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differed greatly as to the longevity of this often, lapping like a dog; but in this proanimal. Buffon stated it to be from 20 to cess his tongue is bent downward: his 22 years; but it far exceeds this, as the breath is very offensive, and the odor of one in the Tower of London, which died his urine insupportable. There is some in 1760, lived in captivity above 70 years; variation, in the lions of different countries and another died in the same place, at the in external appearance, though, in essenage of 63. The lioness brings forth from tial particulars, their habits are identical. three to four at a birth. The cubs, when The Asiatic variety seldom attains an first born, are about the size of a small equal size with the Cape lion; its color is pug dog, and continue to suck the mother a more uniform and pale yellow, and its for about a year. At this time, their color mane fuller and more complete, and being, is a mixture of reddish and gray, with a moreover, furnished with a peculiar apnumber of brown bands. The mane of pendage of long hairs, which, commencthe male begins to make its appearance ing beneath the neck, occupy the whole when the animal is about three to three of the middle line of the body beneath. years and a half old. The male attains Even the Cape lion presents two varieties, maturity in seven, and the female in six known as the pale and the black, distinyears. The strength of the lion is pro- guished, as their appellations imply, by digious, a single stroke with his paw the lighter or darker color of their coats. being sufficient to destroy most animals. The latter of these is the larger and more The bone of the fore leg is remarkably ferocious of the two. The Barbary lion fitted to sustain the great muscular strain has the same full mane as the Asiatic, but so powerful an exertion occasions. Its exceeds him in size. The number of texture is so compact, that it will strike lions, as has been observed, has greatly fire with steel. The lurking-place of the diminished, judging from the multitudes lion is generally chosen near a spring, or spoken of by ancient writers, and those by the side of a river, where he has an carried to Rome. Thus Sylla the dictator opportunity of surprising such animals as exhibited, during his pretorship, 100 of resort to the water to quench their thirst. these animals; and Pompey presented 600 Here he lies in wait, crouched in some in the circus. Lion-fights were common thicket, till his prey approaches, and then, under the consulate, and during the emwith a prodigious leap, seizes it at the first pire. Adrian, it is said, often caused 100 bound; if, however, unsuccessful in this, to be destroyed at one exhibition; and he immediately retires to wait another Antoninus Pius and Marcus Aurelius opportunity. In the night, more particu- were equally prodigal in gratifying the larly, the lion prowls abroad in search of people. At the cape of Good Hope, lions his prey, the conformation of his eyes are hunted, not only for the purpose of being, like those of the common cat, well extermination, but also for their skins. fitted for seeing in a dim light. The roar In the day time, and in an open country, of the lion is loud and terrific, especially from 10 to 16 dogs will easily overcome a when heard in the solitary wilds he in- lion of the largest size; nor does there habits: this roar is his natural voice; for, appear to be any necessity that the dogs when enraged, he utters a short and sud- should be very large; as he is less swift denly-repeated cry, whilst the roar is a than these animals, they readily overtake prolonged effort, a kind of deep-toned him, on which the lion turns round, and grumbling, mixed with a sharp, vibrating waits for the attack, shaking his mane, noise. It has been usually stated, that the and roaring in a short and sharp tone, or lion had constant and stated times for sits down on his haunches to face them. roaring, especially when in captivity; but The dogs then surround him, and, simulthis has been shown to be erroneous in taneously rushing upon him, subdue him some degree. It appears, however, that, by their united efforts, though not before in summer time, and especially before at- he has destroyed several of them. But mospheric changes, he uniformly com- the mode of destroying them, usual among mences about dawn; at no other time is the Bushmen, is by shooting them, either there any regularity in his roar. When with fire-arms or poisoned arrows. The enraged, his cry is still more appalling inhabitants know that the lion generally than his roar; he then beats his sides with kills and devours his prey at sunrise and his tail, agitates his mane, moves the skin sunset. On this account, therefore, when of his face and his shaggy eyebrows, they intend to hunt them, they notice thrusts out his tongue, and protrudes his where the antelopes are feeding at daydreadful claws. The lion requires about break: if they perceive that these animals 15 pounds of raw flesh a day; he drinks are alarmed, they conclude that they have


