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MONTEREY, February 18, 1838. Let the military commandant of the frontier to the north of San Francisco report.


SENOR SUPERIOR POLITICAL CHIEF: The island of Los Angeles, mentioned in the present petition, may be granted to Don Antonio Maria Osio, as I know that he asked for it in the year 1830; but it will be well to make the provision, that when government wish to establish a fortress on the top or principal height thereof, no impediment shall be put in the way. MONTEREY, February 18, 1838.


In view of the preceding petition, the report of the military of office. I commandant of the frontier of the north of San Francisco, and all the rest which was borne in mind, to facilitate by all possible means the fartherance of the mercantile interests of our ports, as is recommended by the existing laws, I have by this decree granted to Don Antonio Maria Osio the occupation of the lands comprehended in the island called Los Angeles, situated within the port of San Francisco, that he may put it to the use which best suits him, establish a house, put on cattle, and do everything respecting the furtherance of his mercantile and agricultural interests, on condition that the government shall be allowed to establish a military fortification there whenever it may see fit.

The party interested shall present himself, with this decree, to the respective military commandancy, when it shall be recorded for the neces. sary purposes.

Given in Monterey, department of California, the 19th of February, 1838.



Juan Bautista Alvarado, governor ad interim of the department of the Californias :

Being mindful of the merits of Don Antonio Maria Osio, and having in view the order addressed to this government by the supreme government of the nation, under date of the 20th of July last, authorizing the granting of the islands adjacent to the coast of this soil to natives, I have, in virtue thereof, granted to him the one which is within the port of San Francisco, known by the name of Los Angeles, with the boundaries which it naturally has, the limits of which are therefore not pointed out, as being sufficiently known.

I consequently command that these presents serve the said Senor Osio for a title; and holding it to be firm and valid, it be recorded in the cor.

responding book, and be delivered to the party interested for his protec-
tion and further ends.
Given in Monterey on the 11th June, 1839.


Gov't Secretary.

This title has been recorded in the book of records of titles upon the adjudication of lands, on the 2d page of folio 8.



April 14, 1849. Sır: This will be handed to you by the Hon. T. Butler King, if there should be, in his opinion, occasion for so doing. The object of this let. ter is to impress upon you the desire of the President, that you should in all matters connected with Mr. King's mission aid and assist him in care rying out the views of the government, as expressed in his instructions from the Department of State, and that you should be guided by his advice and counsel in the conduct of all proper measnres within the scope of those instructions. I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

T. EWING, Secretary. ADAM JOHNSTON, Esq., Indian Agent,

Sacramento and San Joachim, California.


Office of Indian Affuirs, April 7, 1849. Sir: I have the honor to enclose, herewith, a commission constituting you Indian agent at Salt Lake, California, to include the Indians at or in the vicinity of that place, and any others that may hereafter be designated by this department.

Your compensation will be at the rate of $1,500 per annum, in full of salary and all emoluments whalever, to commence as soon after the execution of your bond as a notification can reach the person now holding, the appointment and receiving the salary, advising him of the change which has been made in the location of the agency, and of the discon. tinuance of his service and salary.

I enclose, also, the form of a bond to be executed by you, in the penal sum of $5,000, with two or more sureties, whose sufficiency must be certified by a United States district judge or district attorney:

So little is knor'n here of the condition and situation of the Indians in that region that no specific instructions relative to them can be given at present; and the department relies on you to furnish it with such statistical and other information as will give a just and full understanding of every particular relating to them-embracing the names of the tribes, their locations, the distance between the tribes, the probable extent of territory owned or claimed by each respectively, and the tenure by which they hold or claim it; their manners and habits ; their disposition and feelings towards the United States, Mexico, and whites generally, and towards each other; whether hostile or otherwise; whether the several tribes speak different languages, and, when different, the apparent analo. gies between them; and, also, what laws and regulations for their government are necessary, and how far the law regulating trade and intercourse with the Indian tribes (a copy of which I enclose) will, if extended over that country, properly apply to the Indians there, and to the trade and intercourse with ihem, and what modification, if any, will be required to produce the greatest degree of efficiency.

You are anthorized to employ one interpreter permanently, by the year, and such others, from time to time, as you may find necessary in the dis. charge of your duties. As the law limits the compensation of interpreters to $300 per annum, that amount cannot be exceeded; but, in the case of those employed temporarily, you will engage their services on the best terms you can, and employ them for as short periods and as seldom as possible consistent with a proper discharge of your duties. You will be allowed a horse for yourself and one for your interpreter, to be held as public property, and accounted for as such.

As you will doubtless avail yourself of the military escort which will leave St. Louis shortly, funds will be placed in the hands of the superintendent of Indian affairs at that place, to be turned over to you.

The remote position of the scene of your operations has induced the Secretary of the Interior to authorize an advance of one year's salary to yourself and your interpreter, together with other sums for other objects, as follows, viz: One year's salary for yourself

$1,500 Do do for interpreter

300 Pay of additional interpreter

200 Contingent expenses, including presents to Indians, purchase

of two horses, forage for the same, house rent, fuel, stationery, collection of statistical information, together with your travellirg expenses to your agency



It has been represented to this department that there is a Mexican boy in captivity among the Indians; either in New Mexico or California, and for whose release the Mexican minister has made a denuand on this, government; but as the department is as yet unacquainted with the par.. ticulars of the case, it will be made the subject of a special communication to you as soon as they can be ascertained.

After obtaining all the information you can collect, with regard to any captives, you will report their names, ages, whether they are Mexicans or Americans, the length of time they have been held in captivity; and if they are Mexicans, whether they were taken prior to the termination of the war and treaty with Mexico, or subsequently.

