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pared, or mined, and to operate the same. Whenever Return when

not the President shall determine that the further use or operation by the Government of any such factory, mine, or plant, or part thereof, is not essential for the national security or defense, the same shall be restored to the person entitled to the possession thereof. The United to form pendiente States shall make just compensation, to be determined ignated by the

President, by the President, for the taking over, use, occupation, and operation by the Government of any such factory, mine, or plant, or part thereof. If the compensation so ized it amount determined be unsatisfactory to the person entitled to receive the same, such person shall be paid seventy-five per centum of the amount so determined by the President, and shall be entitled to sue the United States to recover such further sum as, added to said seventy-five

Vol. 36, pp.

1093, 1136. per centum, will make up such amount as will be just compensation, in the manner provided by section twenty-four, paragraph twenty, and section one hundred and forty-five of the Judicial Code. The Presi- reoperativo

regulations. dent is authorized to prescribe such regulations as he may deem essential for carrying out the purposes of this section, including the operation of any such factory, mine, or plant, or part thereof, the purchase, sale, or other disposition of articles used, manufactured, produced, prepared, or mined therein, and the employment, control, and compensation of employees. Any moneys use of receipts, received by the United States from or in connection with the use or operation of any such factory, mine, or plant, or part thereof, may, in the discretion of the President, be used as a revolving fund for the purpose of the continued use or operation of any such factory, mine, or plant, or part thereof, and the accounts of each such factory, mine, plant, or part thereof, shall be kept separate and distinct. Any balance of such moneys not

'Revolutionary War Statutes. New Jersey: See Act to empower certain commissioners therein named to take possession of and lease out certain iron works, id. June 20, 1778, C. 30 (p. 525).

New York: See Act authorizing impressment of grist mills etc., 1779, 1 Cook's N. Y. Laws 114 [p. 612); Act authorizing impressment of threshing implements and barns, and the threshing of wheat, id. 145 (p. 621); Act to procure supplies for the use of the army, etc., 1780, id. p. 266 (p. 648).

Pennsylvania: See Act authorizing impressment of grist mills, 1780, 10 Stats. at L. 176 (p. 785). Also, for act empowering private individual to take over threshing establishment, see Act for supplying the army of the United States and for other purposes therein mentioned, 1779, 9 Stats. at L. 373 (p. 750).

Resolutions of the Continental Congre88. See Resolution regarding the impressment of supplies and wagons by Washington and the forced threshing of wheat, December 10, 1777, IX Journals of the Continental Congress (Library of Congress) 1013 (p. 213).

Revolutionary War Statutes. Connecticut: See Act for the regulation of prices of labor etc., Acts and Laws, Connecticut, February, 1778, p. 485 [p. 233); Act suspending the foregoing, id. May, 1778, p. 499 (p. 240]; Act repealing the foregoing, id. October, 1778, p. 505 (p. 242).

Maryland. As to impressment of drivers of teams, see supplemental act

to regulate the militia, 1777, October Session, C. 37639°-18

etc.

to act

Balances.

(p. 302); Act for the service of the United States, 1778, March Session, Laws of State of Maryland, C. 1 [p. 306); Act for enlarging the powers of the Governor and Council, 1778, March Session, id. c. xiii (p. 310); Act for enlarging the powers of the governor and council, October Session, 1778, id. c. x [p. 329) ; Act for the immediate supply of flour and other provisions for the army, November Session, 1779, id. c. xxxii [p. 384] ; Supplement to act for regulating the powers of the governor and council, November Session, 1779, id. c. xxxiv (p. 387).

Massachusetts: See Act to prevent monopoly and oppression, fixing prices of farming labor, mechanics, tradesmen, and other labor, 1776, May Session, Original Acts and Laws, p. 78 [p. 420]; Act in addition to and amending the foregoing, 1777, id. p. 129 [p. 429]; Act empowering the impressment of teams and drivers, 1781, April Session, id. p. 69 [p. 462).

New Hampshire. See Act for regulating the prices of sundry articles therein enumerated, 4 Metcalf's Laws of New Hampshire 78 [p. 469) ; Act in addition to above, id. p. 88 [p. 472).