been attacked by a lion. Marking the spot whence the alarm took place, about mid-day, when the sun is very powerful, and the object of their attack asleep, they carefully examine the ground, and, if they find him, they lodge a bullet or poisoned arrow in him. Sometimes, however, he is fairly brought to bay in the day time, by the hunter, as the following account from Pringle testifies. After his retreat is found, "the approved plan is to torment him with dogs till he abandons his covert, and stands at bay in the open plain. The whole band of hunters then march forward together, and fire deliberately, one by one. If he does not speedily fall, but grows angry, and turns upon his enemies, they must then stand close in a circle, and turn their horses' rear outward, some holding them fast by the bridles, while the others kneel to take a steady aim at the lion as he approaches, sometimes up to the very horses' heels, crouching every now and then, as if to measure the distance and strength of his enemies. This is the moment to shoot him fairly in the forehead, or some other mortal part. If they continue to wound him ineffectually, till he becomes furious and desperate, or if the horses, startled by his terrific roar, grow frantic with terror, and burst loose, the business becomes rather serious, and may end in mischief, especially if all the party are not men of courage, coolness and experience." Very full accounts of the lion and his habits are to be found in the travels of Sparmann, Barlow, Levaillant, Burchell, &c., in Southern Africa, and also in the Library of Entertaining Knowledge, and the Tower Menagerie, from which the above account has been condensed.

LION'S GULF. This is the proper spelling of the gulf generally called Gulf of Lyons. The name is derived from lion, on account of the fierceness of the gales, at some seasons, in this gulf. The proper mode of writing it in French is Golfe du Lion. (See Lyons, Gulf of.)

LION'S SHARE; the whole, or a disproportionate share of the advantages of a contract, claimed by one of the parties, and supported by the right of the strongest. The phrase is derived from a fable of Esop.

LIPANO, COUNTESS OF (Caroline Annunziada); the widow of Murat (q. v.), and the sister of Napoleon. She became grand-duchess of Berg, and queen of Naples. She was born March 26, 1782.

LIPARI; a cluster of volcanic islands

in the Mediterranean, which take their name from the principal one of the group, about 24 miles from the north coast of Sicily. Lon. 15° 12′ E.; lat. 38° 34′ E.; population, about 20,000. These islands were called, by the ancients, Eolia, Vulcania, and Insula Liparæorum, and feigned to be the residence of Eolus and Vulcan. Lipari, the largest, is populous and well cultivated, producing great quantities of corn and fruit, especially figs and raisins; it likewise produces alum, sulphur, nitre and cinnabar. It is about 15 miles in circumference; the air is healthy, and the inhabitants industrious and good seamen. On the eastern coast is situated a town of the same name. In this island were formerly pits, which emitted fire and smoke, but have long ceased to do either. Population, 15,000; square miles, 100. The other islands are Stromboli, Panaria, Vulcano, Salini, Alicudi and Felicudi, with two or three smaller ones. The volcanic eruptions, formerly frequent in the island of Lipari, ceased in the sixth century, but the whole island is composed of pumicestone, lava, volcanic glass, and black sand; and the warm baths, and heated vapors of the Stoves (excavations which emit hot, sulphureous exhalations), prove the activity of the subterranean fires. The celebrated crater of Vulcano was visited by general Cockburn in 1812 (Voyage to Cadiz); the volcano is probably only slumbering, and not extinct. Stromboli is at present the most remarkable of the islands; its fires are in unremitting activity, the eruptions taking place at regular intervals, varying from three to eight minutes. (See the works of Dolomieu, Spallanzani, Brydone, &c.)

LIPINSKI, Charles, one of the greatest violinists, was born in 1790, at Radeyn, Poland. His father gave him his first instruction in music. In 1810, he was appointed director of music at the German theatre in Lemberg, and gave up the violoncello, till then his chief instrument, and devoted himself more to the violin. In 1814, he was so attracted by Spohr's playing, that he resigned his place, in order to have leisure for practising that artist's manner. He remained in his native country until 1817, when he went to Italy to hear the celebrated Paganini. (q. v.) In Piacenza, he played with him in a concert. Since that time, he has travelled in Russia, Germany and France. His style inclines to the elevated.

