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responsibility of the ministerial office pervading the minds of so many of the unrivalled clergy of the church of England; and thus, by their sobriety and soundness of character, may they ever “cut off occasion from them which desire occasion." I am, Sir, &c., March, 1838.



SIR,--In your number for March last, your learned correspondent, Mr. Maitland, says, that he “shall be very much obliged to any body who can give him the authority, if there is any, of the statement so commonly made by protestant writers"-namely, of the title of our Lord God the pope being given by papists to that distinguished personage. Having cast my eye over your number for April

, without perceiving an answer to Mr. Maitland's inquiry, I beg your permission for referring him to Bishop Jewel's “ Defence of the Apologie of the Church of England," part v. p. 480, edit. 1611. At the same time, as attention to the subject may have been roused in some of your readers, who perhaps have not the means at hand for making the above reference, I will crave admission into your valuable pages for the following transcript.

Bishop Jewel had demanded in the Apologie,“ Which of the ancient holy fathers ever called you Lord and God ?" To which his opponent, Mr. Harding, answered, “None, that wise is, so speaketh, absolutely: nevertheless, in some certain sense, S. Clement calleth every bishop, Terrenum quendam deum, a certain earthly god, as it is written, I have said, Ye are gods," &c. This quotation from St. Clement, Bishop Jewel in the margin terms “a vaine forgery;" and thus proceeds to comment on the answer :“So that ye make not the pope an absolute God, ye thinke

ye may otherwise call him god safely, and without prejudice. A proper shift to maintaine a vaine man in the possession of his godhead.He then cites several instances of heathen kings and emperors who “entituled themselves by the name of god ;” and adds,

“ By this your so handsome distinction, M. Harding, of God absolute, and God not absolute, I see not but every of these might wel and safely have maintained his title without blame. Certainly in this arrogant vanity, scarcely any of all these was ever comparable to the pope. Pope Nicholas saith, Constat summum pontificem a pio principe Constantino Deum appellatum ; ' It is well knowen, that the pope, of the godly prince Constantine, was called God. Likewise the pope was not content to suffer one of his parasites to say unto him in the late councill of Lateran, Tu es aller Deus in terris, ' Thou art another God in earth.' Likewise Cardillus the Spaniard, in defence of the pope's late chapter at Trident, oftentimes calleth the pope, Terrenum Deum, ' an earthly god.' By the same stile and right, whereby Holophernes sometime said, Nabuchodonosor est deus terra, “Nabuchodonosor is the god of the earth,' Judith, v.

“Upon the pope's own clementines, ye shall find the matter thus taken up, and qualified with great indifferencie and modesty, and thus specially noted in the margin: Papa nec Deus est nec homo. And to leave other his like blasphemous and fond stiles, in another like gloss ye shall find it written thus, Credere Dominum Deum nostrum papam, non potuisse statuere, prout statuit, Hereticum censeretur ; To believe that our Lord God the pope might not decree, as he decreed, it were a matter of heresy.'

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Here have we found by express and plain words, even in the pope's own authenticall and allowed booke, Our Lord God the

pope. In another place, page 473 of the Defence, Bishop Jewel thus argues with his opponent:

“ But why shew yourself so squeamish, and so dangerous in these words, the pope may do whatsoever God may do. You may remember that your canonists have moved questions, whether the pope be God or no. You may remember that the pope hath suffered himself to be called God. For thus one said unto him presently before his face in the councill of Literan without rebuke, Tu es alter Deus in terris, . Thou art another God in the earth. You may remember, that the pope suffered his canonists thus to publish and to blaze his godhead to the world in printed books, Dominus Deus noster papa, 'our Lord God the pope.' Thus, and even with those selfe-same expresse words, hath it been printed often, and in sundry places; yet have I not heard of any pope that ever found fault with the printing."

Bishop Jewel gives his authorities in his margin, from which I copy the following references: “ Christop. Marcell. in Concil. Latera. sess. 4. Cardillus pro Concil. Trid. Extrav. Johan. 22. Cum inter in Glossa. Impress. Lugduni, an. 1555. Paris. an. 1513.”