New Jersey: See Act for regulating and limiting the prices of sundry articles of produce, manufacture, and trade, and to prevent forestalling, regrating, and engrossing, Acts of the State of New Jersey, December 11, 1777, c. 8 [p. 514] ; Act for the better regulating the quartering of soldiers, and furnishing of carriages, horses, and other necessaries for the army, March 24, 1778, id. c. 15 (p. 520) ; Act to suspend for a limited time the operation of an act entitled "An act for regulating and limiting the price of labor and of sundry articles of produce, manufacture, and trade, and to prevent forestalling, regrating, and engrossing," id. June, 22, 1778, c. 34 [p. 529] ; Act further to suspend the operation of an act for regulating and limiting the price of labor and of sundry articles of produce, manufacture, and trade, and to prevent forestalling, regrating, and engrossing, id. October 7, 1778, c. 42 (p. 530) ; Act further to suspend the operation of an act entitled "An act for regulating and limiting the price of labor and of sundry articles of produce, manufacture, and trade, and to prevent forestalling, regrating, and engrossing," id. December 3, 1778, c. 5 (p. 531] ; Act for limiting the prices of various articles and to prevent the withholding from sale of the necessaries of life, id. December 21, 1779, c. 12 (p. 536] ; Act for suspending the operation of an act entitled "An act for limiting the prices of various articles and to prevent the withholding from sale of the necessaries of life," id. February 26, 1780, c. 24 [p. 553); Act to repeal sundry acts restraining the trade and commerce of this state, June 8, 1781, N. J. Laws, V. 2, p. 195 (p. 581].

New York: See Act for regulating impresses of forage and carriages and for billeting troops within this state, 1778, i Cook's N. Y. Laws, 55 [p. 592) ; Act to regulate the wages of mechanics and laborers, etc., 1778, 1 Cook's N. Y. Laws 71 [p. 595] ; Act suspending the foregoing, 1778, id. p. 83 [p. 601] ; Act repealing the act to regulate wages, etc., 1778, id. p. 90 (p. 603); Act to revive and amend an act entitled “An act to amend an act for regulating impresses of forage and carriages and billeting troops in this state and for other purposes therein mentioned, 1779, id. p. 148 [p. 622]; Act reviving and continuing and further amending acts relative to impressing teams, etc., 1780, id. p. 208 (p. 633); Act for a general limitation of prices, etc., 1780, id. p. 210

used as part of such revolving fund shall be paid into the Treasury as miscellaneous receipts.

Sec. 13. That whenever the President finds it essen- boards of trade; tial in order to prevent undue enhancement, depression, etc. or fluctuation of prices of, or in order to prevent injurious speculation in, or in order to prevent unjust market manipulation or unfair and misleading market quotations of the prices of necessaries, hereafter in this section called evil practices,' he is authorized to prescribe such regula- Regulations tions governing, or may either wholly or partly prohibit, govern dealing operations, practices, and transactions at, on, in, or under at.

[p. 636) ; Act authorizing the person administering the government of this state to grant warrants of impress, 1780, 1d. p. 264 (p. 642).

Pennsylvania: See supplement to act entitled " an Act for the regulating of wagons, carriages, and pack horses for the public service," 1778, 9 Stats. at L. 218 (p. 727); Act for regulating the prices of the several articles herein mentioned, for a limited time, 1778, id. p. 236 (p. 729) ; Act suspending foregoing, 1778, id. p. 249 (p. 733) ; Act supplemental to * Act for the regulation of wagons, carriages, and pack horses for the public service," 1778, id. p. 287 (p. 737) ; Act amending certain acts rela. tive to wagons, 1779, id. p. 384 (p. 755).

Rhode Island: See Act to prevent monopolies and oppressions, by excessive and unreasonable prices for many of the necessaries and conveniences of life, etc., Laws of Rhode Island, December, 1776, p. 30 (p. 823); Act additional to an act to prevent monopolies and oppressions, etc., Laws of Rhode Island, March, 1777, p. 24 (p. 832); Act to prevent monopolies and oppressions, id. May, 1777, p. 17 (p. 835) ; Act repealing the foregoing, id. August, 1777, p. 7 (p. 851).