LIPOGRAMMATIC COMPOSITIONS; those in which certain letters are purposely left out. Thus Lope de Vega wrote a



novella without or a. Kotzebue wrote one without r. The word is derived from the Greek Ana (signifying to omit, and used in many compound words), and γραμμα (letter). Lippe. The ancient principality of Lippe is, at present, divided between two reigning houses: 1. Lippe-Detmold contains about 490 square miles, with 71,200 inhabitants. Detmold, with 2700 inhabitants, is the capital. Public revenue, 490,000 guilders. The prince furnishes a contingent of 600 men to the German confederacy. The constitution granted by the mother of the present prince to the country is still suspended, because the nobility will not allow the peasants to be represented. 2. Schauenburg-Lippe. The dominions of the prince of Lippe-Bückeburg-Schauenburg contain 212 square miles, with 25,500 inhabitants; revenue, 215,000 guilders; contingent to the Germanic confederation, 240 men. Bückeburg, the capital, is on the river Au. In 1810, the prince abolished the last traces of bondage, and, Jan. 15, 1816, established a constitution.

LIPPI. There were three Florentine artists of this name. Of these, the eldest, Francesco Filippo, born in 1421, and surnamed the Old, had taken the vows as a Carmelite monk, but afterwards abandoned the church, and underwent many vicissitudes of fortune. On one occasion, he fell into the hands of a Barbary corsair, who sold him to slavery in Africa. The successful exertion of his talents, upon the portrait of his purchaser, was rewarded by his restoration to liberty. On his return to Italy, he was received into the service of the grand-duke of Florence. His death took place in 1488; and, although he was then 67, it is said to have been the result of an intrigue with a female of a respectable family, poison being employed by her relatives for his destruction.-He left one son, Filippo, also a painter of considerable reputation, born in 1460. Many of his works are yet to be found in the city of which he was a native. He died in 1505.-Lorenzo, the third of the name, descended of the same family, united to considerable skill as a historical and portrait painter the arts of poetry and music. He was born in 1606, and is advantageously known as the author of a burlesque poem, entitled Malmantile Racquistato. Of this work there have been three editions; two printed at Florence, in 1688 and 1731, the other, in 1768, at Paris. It appeared originally under the fictitious name of Zipoli. His death took place in 1664.

LIPSIUS, Justus; an acute critic and erudite scholar of the sixteenth century, born at Overysche, in Brabant, a village situated between Brussels and Louvain, in October, 1547. Martinus Lipsius, the intimate friend of Erasmus, was his uncle. His genius developed itself very early, his memory being considered wonderful. Before he had completed his ninth year, he had written some miscellaneous poetry, much above mediocrity. He was instructed at Brussels, and, subsequently, in the colleges of Eth, Cologne and Louvain. He removed to Rome in his 20th year, and, having secured the patronage of cardinal Granvella, by dedicating to him his treatise Variarum Lectionum, was received into his household, in the nominal capacity of secretary. With this distinguished prelate he remained till 1569, sedulously consulting the treasures of the Vatican, and other principal libraries, especially employing himself in the collation of rare and ancient manuscripts. On his return to the Netherlands, after a short time spent at Louvain, he visited the capital of the German empire, and then accepted a professorship in the university of Jena. Here the fickleness of his disposition, and the vacillating state of his opinions respecting religious matters, which eventually fixed the imputation of imbecility on a character in other respects estimable, first became apparent. He renounced the Romish church, and became a Lutheran; but, quitting Jena, at length, with an avowed intention of spending the remainder of his life in retirement in his native country, he repaired to Overysche, and, soon after, recanted his supposed errors, and became reconciled to the see of Rome. In 1577, however, he again removed to Leyden, when he embraced the doctrines of Calvin, and, during the 13 years which he spent in that university, gave to the world the most esteemed of his works. In 1590, he returned finally to Louvain, and once more became a Catholic, and that of the most bigoted description. Many tempting and honorable offers were made him by various potentates, to engage him in their service; but he refused them all; and, at length, died at Louvain, in the spring of 1606. Superstition led him, a short time before his death, to dedicate a silver pen, and his fur gown, to the virgin Mary. His principal works are the Varia Lectiones above-mentioned; an excellent Commentary on the Works of Tacitus; treatises De Constantia; De Militia Romana; De Amphitheatris; De Pronuntiatione recta Linguæ Latinæ ; De Cruce;


De una Religione; De Bibliothecis; Satira Menippaa; Saturnalia; and an Oration on the Death of the Duke of Saxony. The best edition of them is that printed at Antwerp, in 1637.