In Pool's annotations on 2 Thes. ii. 4, the title, « Dominus Deus noster,” is quoted, and some others, with reference to “Concil. Later. sess. 4.” And Bishop Newton, in his “ Dissertation on St. Paul's Prophecy of the Man of Sin," also cites this and the like phrases, as being “the language even of public decretals and acts of councils ;'' giving for his authority Bishop Jewel's Apology and Defence, and Pool's Annotations. To these he adds Downham's Treatise on Antichrist, which I cannot refer to; also Barrow's Treatise of the Pope's Supremacy, in the introduction. But in this the phrase does not

In fact, the authorities both of Pool and of Bishop Newton seem to resolve themselves into those originally cited by Bishop Jewel. I am, Sir, with much respect, your faithful servant,



ANSWER TO A QUESTION OF “DAVUS." DEAR SIR,-Should you not receive any better answer to the question respecting Jerome's Version of the Psalms, which appeared in your last Number, I beg leave to inform the querist that Jerome's own account of the matter is as follows : * Yours,

H. CODDINGTON. “Quia igitur nunc cum Hebræo disputans, quædam pro domino Salvatore de Psalmis testimonia protulisti, volensque te illudere, per sermones pæne singulos asserebat non ita haberi in Hebræo ut tu de LXX interpretibus opponebas, studiosissimè postulasti, ut post Aquilam et Symmachum et Theodotionem, novam editionem Latino Sermone transferrem. Unde impulsus a te, malui te vires potius meas quam voluntatem in amicitia requirere. Certè confidenter dicam, me nihil duntaxat sententiæ de hebraicâ veritate mutasse.

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In reply to the question of “ X. Y.,” in the last number, p. 482, Archæophilus begs to state that the extracts in question were made from the “accounts of the churchwardens of the parish of Allhallows

Præf. in Psalmos ad Sophronium. Tom. vii. Ed. Colon. Agripp. MDCXVI.

Staining, in the city of London," to which, if “X. Y.” desires it, he shall have access.

But Archæophilus is sure that the only memorial of the “ vij ballyts consarneng ye rebells,” among the parochial documents, is the extract already made. See, however, Percy's Reliques, &c., vol. i. p. 285, seq. edit. 1794.

QUESTIONS. SIR,-Would you, or one of your correspondents, be kind enough to give me some information on the following subjects :

1. Does our church admit the efficacy of the baptism administered by the clergy of the established church of Scotland ?

2. Could room be found in your Journal for some hints for a be. ginner in the study of divinity, and for a list of some of the best books to begin with ?

3. Why is it that the collect for Palm Sunday says, that the reason of our Saviour's sufferings was “ that all mankind should follow the example of his great humility,” and does not give the greater reason, which is given in the sixth article-viz., " to reconcile his Father to us, and to be a sacrifice not only for original guilt, but also for actual sins of men ?" Yours, &c.

D. P.S.-I have observed that neither the Oxford Tracts, nor Mr. Russell, in his “ Judgment of the Anglican Church," has quoted

” William Lowth (the father) as upholding the use of tradition. There are some very strong remarks by him on the subject, in a little work called Directions for the Profitable Reading of the Scriptures," reprinted by Rivingtons, 1821.


The Christian Fathers of the First and Second Centuries ; their principal Remains at large ; with Selections from their other Writinys, partly in original, and partly in approved translations. By the Rev. E. Bickersteth, Rector of Watton, Herts. London: Seeleys. 1838. pp. 436.- Christian's Family

Library. This volume of the Christian's Family Library contains the first Epistle of Clement to the Corinthians, the Epistles of Ignatius and Polycarp, Justin Martyn's dialogue with Trypho the Jew, with extracts from one of his Apologies, &c., and selections from Athenagoras and Theophilus, with a short biographical notice of Tatian and Irenæus. The Epistle of Justin to Diognetus has, it is said, never before been translated, and the translation has been made by the editor, or a friend. The dialogue with Trypho is from Henry Brown's translation. It would be well to state the translation used in every instance. It cannot but be useful to bring these writings into more general circulation ; but, of course, whole treatises are always prefer

able to any selections. This volume certainly contains both ; but the writer of this notice is not aware of any particular rule on which the selections are made. He supposes it to be on the principle of taking what appears to the editor the most fitted for edification. But be the principle of the selection what it may, the dissemination of such a volume will certainly do good. And there is a passage in Mr. Bickersteth's preface which so exactly tells the good which it will do, that it is quite desirable to quote it :

“ The editor has seen, with much hope, the attention of the church re-directed to the ancient Christian fathers. Seriously differing, as he does, from the authors of the Tracts published at Oxford, and strongly protesting against many of their statements, he cordially thanks them for their noble and enlarged plan of re-editing, in so acceptable a form to the English reader, the writings of the fathers, and hails it as a token for much good. The early Christian biography of Mr. Evans, the translation of Mr. Chevallier, and the Book of the Fathers ; Mr. Faber on Justification, with the writings of Dr. Burton, Mr. Carey, and Mr. Palmer, are interesting specimens of the good that may be gained through such studies. A new translation of Eusebius' Ecclesiastical History is also publishing by Mr. Bagster. A fresh study of the early fathers is well calculated to enlarge our views and unite our hearts. There is much danger of our sinking into the narrowness and partialities of our own localities and periods. By conversing with Christians of other and earlier days and distant countries, we are much more likely to be enlarged to a fuller knowledge and proportion of divine truth, and to be raised above the minor things which have too long divided Christians of different, or of the same denominations."-p. xviii.

