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they do not fully understand each other, yet I am informed four or five days' association enables them to converse freely together. Some of the people are already engaged in the cultivation of the soil, and large tracts of the country afford ample rewards to those who thus expend the sweat of their brow. Portions of these bands have always been at war with the Mexicans, constantly making inroads into New Mexico and California to steal horses. Portions of them are at present at variance with the Shosho-nies; and, indeed, the manners and customs of the Yom pa-pas ren. der an association on the part of the whites with them dangerous, for should one be found amongst them when a sudden death, from either accident or common sickness, takes place amongst them, the relatives of the dead man are at liberty, and are sure to exercise it, of killing any stranger who may happen to be amongst them. Thus, until this custom is abandoned, no safe intercourse can be carried on with them. Their country being more south and out of the range of white settlements or emigrants, the game is not likely to be so scarce for many years to come as it is in the Sho-sho.nie country even now, for already it has nearly all left their boundaries, except a small corner in the northeast corner of their claim; and as they are at war with the Utahs, near whose lines it is, they are afraid to go there to hunt.

Supposing the government will be prepared next summer to take some decided steps towards a regular system of intercourse with them, and with a view of enabling the government as effectually as possible to guard against the unfortunate results in operation for their entire starvation, a few only of which I have mentioned, for want of time, I have concluded to so arrange matters hefore I leave that both these nations will be able to send large delegations, if not most of the principal bands of their tribes, to a great council to be held here next summer, being by far the most con. venient place for such a council, but is also where the principal agency ought to be established; and here also ought to be established ihe leading military post of these mountains, for which hereafter I shall give my views more at large.

I have suggested the matter of the great council to Washikick, the only principal chief I have seen, and he highly approves of the plan. I have already made such arrangements, through the assistance of Mr. Vasques, (Mr. Bridger not being at home) that all of both tribes will be notified of my design to hold such a council; and as soon as I shall hear your pleasure on the subject, which I hope will be at an early day after I get to San Francisco, in November, I will then fix a time which will best suit the views of the depariment, (if it shall meet with your approbation, as I hope it will,) and will then cause them to be notified of the day, which must, of necessity, not be later than August, and not earlier than July, as any other month would not be convenient for them to attend. The Sho-sho-nies are reputed an honest and sober people, decidedly.friendly to the whiles; and if proper agents are kept among them, they will be easily managed, if a fair support can be provided for them. Some of the objects which I have supposed might be gained by such a council, you will easily perceive froni what I have said above; and many others of perhaps equal importance may also be accomplished. It is of great importarice that these Utahs should be laid under obligations to cease their accustomed depredations on the whites and their property; and it is of greater importance to adopt some mode or other to save the Snakes from utter destitution, which, in a year or two, must inevitably take place if things remain as they now are.

I write this in great haste; and, having broken my spectacles, I have to go it blind nearly. This, with the shortness of my stay here, is my excusę for not writing more; but I have touched on all the subjects most important at the present moment. When I get to Salt Lake, I shall have more time and better eyes, and will go more into detail; till when I remain your obedient servant,

JOHN WILSON. Hon. T. EWING,

Secretary of the Department of the Interior.

DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR,

Office Indian Affairs, April 14, 1849. Sir: I have the honor to enclose herewith an appointment for you as sub-Indian agent on the Sacramento and San Joachim rivers, in California, to include the Indians at or in the vicinity of those places, and any other that may hereafter be designated by this department. Your com. pensation will be at the rate of $750 per annum, to be in full for pay and all emoluments whatsoever. You will execute a bond in the penal sum of $2,000, with two or more sureries, whose sufficiency must be certified by a United States district judge or district attorney.

So liule is known here of the condition and situation of the Indians in that region, that no specific instructions relative to them can be given at present; and the department relies on you to furnish it with such statisti. cal and other information as will give a just understanding of every particular relating to them, embracing the names of the tribes; their location; the probable extent of territory owned or claimed by each respectively; the ienure by which they clain it; their manners, habits, disposition, and feelings towards the United States and whites generally, and towards each other; whether hostile or otherwise ; whether the tribes speak different languages; and where different, the apparent analogies between them; and also what laws and regulations for their government are ne. cessary, and how far the law regulating trade and intercourse with the Indian tribes (a copy of which I enclose) will, if extended to that country, properly apply to the Indians there, and to the trade and intercourse with them; and what modification, if any, will be required to produce the greatest degree of efficiency.

You are authorized to employ one or more interpreters—not exceeding more than one at the same time, unless otherwise absolutely necessary -to aid you in the discharge of your duties, whose compensation, if employed by the year, will be at the rate of $300 per annuin. It is very desirable that the greatest economy shall be observed ; and it is therefore hoped that the employment of one permanent interpreter will be sufficient, and that the services of any others will be but temporary, and for as short periods as possible consistent with a proper discharge of your duties.

You will report direc: to this office, and will lose no opporunity of doing so, as it is extremely desirable that the department be kept well advised of the state of affairs in that regiou.

It is probable you will wish to avail yourself of the military escort about

to leave St. Louis, and funds will therefore be placed in the hands of the superintendent at that place, to be turned over to you as follows: One year's salary for self .