LIQUEUR (from the French); a palatable spirituous drink, composed of water, alcohol, sugar, and some aromatic infusion, extracted from fruits, seeds, &c. The great difference in the qualities of the different liqueurs is owing principally to a variation in the proportions of the sugar and alcohol. The French distinguish three qualities: the first are the ratafias, or simple liqueurs, in which the sugar, the alcohol and the aromatic substance are in small quantities: such are the anise-water (q. v.), noyau, the apricot, cherry, &c. ratafias. The second are the oils, or the fine liqueurs, with more saccharine and spirituous, matter; as the anisette, curaçao, &c., which are those commonly found in the cafés. The third are the creams, or superfine liqueurs, such as rosoglio, maraschino, Dantzic water, &c. The same aromatic infusion may, therefore, give its name to liqueurs of different qualities, in which the materials are the same, but the proportions different: thus one proportion of ingredients gives eau-de-noyau; another, crême-de-noyau, &c.

LIQUIDAMBAR STYRACIFLUA, or SWEET GUM. This tree is widely diffused through the U. States, from lat. 43° to Florida, and along the shores of the gulf into the provinces of Mexico. The leaves, which somewhat resemble those of some maples, are very regularly five-lobed, and the lobes are serrated on the margin. The flowers are inconspicuous. The fruit consists of a sort of bur, supported on a long pedicle, and is somewhat similar to that of the button-wood, or plane-tree, but is much less even, on the surface. It is abundant every where throughout the Middle, Southern, and Western States, and sometimes has a trunk five feet in diameter, with a proportional summit. The usual diameter, however, is from one to three feet. The wood is compact, capable of receiving a fine polish, and has been used for articles of furniture; but, for this purpose, it is inferior to either the wild cherry or black walnut. It is, however, employed for lining mahogany, for bedsteads, and for a variety of purposes in the interior of houses, possessing great strength, but requiring protection from the weather. The bark, on being wounded, yields a small quantity of a fragrant resin. This tree is, however, inferior, in useful


properties, to many others which inhabit our forests.

LIQUORICE (glycyrhiza); a genus of leguminous plants, containing eight spe-, cies, one of which is a native of North America, and the others are confined to the northern and temperate parts of the eastern continent. They have pinnated leaves, and small, blue, violet, or white flowers, which are disposed in heads or spikes, and are remarkable for the sweetness of the roots. The common liquorice (G. glabra) grows wild in the south of Europe, and is cultivated in many places, even in England, for the sake of the root, which is much used in pharmacy, and forms a considerable article of commerce. More than 200 tons of the extract are manufactured annually in Spain, a considerable portion of which is sent to London, and employed in the brewing of porter. It is often administered medicinally, in coughs and pulmonary affections, and the aqueous infusion is exposed for sale in all the European cities, as a refreshing beverage. A deep, light and sandy soil is best adapted to its culture. The American species (G. lepidota) inhabits the plains of the Missouri, from St. Louis upwards, extending even to the borders of the Pacific, but is not found in the Atlantic states.

LIRIODENDRON. (See Tulip-Tree.)

LISBON (Lisboa), the chief city of Portugal, and the residence of the court, in the province of Estremadura, on the right bank of the Tagus, which is here a mile and a half in width, and not far from the mouth of the river, is built on three hills, in a romantic country, and exhibits a grand appearance from the harbor. Including the suburbs Junqueira and Alcantara, it is about five miles in length, and a mile and a half in breadth. It contains 40 parish churches, 75 convents, and 100 chapels, 44,000 houses, and, before 1807, had 300,000 inhabitants, but, at present, has not more than 200,000, among whom are many foreigners, Negroes, Mulattoes, Creoles, and 30,000 Galicians, who come from Spanish Galicia, and serve as porters and water carriers, and perform other menial occupations. The town is open, without walls or gates. The highest hill only has a castle, now in ruins; but the harbor is beautiful, capacious and safe, and is defended by four strong forts on the banks of the river (St. Juliana, St. Bugio, the tower of Belem, &c.). Many of the streets are very uneven, on account of the hilly situation of the city. The finest are on the banks of the river. There are no elegant private buildings.

