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limit of the property under their charge, do not know how to act in regard to their dependence upon the political government and that of the mest excellent department junta, not being at present in session to con. sult with respecting the necessary steps to be taken under such circumstances, since the regulations of said secularization neither could nor can take effect on account of the positive evils attending the fulfilment thereof, as experience itself has demonstrated, has induced this government, in consideration of the pitiful state in which said establishments at present are, to dictate these provisional regulations, which shall be observed by said administrators, who will subject themselves to the following articles:
ARTICLE 1. All persons who have acted as administrators of missions will, as soon as possible, present to the government the accounts corresponding to their administration for due inspection, excepting those persons who may have already done so.
Art. 2. The present administrators who, at the delivery of their predecessors, may have received said documents as belonging to the archives, will return them to the parties interested, who, in virtue of the foregoing article, will themselves forward them to government, they being solely responsible.
ART. 3. Said officers will likewise remit those belonging to their administration up to the end of December of last year, however long they may have been in office.
ART. 4. Said officers will remit, as soon as possible, an exact account of the debts owing by and to the missions which may at different times have been contracted.
Art. 5. Under no title or pretext whatever shall they contract debts, whatever may be the object of their inversion, nor make sales of any kind either to foreign merchants or to private persons of the country, wi.hout the previous knowledge of government, for whatever may be done to the contrary shall be null and without effect.
ART. 6. The amounts owed by the establishments to merchants and private persons cannot be paid without an express order from government, to which must likewise be sent an account of all such property of each mission as it has been customary to make such payments with.
Art. 7. Without previous permission from said government, no kind of slaughtering of cattle shall take place, except what is necessary for the maintenance of the Indians, and the ordinary consumption of the house; and even with respect to this, the persons in charge will take care that, as far as possible, no female animals be killed.
Art. 8. The traffic of mules and horses for woollen manufactures, which has hitherto been carried on in the establishments, is hereby absolutely prohibited; and in lieu thereof, the persons in charge will see that the looms are got into operation, so that the wants of Indians may thus be supplied.
ART. 9. At the end of each month, they will send to government a statement of the ingress and egress of all kinds of produce that may have been warehoused or distributed, it being understood that the Indians at all times are to be provided for in the customary manner with such productions; to which end the administrators are empowered to furnish them with those which are manufactured in the establishment.
ART. 10. The administrators will in this year proceed to construct a building, on account of the establishment, to serve them for a habitation, and they may choose the locality which they may deem most convenient, in order that they may vacate the premises which they now occupy.
Art. 11. They shall not permit any individual of those called de razon (white people) to settle themselves in the establishments while the Indians remain in community.
Art. 12. They will at an early period present a census of all the inhabitants, distinguishing their classes and ages, in order to form general statistics; and they will likewise mention those who are emancipated and established on the lands of said establishments.
ART. 13. The establishments of San Carlos, San Juan Bautista, and Sonoma are not comprehended in the orders of this regulation. The government will regulate them in a different manner; but the administrators, who at different times may have had the management of their property, will be subject to the orders contained in articles 1 and 2.
Art. 14. They will likewise remit an account of all persons employed under them, designating their monthly pay, according to the orders which may have been given, including that of the reverend padres, with the object of regulating them according to the means of each establishment; and these salaries shall not be paid now nor hereafter with selfmoving property.
Art. 15. The administrators will, under the strictest responsibility, fulfil these orders, with the understanding that, in the term of one month, they shall send the information required of them.
ART. 16. Government will continue making regulations respecting everything tending to establish the police to be observed in the establishments, and the manner to be observed in making out the accounts.
ART. 17. For the examination of these accounts, and everything thereto relating, the government will appoint a person with the character of inspector, with a competent salary, to be paid out of the funds of said establishments; and this person will establish his office where the government shall appoint, and have regulations given therefor in due time.
Instructions to be observed by Mr. W. E. Hartwell in the inspection of the
establishments of the missions of Upper California.