$750 One year's salary for interpreter

300 Pay of interpreter temporarily employed

100 Contingent expenses, including presents to Indians; purchase of

two horses for yourself and your interpreter; collection of statistical information; forage for horses; house rent, fuel, stationery, &c., together with your travelling expenses

1,200

2,350

You are authorized to purchase two horses, one for yourself and one for your interpreter, for which you will be held accountable as public property. In making presents to Indians, you will be as economical as pos. sible, and confine yourself to such cases only as will effect some important object. It is supposed that there are captives or prisoners—either Mexicans or Americans-among some of the Indians of California or New Mexico. If you should find such to be the case among the Indians of your subagency, you will demand and endeavor to procure their release and surrender, whether Americans or Mexicans; but it must, if possible, be done without any compensation whatever, as to make compensation would but encourage a continuance of the practice of making captives; and any demand must be made under circumstances not calculated to produce mischief or hostile feelings on the part of the Indians.

I enclose blank forms to guide you in rendering your accounts, which must be done quarter-yearly, or as nearly so as possible. In rendering your accounts, you will account for the money placed in your hands under the following heads of appropriation, viz: Pay of sub-agents Pay of interpreters Contingencies Indian department

$750

400 1,200

2,350

I also herewith enclose a copy of the late treaty with Mexico; and also copies of the reports of Messrs. Frémont, Emory, Abert, and Cook, which you will find useful to you. Respectfully, your obedient servant,

W. MEDILL. ADAM JOHNSTON, Esq., Present.

DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR,

Office Indian Affairs, May 2, 1849. Sır: Your bond as sub Indian agent, transmitted with your letter of the — ultimo, has received the approval of the Secretary of the Interior. Respectfully, your obedient servant,

W. MEDILL. ADAM JOHNSTON, Esq.,

Sub-Indian Agent, St. Louis, Mo.

DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR,

Office Indian Affairs, November 24, 1849. Sir: The Secretary of the Interior has directed ihat two sub-agencies be formed out of the one now held by you, and has appointed John A. Sutter, Esq., of California, sub-agent for all the Indians on the Sacramento river—your own to be confined to those in the valley of San Joa. chim. Mr. Sutter's commission has been forwarded to him, and he has been requested to communicate with you as to the dividing line between your agencies, so that the relative boundaries may be perfectly understood between you. Respectfully, your obedient servant,

ORLANDO BROWN. ADAM JOHNSTON, Esq.,

San Francisco, California.

DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR,

Office Indian Affairs, November 24, 1849. Sir: I enclose you a number of circulars requiring to be filled up for the tribes of Indians under your care, and will ihank you for the replies.

I also transmit you a copy of a bibliographical catalogue, by which you will perceive that this office is desirous of obtaining copies of any publication in the Indian languages, or upon their principle. Respectfully, your obedient servant,

ORLANDO BROWN. ADAM JOHNSTON, Esq.,

Sacramento, California. Same to John A. SUTTER,

California.

DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR,

Office Indian Affairs, November 24, 1849. Sir: I have the honor to enclose herewith a commission consti. tuting you sub-Indian agent on the Sacramento river in California, to include the Indians there or in the vicinity thereof, and any others that may hereafter be designated by this department.

Your compensation will be at the rate of $750 per annum; to be in full for pay and all emoluments whatsoever.

You will execute a bond in the penal sum of $2,000, with two or more sureties, whose sufficiency must be certified by a district judge or United States attorney, or by the commandant of a military post.

This sub-agency lately included the valley of the San Joachim, but is now separated, and two distinct sub-agencies formed out of it; the one on the Sacramento to be held by you, and that on the San Joachim by the present incumbent, Adam Johnston, esq. It would be well for you to communicate with Mr. Johnston, and have an understanding as to the relative boundaries of separation between the two.

Very little is known here of the condition, situation, and locality of

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these Indians, and the department looks to you to furnish it with such statistical and other information as will give every particular relating to them, embracing the names of the tribes; their location; the probable extent of country owned by each respectively; the tenure by which they claim it; their manners, habits, disposition towards the United States and whites generally, and towards each other, whether hostile or otherwise ; whether the tribes speais different languages, and where different, the apparent analogies between them; and also what laws and regulations for their government are necessary, and how far the law regulating trade and intercourse with the Indian tribes (a copy of which I enclose) will, if extended to that country, properly apply to the Indians there, and to trade and intercourse with them; and what modification, if any, will be required to produce the greatest degree of efficiency.

You are authorized to employ one or more interpreters, but it is sup. posed more than one will not be required at any one time, and no more should be employed unless it is absolutely necessary to aid you in the discharge of your duties. The compensation of the interpreter, if em. ployed by the year, will be at the rate of $300 per annum; but where employed temporarily, you will procure their services on the best terms you can, and for the shortest possible periods.

You are authorized to purchase two horses, one for your own use and one for the use of your interpreter, for which you will be held account: able as public property. Two hundred dollars will be allowed for this object.

The sum of three hundred dollars per annum will be allowed you for contingent expenses and such small presents as you may from time to time find it proper to make, but in these you will confine yourself to cases where some object is to be effected of importance to the government or to the Indians.

As the country of California is under military law, it will be proper for you to confer with the military governor or the commandants of the military posts in your vicinity, and obtain their co operation in all cases where you find assistance necessary either in obtaining the restitution of captives among the Indians, whether Americans or Mexicans, or in any other manner. There being no appropriation out of which payment can be made for the restoration of captives, of course you will incur no expense on that account.

I enclose blank forms to guide you in rendering your accounts, which must be done quarter yearly, or as nearly so as possible.

You are authorized to draw for the following sums, after your bond shall have been approved, and will account for them under the following heads of appropriation: Pay of sub agents one year

$750 00 Pay of interpreters one year

400 00 Contingencies, to include purchase of two horses and presents 500 00

1,650 00

Respectfully, your obedient servant,

ORLANDO BROWN.

John A. SUTTER, Esq.,

San Francisco, California.

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