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as it now stands, in any Greek MS. before the 15th century, nor in any Latin MS. earlier than the 9th century. It was omitted by Luther in his translation of the Bible into German.* In the translations published in the reigns of Henry VIII., Edward VI., and Elizabeth, it was printed in a different character, or included in brackets, thus [ ]. Between the years 1560 and 1580, it began to be printed as we now have it in our bibles, but by whose authority it is not known.

The other passages supposed to imply, if not to state, a Trinity in the Godhead, we intend to treat of in our next number.

BLASPHEMY.

CHRISTIANITY, as professed by Unitarians, is not blasphemy. There is not, in the whole of the orthodox vocabulary, a more undefined term. It is an expression of reproach used by bigots.

It is applied to him who dares to question the divine right of a pretended Christian priesthood, or the divine right of tithes to maintain such a priesthood. To assert that the doctrines of the Athanasian Creed are not only false but contrary to the teaching of the Scriptures, is by many held to be Blasphemy. To deny the doctrine of the divine nature of our Lord and Master, who was, as Moses foretold, made in all respects like to his brethren, is, with the advocate of a Triune God, Blasphemy. Thus it is, also, to call in question the deity of Jesus of Nazareth, who was meek and lowly of heart, and left us an example that we should follow in his steps, and the incar. ceration of Deity in a humanly and created being. To deny the death of God--the exhibition of the fountain of lifethe Creator of all things visible and invisible on the cross, suffering in body and mind all the torments of the sinful and damned, and, according to the opinion of a pious and celebrated author, more than an eternity of such torments,

* A popular summary of the arguments employed by the Professor in these letters, would, we think, be of considerable service. ED.

is sufficient to brand a man as an infidel and a blasphemer: and, to sum up all in one word in which is concentrated all that is or can be possibly conceived of evil personified-a Unitarian. That the unthinking and unlettered of the orthodox school should denounce the doctrines professed by Christian Unitarians as blasphemous, is by no means surprising, since they do as they are taught; on them we can cast the smile of pity, but that of contempt belongs to their teachers, who arrogantly style themselves their superiors ; but when men whose education has been costly, and who pride themselves with academic and cathedric honours, display gross ignorance of the real interpretation of the term, united with the absence of Christian charity, which hopeth all things, forgiveth all things, it is difficult to designate their conduct with an appropriate epithet. Surely, when reverend divines retire from their pulpits, from which they have been denouncing their fellow Christians as God-denyi apostates and blasphemers, and retire to their closets and commune with their God-surely conscience must force the crimson to their cheeks, unless they are insensible to the convictions of conscience. An excellent and learned theologian, * who was not a Unitarian, in reference to the subject under consideration, remarks

"No errors concerning the Divine perfections can be grosser than those of Polytheists or Idolators such as the ancient Pagans. Yet those errors are never in holy writ brought under the denomination of Blasphemy ; nor are those who maintain them ever styled blasphemers. Among those who are no idolators, but acknowledge the unity and spirituality of the Divine Nature (as did all the Jewish sects), it is not sufficient to constitute the crime of Blasphemy, that a man's opinions be, in their consequences, derogatory from the Divine Majesty, if they be not perceived to be so by him that holds them, and broached on purpose to diminish men's veneration of God.

“ The opinion of the Sadducees appears in effect to have detracted from the justice, the goodness, and even the power of the Deity, as their tendency was too manifest to diminish in men the fear of God, and consequently to

* Dr. Campbell, in his “ Preliminary Dissertations."

weaken their obligations to obey him. Yet neither our Saviour, nor any of the inspired writers, call them blasphemers, as these opinions did not appear to them to detract, or were advanced with the intention of detracting from the honour of God. Our Lord said to the Sadducees, 'Ye err, not knowing the Scriptures nor the power of God.'. Their adversaries, the Pharisees, though immoderately attached to their own tenets, never reproached the Sadducees as blasphemers on account of their opinions. The epithet blasphemous, or any synonimous term, is never coupled in Scripture with doctrines, thoughts, or opinions.

It is only applied to words and speeches.

A blasphemous opinion, or blasphemous doctrine, are phrases (which though familiar to us) are as unsuitable to the Scriptural idiom, as a railing opinion, or slanderous doctrine is to ours.”