ARTICLE 1. It being a matter of the greatest importance that the missions be regulated as intended when I published my provisional regula. tions of the 17th of January last, you will methodize the order which you consider best adapted to obtain the monthly information required, and have the annual accounts of the missions kept; and you will instruct the administrators how they shall organize them.
ART. 2. You will, with prudence and foresight, take an exact account of the self-moving property, and all other property in hand, calculating as near as possible the number of cattle, if it cannot be exactly got at.
Art. 3. In order to examine and count said cattle, you will take along with you a person of probity and information, who will attend to this business; and you will offer him the compensation which you may deem just for his services while the inspection may last.
Art. 4. On presenting yourself at each of the establishments you will
inform the administrator of the object of your arrival, referring to him or manifesting to him the respective orders, so that there may be no legal pretext for not punctually observing them.
Art. 5. If any of the administrators of the missions should make known to you any pal pable wants which in your opinion ought to be immediately remedied, you will take the proper steps to do so, although it may be necessary to dispose of some of the produce on hand in the stores.
Art. 6. Should any of the reverend padres, or other persons employed, make any complaints to you relating to the management of the administrators, you will with due prudence make the decision which you think most just, and use your utmost endeavors to keep up harmony among all classes.
ART. 7. You will exhort the administrators to use all possible economy in the use of provisions, weekly and annual slaughtering of cattle, and crops of all kinds of eatables, in order by all these means to further the progress of these establishments.
ART. 8. You are authorized to regulate the weekly and annual slaugh. tering which it has been customary to make in the missions, taking into consideration the number of calves marked, (annually,) so that the stock of cattle may not diminish.
ART. 9. You will likewise recommend the administrators to be affable in their treatment of Indians, and that the punishment they inflict be moderate and proportioned to their state of uncivilization; and that they (the administrators) see that they frequent divine service, agreeably to the education which they have received.
Art. 10. If any of the administrators should disobey the orders of this government and not fulfil them duly, in spite of the good treatment you give them, you will inform the government by a courier, that it iiay determine what is to be done; and in case that circumstances should require it, you are authorized to suspend such officer for the time that you may consider necessary; and put the mayordomos in charge in the mean time, in order that the labors of your commission be not paralyzed; and you will likewise inform the government, in order that it may determine what may be convenient.
Art. 11. The government expects, from your zeal, that you will be diligent in your commission, collect all kinds of information, and make the necessary observations for the formation of the police regulations which were promised in those of the 17th already cited.
APPENDIX No. 18.
Regulations of Governor Alvarado respecting the missions of California,
obligations of the mayordomos, inspectors, 8c., dated March 1, 1840. Experience having proved in an undoubted manner that the missions of Upper California, for want of regulations organizing the management of the persons in charge of them, have in a short time suffered reverses and losses of great moment, the many abuses which were found to exist in the adıninistration of the property of said missions obliged this
government to issue the regulation of 17th January last year; but as it has been found that those have not been sufficient to root out the evils which are experienced, particularly on account of the high salaries with which the establishments are burdened, and which they cannot support, and being desirous to establish economy and a regular administration until the supreme government determine what it may deem proper, I publish the present regulations, which are to be strictly observed:
ARTICLE 1. The situations of administrators in the missions of Upper California are abolished, and in their stead mayordomos are established.
Art. 2. These mayordomos will receive the following salaries: Those of San Diego .and San Juan Capistrano, $180; those of Santa Barbara, San Luis Obispo, San Francisco de Asis, and San Rafael, $240; those of San Buenaventura, la Purissima, San Miguel, and San Antonio, $300; those of San Fernando and Santa Frues, $400; those of San Luis Rey and San Gabriel, $420; the one of Santa Clara, $480; and the one of San José, $600.
ART. 3. The former administrators may occupy said situations, provi, ded that they be proposed in the manner pointed out by these regulations.