Virginia: See, as to impressing artificers, ordinance for raising troops, 1775, 9 Hening's Stats. at L. 9, 24–25 (p. 915); Act for providing against invasions and insurrections, 1777, id. p. 291, 293 (p. 936) ; As to impressing tailors, shoemakers, etc., see Act for speedily clothing troops, etc., 1777, 1d. p. 375 (p. 940); Act to empower the commissioners of the gun manufactory at Fredericksburg to take apprentices therein, 1777, id. p. 426 (p. 946); Act to embody militia for the reliet of South Carolina, etc., 1780. 10 Hening's Stats. at L., 221, 224 (p. 962); Act for procuring a supply of provisions and other necessaries for the use of the army, 1780, id. p. 233 (p. 966) ; Act for recruiting this state's quota of troops to serve in the continental army, 1780, id. p. 326, 335 (p. 969) ; Act to exempt artificers employed in iron works from militia duty, 1781, 10 Hening's Stats. at L. 397 [p. 981); Act giving certain powers to governor and council, 1781, id. p. 413, 414, 416 (p. 982); Last named act continued, 1781, id. p. 425 [p. 983); Same act further continued, 1781, id. p. 444 (p. 985).

1 Revolutionary War Statutes. Georgia: See Act to regulate and extend the trade and commerce of this State and to establish an insurance office for the encouragement thereof and also to restrain the selling of merchandise by public auction within the same, Sept. 16, 1777, 19 Col. Records of Georgia, Pt. II, p. 72 (p. 279).

Maryland: See Act to punish forestalling and engrossing, and for other purposes, June Session, 1777, Laws of the State of Maryland, c. XI [p. 296) ; Same, October Session, 1778, c. VIII (p. 321); Same, July Session, 1779, c. XVII (p. 348); Same, November Session, 1779, c. XVIII (p. 372); Act to regulate auctions, October Session, 1780, C. XXX (p. 395).

Massachusetts: See Act to prevent the selling of goods at public vendue, Original Acts, 1777, p. 139 (p. 437); Continued, id. 1777, P. 146 [p. 439; Revived, id. 1778, p. 165 (p. 440) ; Act to prevent the sale of

Records and

the rules of any exchange, board of trade, or similar institution or place of business as he may find essential

in order to prevent, correct, or remove such evil practices. accounts to be Such regulations may require all persons coming within kept.

their provisions to keep such records and statements of account, and may require such persons to make such returns, verified under oath or otherwise, as will fully and correctly disclose all transactions at, in, or on, or under the rules of any such exchange, board of trade, or similar

institution or place of business, including the making, clearing execution, settlement, and fulfillment thereof. He may

also require all persons acting in the capacity of a clearing house, clearing association, or similar institution, for the purpose of clearing, settling, or adjusting transactions at, in, or on, or under the rules of any such exchange, board of trade, or similar institution or place of business, to keep such records and to make such returns as will fully and correctly disclose all facts in their pos

session relating to such transactions, and he may appoint Agents to in-agents to conduct the investigations necessary to enforce

the provisions of this section and all rules and regula

tions made by him in pursuance thereof, and may fix Punishment and pay the compensation of such agents. Any person

house transactions.

vestigate, etc.

for violations.

goods at public auction, id. 1779, p. 212 [p. 440]; Added to, id. 1779, p. 229 [p. 445) ; Continued, id. 1780, p. 271 [p. 453); Act to regulate the sale of goods at public vendue and to limit the number of auctioneers, id. 1780, p. 48 [p. 458) ; Added to, id. 1781, p. 54 [p. 460) ;

Nero Hampshire: See Act to prohibit the selling of goods at public vendue, 4 Metcalf's Laws of New Hampshire, 115 [p. 476); Same, id. p. 211 [p. 480).

Pennsylvania: See Act to prohibit the sale of goods, wares and merchandise by public vendue and to regulate peddlers and hawkers in this state, 1777, 9 Stats. at L. 136 (p. 706) ; Act for more effectually preventing engrossing and forestalling, for the encouragement of commerce and the fair trader, and for other purposes therein mentioned. 1779, id. p. 421 [p. 761); Act for effectual suppression of public auctions and vendues, and to prohibit male persons, capable of bearing arms from being peddlers or hawkers, 1779, 10 Stats. L. 16 (p. 775) : Act amendatory thereof, 1780, id. p. 81 (p. 783] ; Same, 1780, id. p. 229 (p. 795] ; Supplement thereto, 1782, id. p. 468 [p. 817).

Rhode Island: See Act to prevent monopolies and oppression, etc. December, 1776, Laws of Rhode Island, p. 30 [p. 829).

