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2. Give a practical exposition of any parable or miracle of our Lord, or of any event in the Gospel History, such as you would address, under the form of a Bible lesson, to a class in your school.
TUESDAY, 12TH NOVEMBER.—MORNING. 1. What events in English History are associated with the following dates:
B. C. 55. A. D. 430. A. D. 827. A. D. 1066. A. D. 1346. A. D. 1534. A. D. 1547. A. D. 1558. A. D. 1649. A. D. 1660. A. D. 1689. A. D. 1714. A. D. 1775. A. D. 1793. A. D. 1815.
2. Give some particulars of the history of the Church of England under the Romans and the Saxons.
3. What elements of our existing institutions in Church and State originated with King Alfred ?
4. Relate the chief particulars of the reign of Edward
5. What were the rival claims of the Houses of York and Lancaster, and under what circumstances did Henry VII. succeed to the throne ?
6. Give the names of the sovereigns of England from the Norman Conquest, in the order of their succession.
7. How would you explain to a child what is meant by a noun, an adjective, and a pronoun ?
8. Give examples in the same sentence of an adjective used as a substantive, and a substantive as an adjective.
9. Parse the words printed in italics in question 7.
10. Give the derivations of such words as are of Latin origin in the preceding questions, and enumerate the English words derived from the Latin verb “traho.”
TUESDAY, 12th NOVEMBER.–AFTERNOON. 1. At how much per yard must linen which cost 3s. 1 d. per yard be sold to gain 16 per cent. ?
2. Find (by the rule of Practice) the cost of 695 yards of cloth at 13s. 10d. per yard.
3. Divide the product of 3 and 31's successively by their sum and difference, and prove the rules you employ.
4. How many yards of carpeting, 27 inches wide, will cover a floor 22ft. 6in. long, and 16ft. 8in. wide ?
5. What are the dimensions of the earth, and how have they been measured ?
6. Describe the geographical positions of the following countries and districts, and mention the chief towns in each :-Thibet, Burmah, Anatolia. Styria, Albania, Brandenburg, Andalusia, the Carnatic, Scinde, Nepaul, Paraguay, Guatemala, Louisiana, Massachusetts.
7. Draw a map of England, representing upon it the positions of as many of the chief towns as you can.
8. Enumerate the trees and plants known to you as inhabitants of tropical regions, and describe them.
9. Account for the eclipses of the sun and moon, explain why they do not occur every month, and state after what periods and under what circumstances the same eclipses return.
WEDNESDAY, 13th NOVEMBER. 1. Show that parallelograms upon the same base and between the same parallels are equal.
2. Explain the construction of the hydraulic ram.
3. In what time would an engine, working at 100 H. P., raise 2000 cubic feet of water from a depth of 120 fathoms ?
4. The water flows into a mine 80 fathoms in depth, at the rate of 15 cubic feet per minute, and an engine, set to work when the mine contains 2000 cubic feet of water, is observed to empty it in 2 hours, what is the horsepower of the engine?
5. There is a stream whose mean section is 5 feet by 11, through which the water passes with a mean velocity of 200 feet per minute. On this stream there is a fall of 13 feet, on which is erected a water-wheel, which yields ifths of the work done upon it by the water, what is the horse-power of the wheel?
6. The wheel in the last example is employed to work three forge-hammers, the weight of each of which is two tons,—how many lifts will it give to each per minute, each lift being two feet?
7. There are two roads leading from one town to another; the first has an ascent of 1 in 60 for 9000 feet, and then a descent of 1 in 40 for 5000 feet; the second has an ascent of 1 in 50 for 10,000 feet, and then a descent of 1 in 20 for 3000 feet,—which road is it expedient to travel with a loaded waggon, whose traction on the level is, on the first road 3'5th of the gross load, and the second azth?