Art. 4. The situation of inspector and the office established agreeable to the 17th article of the regulations of the 17th January last year, shall continue, with a salary of $3,000 per annum, and his powers will be hereafter designated.
Obligations of the mayordomos.,
Art. 5. To take care of everything relative to the advancement of the property under their charge, acting in concert with the reverend padres in the difficult cases which may occur.
Art. 6. To compel the Indians to assist in the labors of the community, chastising them moderately for the faults they may commit.
Art. 7. To see that said Indians observe the best morality in their manners, and oblige them to frequent the church at the days and hours that have been customary, in which matter the reverend padres will intervene in the manner and form determined in the instructions given by the inspector to the administrators.
ART. 8. To remit to the inspector's office a monthly account of the produce they may collect into the storehouses, and an annual one of the crops of grain, liquors, &c, and of the branding of all kinds of cattle.
ART. 9. Said account must be authorized by the reverend padres.
ART. 10. To take care that the reverend padres do not want for their necessary aliment, and furnish them with everything necessary for their personal subsistence, as likewise to vaqueros and servants, which they may request for their domestic service.
ART. 11. To provide the ecclesiastical prelates all the assistance which they may stand in need of when they make their accustomed visits to the missions through which they pass; and they are obliged under the strictest responsibility to receive them in the manner due to their dignity.
ART. 12. In the missions where the said prelates have their fixed residence, they will have the right to call upon the mayordomos at any hour when they may require them, and said mayordomos are required to present themselves to them every day at a certain hour, to know what they may require in their ministerial functions.
Art. 13. To furnish the priests of their respective missions all necessary assistance for religious worship; but in order to invest any considerable amount in this object, they will solicit the permission to do so from government through the medium of the inspector.
Art. 14. To take care that in the distribution of goods received from the respective office to the Indians, the due proportion be observed amongst the different classes and description of persons, to which end the Tererend padres shall be called to be present, and they will approve of the corresponding list of distribution.
ART. 15. To observe all the orders which they receive from the inspector's office emanating from the government, and to pay religiously all drafts addressed to them by said conduct and authorized by said government.
Art. 16. They will every three months send to the respective office a list of the goods and necessaries they may stand in greatest need of, as well for covering the nakedness of the Indians and carrying on the labor of the establishment, as to provide for the necessities of the priests and religious worship, so that comparing these requisitions with the stock on hand, the best possible remedy may be applied. They will take care to furnish the necessary means of transport and provisions to the military or private persons who may be travelling on the public service, and they will provide said necessaries as well for the before mentioned persons, as for the commandants of stations who may ask for assistance for the troops; and send in a monthly account to the inspector, that he may recover the amount from the commissariat.
Art. 18. They will likewise render assistance to all other private indi. viduals who may pass through the establishments, charging them for food and horses an amount proportioned to their means.
Art. 19. They will take care that the servants under them observe the best conduct and morality, as well as others who pass through or remain in the establishments; and in urgent cases they are authorized to take such steps as they may consider best adapted to preserve good order.
ART. 20. They may without any charge make use of the provisions produced by the establishments for their own subsistence and that of their families.
ART. 21. They may employ as many servants as they consider necessary for carrying on the work of the community, but their situations must be filled entirely by natives of the establishments themselves.
ART. 22. Said mayordomos are merely allowed to request the appointment of a clerk to carry on their correspondence with the inspector's office.
Art. 23. After the mayordomos have for one year given proofs of their activity, honesty, and good conduct in the fulfilment of their obligations, they shall be entitled (in times of little occupation) to have the government allow the Indians to render them some personal services in their private labors; but the consent of the Indians themselves must be previously obtained.
ART. 24. The mayordomos cannot make any purchase of goods from merchants, nor make any sale of the produce or manufactures of the establishments, without previous authority from government. (Second.) Dispose of the Indians in any case for the service of private persons without a positive superior order. (Third.) Make any slaughtering of cattle, ex