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The houses of the nobility are distinguished only by their size. The western part has been beautifully rebuilt since the dreadful earthquake (Nov. 1, 1755) which destroyed half of the city, with the loss of 30,000 lives,* the streets being straight, and regularly laid out, with fine houses and squares. The eastern part of the city, which was not affected by the earthquake, has preserved its gloomy aspect-crooked streets and old-fashioned houses, six and seven stories high. Lisbon was formerly known to be extremely filthy and unsafe; but, at present, regulations have been made to provide for the public security, and the streets are well lighted. Among the squares, the principal are the Plaça do Commercio and the Rocio. They are connected by handsome, wide, straight streets. The former, on which the royal palace, now in ruins, was situated, lies on the bank of the Tagus, at the landing-place of the harbor, is an oblong square, of 615 paces in length and 550 in breadth, and is surrounded, on three sides, with fine buildings (the fourth is open towards the river). In the centre there is a bronze statue of king Joseph I. The Rocio, where the autos da fé were formerly exhibited, is a regular oblong, 1800 feet in length and 1400 in width, with the new palace of the inquisition on one side. In this square 10 streets meet. Among the churches, the new church is the finest, and is the most magnificent building erected since the earthquake. The patriarchal church, on an elevated situation, which affords a beautiful view, is magnificent in its interior, and contains rich treasures and many curiosities. The patriarch, the head of the Portuguese church, has a large annual income. The aqueduct, about seven miles in length, is a remarkable construction. The centre is so high, that a ship of the line might pass under it. The water is carried over the valley of Alcantara, on 35 marble arches. It withstood the force of the earthquake, although the keystones sunk a few inches. The St. Joseph's hospital, where 16,000 sick, and the foundling hospital, where 1600 children, are annually received, de

*The city then contained about 150,000 inhabitants. The shock was instantly followed by the fall of every church and convent, almost all the large public buildings, and more than one fourth of the houses. In about two hours after the shock, fires broke out in different quarters, and raged with such violence, for the space of

nearly three days, that the city was completely desolated. The earthquake happened on a holyday, when the churches and convents were full of people, very few of whom escaped

serve to be particularly mentioned. Among the literary institutions are the royal academy of sciences, the college of nobles, the marine academy, with other seminaries, a botanical garden, three observatories, the royal cabinet of natural curiosities, and several public libraries, among which is the royal library, containing 80,000 volumes. Lisbon is the seat of the supreme authorities, and of the patriarch of Portugal, with a numerous clergy. The inhabitants have but few manufactories: there are not even mechanics enough to supply the demands of the city. But Lisbon is the centre of Portuguese commerce, which extends to most of the countries of Europe, to the U. States, and to the Portuguese possessions in other parts of the world. There are about 240 Portuguese and 130 foreign (principally English) mercantile houses. From 1700 to 1800 vessels arrive annually at the port (Junqueira). The beautiful environs of the town are embellished by a great number (6-7000) country seats (quintas). In the vicinity are Belem and the castles Ramahao and Quelus.

Lisle, or LILLE (Flemish, Ryssel); a large and strong city of France, formerly the capital of French Flanders, and now of the department of the North, situated on the Deule, in a dead flat. The Deule is navigable, and is divided into several branches, part of which supply the moats or great ditches of the citadel and town. The form of Lisle is an irregular oval; its length, from north-west to south-east, is nearly two miles; its breadth, about three quarters; its circumference, between four and five, exclusive of the earthen ramparts that surround the town, and which are, in their turn, surrounded by a moat. Lisle presents an imposing appearance, from its extent, its fortifications, its canals, its squares, and its public buildings. Few cities of France can vie with it in the straightness and width of its streets, the regularity of its buildings, and its general air of neatness. Several convents have survived the revolution; the hospitals are five, one very large. Lisle is a fortress of the first rank. Its citadel, the masterpiece of Vauban, is the first in Europe after that of Turin. It is a mile in circuit, and is surrounded by a double moat. The trade of Lisle is extensive. Its manufactures are of camlets, serges, and other woollen stuffs, cotton, calico, linen, silk, velvet, lace, carpets, soap, starch, tobacco, leather, glass and earthenware. The origin of this town is ascribed by tradition to Julius Cæsar. Louis XIV took it from

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