In dispensing presents to the Indians you will be as economical as

possible, and confine the disposition of them to cases where some important end is to be accomplished.

You will report direct 10 this office, and will lose no opportunity of doing so, as it is extremely desirable that the department be kept well advised of the state of affairs in that region.

I enclose blank forms to guide you in rendering your accounts, which must be done quarter-yearly, or as nearly so as possible.

In rendering your accounts you will accouni for the money placed in your hands under the following heads of appropriation, viz: Pay of superintendents and Indian agents

$1,500 Pay of interpreters

500 Contingencies, Indian department



Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

W. MEDILL. John Wilson, Esq., Indian Agent, Salt Lake, California.

P.S. I enclose a copy of the late treaty with Mexico, and also copies of the reports of Messrs. Fréinont, Emory, Abert, and Cook.

W. M.


OR COLORADO RIVER, August 22, 1849. Sır: We arrived here yesterday. Messrs. Vasques and Bridger are the proprietors, and have resided here and in these mountains for more than 25 years. They are engaged as traders, belonging to the American Pur Company. They are gentlemen of integrity and intelligence, and can be fully relied on in relation to any statement they make in regard to the different tribes, claims, boundaries, and other information in relation to the Utah and Sho-sho-nie tribes and a small hand of Pupnacks, as they have during all their residence been engaged in trade with them.

Among the Sho-sho-nies there are only two bands, properly speaking. The principal or better portion are called Sho sho nies, (or Shakes) who are rich enough to own horses. The others, the Sho-sho-coes, (or Walkers) are those who cannot or do not own horses. The principal chiefs of the Sho-sho-nies are Mono, (about 45 years old) so called from a wound in his face or cheek, from a ball, that disfigures him; Wiskin, (Cut-hair) Washikick, (Gourd Rattle) with whom I have had an interview ; and Vapiche, (Big man.) of the Sho-sho-coes, Augutasipa is the most noted.

Both bands number, probably, over 1,000 lodges of four persons each. Of the relative portion of each band, no definite account can be given; for so soon as a Sho-sho.nie becomes too poor or does not own a horse, he is at once called a Sho-sho-coe; but as soon as a Sho-sho.coe can or does own a borse he is again a riding Indian, and therefore a Sho-sho nie.

Their language, with the exception of some Patois differences, is said to be that of the Comanche tribe. Their claim of boundary is to the east from the Red Buttes, on the north fork of the Platte, to its head in the Park, (decayague, or Buffalo Bull Pen, in the Rocky mountains; to the south, across the mountains over to the Yom-pa-pa, till it enters Green or Colorado river, and then across to the Back-Bone, or ridge of mountains called the Bear River mountains, running nearly due west towards the Salt Lake, so as to take in most of the Salt Lake; and thence on to the Sinks ot Mary's ɔr Humboldt's river; thence north to the fisheries on the Snake river in Oregon, and thence south (their northern boundary) to the Red Buttes, including the sources of Green river-a territory probably 300 miles square, most of which has too high an elevation ever to be useful for cultivation of any sort. In most of these mountains and valleys it freezes every night in the year, and is in summer quite warm at nion and to half-past three p. m. Noihing whatever will grow of grain or vegetables, but the most luxurious and nutritious grasses grow with the greatest luxuriance, and the valleys are the richest meadows. The part of the Salt Lake valley included in this boundary, the Cache valley, 50 by 100 miles, and part of the valley near and beyond Fort Hall, down Snake river, can be cultivated, and with good results; but this forms a very small part of this country. How these people are to live or ever exist for any great length of time, I cannot by any means determine,

Their support has heretofore been mosily game and certain roots, which, in their native state, are rank poison, (called the tobacco root,) but when put in a hole in the ground and a large fire burnt over them, become wholesome diet. The Mormon settlement in the Salt Lake valley has not only greaily diminished their formerly very great resource of obtain. ing fish out of the Utah lake and its sources, which to them was an important resource, but their settlement, with the great emigration there and to California, has already nearly driven away all the game, and will, unquestionably, soon deprive them almost entirely of the only chances they have for food. This will in a few years produce a result not only disastrous to them, but must inevitably engage the sympathies of the nation. How this is to be avoided is a question of much difficulty, but it is nevertheless the more imperative on the government not only to discuss but to put in practice some mode of relief for these unfortunate people, the outside barriers or enclosing mountains of whose whole country are not only covered in their constant sight with perpetual snow, but in whose lodges every night in the year ice is made, over water left in a basin, of near seveneighths of an inch in thickness. Except in three small places already Dained as exceptions, and two others, the Salt Lake valley and Snake river are already taken from them by the whites, and there is but little doubt the Cuche valley will soon be so occupied.

The Ulghs probably amount to from two to three thousand lodges, and are divided into many bands—as the Taus, 300 lodges; Yom-pa-pa Uiahs, 500 lodges; Ewinte, 50 lodges ; Ten.penny Utahs, 50 lodges, (ihis band are about all who reside in the Salt Lake valley ;) Pavant Ulahs, not estimated. Pahnutes (or Paynutes) Utahs and the Sanpiche Utahs of thesa last bands, numbers not known. Their claim of boundaries is all south of that of the Sho-sho-nies, embracing the waters of the Colorado, going most probably to the gulf of California.

This is a much more fortunate location, and large portions of it are rich and fertile lands and a good climate. Their language is essentially Comanche; and alıhough not, technically, yet it supposed to be substantially the same as that of the Sho sho nies; for although, on first meeting,

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