8. What are the constituents of atmospheric air, and what are their respective properties?
9. Give a method of separating water into its constituent elements, and measuring them.
10. State what are the compounds of nitrogen, and show, in respect to these, the existence of the law of definite proportions.
WEDNESDAY, 13th NOVEMBER.—AFTERNOON. 1. Describe the route of a traveller from London to Rome.
2. Give some account of the natural history of the dog.
3. A ship sails from London bound to Sidney, and thence to Canton and home,—what will be her probable course and cargo, and what changes of season will she experience supposing her to commence her voyage in November?
4. What classification and what routine of instruction should
you consider most expedient, 1st, for a school of 50 boys, assembled under ordinary circumstances, in an agricultural district; 2ndly, for a school of 150 boys in a manufacturing district.
5. Solve the following equations:
6. How many acres are there in a triangular field whose sides are respectively, 6986, 4932, 8709 links.
ARITHMETIC AS A MENTAL DISCIPLINE. In recording this low standard of arithmetical knowledge, I am desirous to bear testimony to the high value which appears to me to attach to arithmetic, when rightly taught, as a branch of elementary instruction.
In exercising the reasoning faculties and forming the understanding, its functions are the same with those assigned to geometry in a higher stage of education; it is the Euclid of elementary schools. I speak not of that arithmetic which is little more than the application to useful purposes, of rules of computation, the nature and principles of which are placed beyond the intelligence of those who use them; or of that arithmetical knowledge which consists in ready-reckoning, and which contemplates no other than a commercial result.
In insisting on its value as a discipline of the youthful mind, I have in my view that simplification of it which the experience of our best elementary schools has shown to be practicable, and which from the most obvious of the combinations of number, leads the child on, step by step, to an intelligence of the most complicated, teaching it to comprehend the nature of the numerical operations which it performs, and the reasons of the rules which it uses; thus taking up an ordinary branch of routine instruction and converting it into a demonstrative science not beyond the reasoning powers of children, and to be used as an expedient in training them.
Injustice has often been done to this method of instruction by persons who, not understanding, or undervaluing its demonstrative character, have expected from it a greater facility and a greater accuracy in performing the ordinary operations of arithmetic.
This greater facility and accuracy it claims to give, but surely it would be enough that in acquiring a demonstrative character it had lost none of its technical readiness. It would be enough that children who are thinking out every operation they are called upon to perform, should perform it as readily as those by whom it is performed without any such effort.-Rev. H. Moseley.
WRITING NUMBERS FROM DICTATION. ANOTHER important point, very frequently neglected, is practice in writing numbers from dictation. In several second classes, and (in three or four cases) in first classes of National Schools, not a child was able to write from dictation such a number as “forty millions, ten thousand, one hundred and ten,” or any like number where the ciphers recur frequently. I have tried a first class in this way-dictating a number, and making the boys write it on the black board. Out of fourteen, only three wrote it correctly; and one of these, I believe, was right by accident.
A pleasing contrast to this state is afforded in schools under the management of well-trained masters. There is no branch of instruction which interests children more than arithmetic. It is pleasant to see an intelligent class formed regularly in semicircle before the black board. The master writes a question upon it, and stands by with the chalk ready for work. He acts as the hand, the class as the head and the tongue.
A boy is called
upon to state the question. All is eager silence. If he makes a mistake, a dozen right hands are raised directly, in token that their owners are ready to correct
The master nods to one; the question is rightly stated, the sum commenced, and proceeded with by each boy in turn. No step, however apparently trifling, is omitted, no line left undrawn, no word unsaid, no figure not set down and carried to its proper place; no mistake in grammar allowed; a reason is required for every part, and a proof is demanded of the whole result. The sum is quickly, quietly, and cheerfully done; and, when finished, a little buz in the class announces how perfect its attention to the work has hitherto been.Rev. F. Watkin.
SPELLING, CONNECTED with reading, it may be well to say something about spelling. It seems to be a part of instruction not sufficiently heeded; the generality of children in our