This passage, coming from Mr. Bickersteth, may be recommended to the attention of those who can see nothing but popery in every act of all the Oxford divines. There are, however, parts of this short preface which the writer of this notice is not quite sure that he entirely understands. The following is one :

The principle that the fathers are needful to the right interpretation of the scriptures is unsound. It is founded on the supposition that the scriptures are not light, but darkness; are not a sure guide to truth, but rather a means of error, and so directly opposes the divine testimony, Thy word is a lamp unto my feet and a light unto my path."

“ The argument, that the word of God must be first interpreted before it can be used, and that in its interpretation we must resort to the fathers, goes on the principle that the word of man interpreting, will be clearer than the word of God interpreted; that is, that man's word will be clearer than God's; a rushlight brighter than the sun !

“ All errors in interpretation arise, directly or indirectly, from another cause, clearly stated by our Lord—the wilful love of sin. This is the condemnation, that light is come into the world, and men love darkness rather than light, because their deeds are evil.”-p. xiv, xv.

Now in the second paragraph of this quotation, does Mr. Bickersteth mean to say, that all commentaries are useless and presumptuous ? If he does, it is intelligible ; but yet we know that, in the Christian Student, Mr. Bickersteth himself recommends a variety of commentaries of all kinds. Now, on this principle, it does not matter who or what the commentator is. To

go, for instance, to Patrick or Henry, to Whitby or Lowth, or Scott, is just as much to hold that “man's word will be clearer than God's, and a rushlight brighter than the sun," as an appeal to Cyprian, Augustine, or Chrysostom. Dr. O'Brien's Inaugural Lecture at Dublin, noticed in this month's Magazine, will supply some excellent suggestions on the nature of the studies requisite for understanding and illustrating the word of God.

This single specimen of the passages to which the reviewer refers must suffice : it is brought forward to shew what it is which causes a difficulty, but is not meant to disparage the rest of the volume.

pp. 54.

The Christian Priesthood and the Church of England vindicated from the

Attack of a Pamphlet entitled Via Media,' &c., in a Letter to the Author. By the Hon. and Rev. A. P. Perceval, B.C.L., one of her Majesty's Chap

lains. London : Rivingtons, and Leslie. 1838. 8vo. Tuis short pamphlet is exactly what one would expect from its anthor on such a subject-full of strong and able statements. It contains so much that will interest and instruct, that it ought to be read by all who take an interest in the subject of the authority of the priesthood,


An Introductory Lecture, delivered in the Divinity School in Trinity College,

Dublin, on the First Lecture Day of Michaelmas Term, 1837. By James Thomas O'Brien, D.D., Archbishop King's Lecturer on Divinity. Dublin :

Milikens. London : Longman and Co. 8vo. pp. 80. This address is one which, for its soundness of argument on the few points on which it touches, and for its sober and serious advice, deserves to be read by all students in divinity. It shews the necessity of steady application, and of mental culture, to the future divine; and in the conclusion, urges on each student the imperative necessity of availing himself of the season of preparation in a very earnest and forcible appeal. There is in the notes much information about the present divinity course in Dublin; and there is a very amusing extract from Professor Moses Stuart, &c. &c.

The Typical Part of our Lord's Teaching, (a Dissertation, shewing that the

Miracles of Christ were prefigurative of the system of Divine Economy which he came to introduce). By Josiah William Smith, of Trinity Hall,

Cambridge, and of Lincoln's Inn. London : Seeleys. 12mo. 1837. The object of this little treatise is explained by its title-page. Most persons will concur with Mr. Smith in the view which he takes, of the proper application of each miracle, or class of miracles : the only question which will arise between him and his reader will probably be, how far he is justified in declaring that these miracles were intended to be types of the gospel dispensation.

The following passages give Mr. Smith's definition of a type, and what he deems requisite to bring our Lord's miracles under that definition:

A type, as distinguished from a similitude, symbol, or allegory, is a real person, transaction, or thing, which, in addition to other more ostensible purposes, was designed by God to be in some respects a prefigurative representation of a future person or transaction of greater excellence."-p. 31.

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