes, causing the unstable material to slide into the channels and reduce their depths.

The channels also suffer from deposits carried down from Gowanus Canal, and from deposits brought in from outlying shoals by the waves.

These sources of degradation will be appreciably exhausted only when permanent bulkheads are built along both shores to hold the soft and unstable banks. July 1, 1891, balance unexpended

$136, 058.10 June 30, 1892, amount expended during fiscal year.

106, 878. 53 July 1, 1892, balance unexpended

29, 179,57 July 1, 1892, outstanding liabilities

28, 036. 77 July 1, 1892, balance available....

1, 112.80 Amount appropriated by act approved July 13, 18.1.3.

198, 600.00 Amount available for fiscal year ending Nume :30, 18:55

199, 712. 80

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