South Carolina: See Act to prohibit the sale of goods, wares and mer. chandises, by public vendue in this state, 1777, 4 Cooper's Stats. 395 [p. 887] ; Act repealing above and otherwise regulating the practice, 1778, id. p. 402 [p. 892); Ordinance for the better defense and security of this state, during the recess of the general assembly, 1779, id. p. 504 [p. 902).

Virginia: See Act to prevent forestalling, regrating, engrossing, and public vendues, 1777, 9 Hening's Stats. 382 [p. 943); Same revived, 1779, 10 Hening's Stats, at L. 157 [p. 961); Continued, 1781, id. p. 425 (p. 983).

same

who willfully violates any regulation made pursuant to this section, or who knowingly engages in any operation, practice, or transaction prohibited pursuant to this section, or who willfully aids or abets any such violation or any such prohibited operation, practice, or transaction, shall, upon conviction thereof, be punished by a fine not exceeding $10,000 or by imprisonment for not more than four years, or both.

[281]. Sec. 14. That whenever the President shall find Wheat. that an emergency exists requiring stimulation of the price to be esproduction of wheat and that it is essential that the by public do producers of wheat, produced within the United States, a te producshall have the benefits of the guaranty provided for in

Guaranteed

tion.

1

1 Resolutions of the Continental Congre88. See Resolution of the Congress regarding the securing of supplies of powder, June 10, 1775, II Journals of the Continental Congress (Library of Congress) pp. 85–86 (p. 201); Resolution modifying non-exporta. tion agreement, July 15, 1775, II id. 184 (p. 202); Resolutions providing for the publication of the last foregoing, October 26, 1775, III id. 306 (p. 202).

Revolutionary War Statutes. Georgia: See Act to regulate and extend the trade and commerce of this state and to establish an Insurance office for the encouragement thereof, etc., Sept. 16, 1777, 19 Col. Records of Georgia, Pt. II, p. 72 (p. 276).

Maryland: See Act to punish forestalling and engrossing, and for other purposes, June session, 1777, c. 11 [p. 298); Act to encourage the importation of salt within the state, 1780, October Session, Laws of the State of Maryland, c. 20 (p. 394).

New Jersey: See Act to encourage the making of salt in the State of New Jersey, Acts of the State of New Jersey, October 7, 1777, c. 51 (p. 502); Act for granting a bounty upon wool, flax, and hemp raised and sold within the State of New Jersey, id. April 14, 1778, c. 21 (p. 524]; Act for encouraging the manufacture of paper in the state of New Jersey, id. June 20, 1778, c. 32 (p. 528).

North Carolina. See Act for encouraging the importation of arms, ammunition, and other warlike stores, and for other purposes, 24 Clark's Laws of North Carolina, 1781, c. 7, p. 380 (p. 690).

Rhode Island: See Act encouraging the manufacture of saltpetre and gunpowder, Laws of Rhode Island, January, 1776, p. 246 (p. 819]; Act granting a bounty on salt, id. May, 1776, p. 49 (p. 822).

South Carolina: See, as to advancing government funds for building iron manufactories, 1778, 4 Cooper's Stats. 404 [p. 893).

Virginia: See Ordinance for providing arms and ammunition for the use of this colony, 1775, 9 Hening's Stats. 71 (p. 916) ; Act for the encouragement of iron works, 1777, 9 Hening's Stats. at L. 303 (p. 936); Act to encourage the importation of salt, 1779, 10 Hening's Stats. at L. 150 (p. 960); Act to exempt artificers employed in iron works from militia duty, 1781, 1d. p. 397 (p. 981] ; Same continued, 1781, id. p. 425 [p. 983); continued, 1781, id. p. 444 (p. 985).

Confederate StatutesCivil War. See Act to provide for the connection of the railroad from Selma, in Alabama, to Meridien, in Mississippi, February 15, 1862, Provisional Congress, Sess. V, c. 82, p. 276 (p. 1030) ; Act to encourage the manufacture of saltpetre and of small arms, April 17, 1862, First Congress, Sess. I, c. 34, p. 33 (p. 1031); Joint Resolution relating to the production of provisions, April 4, 1863, First Congress, Sess. III, Res. 2, p. 166 [p. 1038); Act to authorize the manufacture of spirituous liquors for the use of the Army and hospitals, June 14, 1864, Second Congress, Sess. 1, c. 41, p. 271 (p. 1051).

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