“But to proceed from what is not, to what is, called Blasphemy in Scripture : the first divine law published against it, 'He that blasphemeth the Lord (or Jehovah as it is in the Hebrew) shall be put to death,' when considered, along with the incident that occasioned it, suggests a very atrocious offence in words, no less than abuse or imprecations, vented against the Deity. For in whatever the crime of the man there mentioned be interpreted, whether as committed against the true God, the God of Israel, or against any of the false Gods whom his Egyptian father worshipped, the law in the words just quoted is sufficiently explicit; and the circumstances of the story plainly show, that the words he had used were derogatory from the Godhead, and shocking to the hearers."

Blasphemy, like every other species of defamation, may proceed from ignorance combined with rashness and presumption ; but it invariably implies an expression of contempt, or detestation, and a desire of producing the same passions in others. As this conduct, however, is more heinous in the knowing than in the ignorant, there are degrees of guilt in Blasphemy. God's name is said to be blasphemed among the heathen, through the scandalous conduct of his worshippers. And when Nathan said to David, By this deed thou hast given occasion to the enemies of Jehovah to blaspheme,” his design was evidently to charge on that monarch a considerable share of the guilt of those blasphemies which his heinous transgression in the matter of Uriah would give rise among their idolatrous neighbours, for here, as in other cases, the flagrant iniquity of the servant rarely fails to bring reproach on the master, and on his service. It is a most flagitious kind of Blasphemy of which those men are guilty, who, instead of being brought to repentance by the plagues wherewith God visits them for their sins, are fired with a monstrous kind of revenge against their Maker, which they vent in vain curses and impious reproaches. Thus, in the Apocalypse, we are informed of those who blaspheme the God of Heaven because of their pains and their sores, and repented not of their deeds.

The Jews accused our Blessed Master of Blasphemy, when in curing the paralytic, he said “thy sins be forgiven thee” meaning thy disease shall leave thee. Had the Jews accused him of arrogance in the attempt to command disease to flee at his bidding, the term would have been more appropriate. Jesus, however, to show that it was arrogance, that he did not pretend to exercise a power which had not been delegated to him, asked whether it was easier to command by a word the removal of disease, or to say to the helpless paralytic, take up thy bed and walk, but that ye may know that the Son of Man really possesses this power, he said to the sick of the palsy « Rise, take up thy bed and walk.”

In the New Testament, the word Blasphemy is used to denote vile and calumnious speeches, whether uttered against God or man. The Apostles were evil spoken of, or blasphemed. If our orthodox brethren, whose mouths are filled with holy cursings and pious denunciations against Unitarians, would endeavour to gain better and more correct information respecting the religious sentiments of Unitarians, they would not vent their Godly slanders against a people who are equal in the sight of Him who knowest the inmost secrets of the hearts of his creatures.

91

A FEW WORDS ABOUT WAR.

BY JAMES HENRY, M.D., DUBLIN. Two islands lying near each other in the Atlantic Ocean, were at a remote period of time inhabited by a people who professed and believed the Christian religion. This people were taught and commanded by their pure and holy Faith, to love their enemies, to forgive injuries, to recompense good for evil, to live peaceably with all men ; and to take it for their rule of conduct always to do unto others as they would that others should do unto them. Such was the ordinance and command of their Lord, Christ Jesus, delivered to his disciples in the most earnest, affectionate, and authoritative manner; and with the awful warning, that if they did not forgive those who trespassed against

them, neither would their Heavenly Father forgive them their own trespasses.

Now the people of these two islands observed this command of their Divine Master in the following manner.

They kept an armed force by sea and land, consisting of nearly two hundred thousand fighting men, whom they sent to the north, and to the south, and to the east, and to the west, to kill, and to burn, and to destroy. And some of these men were on foot, and shot and stabbed with guns and bayonets; and others of them were on horseback, and had lances in their rests, and swords by their sides, and pistols at their saddle-bows; and if any persons escaped and fled from the foot soldiers, the horse men galloped after them, and trampled them under their horses' hoofs, and cut them to pieces with their swords, and shot them with their pistols. And those who sent out these armed men were called Christians, disciples of the meek and merciful Jesus ; and the armed men themselves were called Christians; and many of those whom they killed and destroyed were their brethren in Christ.

And the people of those islands had great guns which they called cannon, and they armed large ships

with them, and sent them to America, and to Egypt, and to Syria, and to India, and to Arabia, and to China, and to Turkey, and to France, and to Spain, and to Portugal; and they anchored them off the maritime towns of those countries, and discharged the cannon against the walls and the houses, until they battered them down. And some of

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