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woman married before the Act might be held by her as a femme sole. The remaining clauses were mainly consolidation clauses, with the difference that in questions between husband and wife either of them might be a witness. No criminal proceeding was to be taken by a wife against her husband under this Bill in respect to property claimed by her while they were living together.

Earl CAIRNS said the Bill was a useful consolidation of the law, but he would point out that by the repealing clause it might raise questions hereafter, and that the third clause was open to considerable objection.

After some remarks from Lord STANLEY of ALDERLEY, The Bill was read a second time.

All friends of this movement should now co-operate in signing and sending in petitions for this measure, both in the Lords and in the Commons. Any lady can procure these or other papers by writing to the Secretary, , Mrs. Elmy, Congleton, Cheshire.

DARLINGTON WOMEN'S LIBERAL ASSOCIATION.

On February 17th a meeting was held in the Central Hall, Darlington, at which Mrs. Fry presided. Interesting addresses were delivered by Mrs. Scatcherd and Miss Carbutt, of Leeds, on questions affecting women, comprising the evils of war, the suffrage, the welfare of Ireland, local option, &c.

Mrs. FRY said, in opening the proceedings, they had often been told that it was unwise for ladies to interest themselves in these topics, which belonged only to gentlemen, but she trusted they should all be wiser and better for what they were going to hear. A resolution was passed approving of the formation of a Women's Liberal Association in Darlington.

Mrs. J. G. BLUMER said that the first thing which induced them to commence a Ladies' Liberal Association in Darlington, was hearing of similar associations in York and Bristol, and some of them met together to discuss the subject. About forty members came to the first meeting, and they had now fifty ladies on the committee. She then read the rules of the Association, which are as follows:

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“RULES OF THE ASSOCIATION.-i. Name: Darlington Women's Liberal Association. ii. Objects: 1. To form sound opinions among the women of Darlington on public questions, political, social, and moral; (2) To diffuse information among them as to the manner in which the special interests of their sex are affected by existing laws; (3.) To direct their influence to the securing of the best possible representation in local elections, for which women already possess the vote, as well as in Parliamentary elections; (4) To arrange for meetings, lectures, discussions, social gatherings, the spreading of literature, and such other means as shall seem desirable.”

POLITICAL POWER OF PEERESSES.--In a recent discussion in the House of Lords upon the Earldom of Mar, the Earl of Redesdale said he had no advice to give as to the course of action to be pursued consequent on the protests made by six Scotch peers and one Scotch peeress against the acceptance of the vote of the Earl of Kellie as Earl of Mar on the union roll of Scotch peers, except that it was not desirable to question the decision come to by the House of Lords judicially:

It appears, therefore, that though peeresses have no vote in the House, their influence, politically, is not entirely ignored.

FOOD PRODUCTION. A most useful series of lectures have been commenced at the Horticultural Gardens, South Kensington, in connection with the Dairy, Poultry and Minor Food Products' Exbibition of 1882. The lectures are combined with practical instructions. The lectures comprise: Poultry Management, by W. B. Tegetmeier; Bee Management, by F. Cheshire, Esq.; and Dairy Management, by Professor J. P. Sheldon. The fee for lectures and instruction upon one subject is one guinea, for all the subjects two guineas. The course on Poultry Management extends from March 14th (at 11 a.m.) to April 3rd, the examination for certificates or medals taking place on April 4th or 5th. The other courses begin on April 11th, and the examination is on May 2nd.

The Society for Encouraging Food Production as an

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Occupation for Women, anxious to enable ladies to profit to the utmost by these lectures, agreed at a committee meeting held, February 23rd, at 9, Upper Phillimore Gardens, W., to make arrangements to provide lodgings for ladies coming from the country to attend them. Board and lodging for the whole term will be about £8, and a few shillings will be wanted in addition for books, so that ten guineas would cover all expenses for the three courses.

The tickets will be transferable between sisters—that is to say, one could take poultry, and another dairy or bees. A desire has been expressed that a course on Market Gardening should be added, but it was found to be too expensive, and a course on Destructive Insects has been proposed instead.

For information about board and lodgings, ladies from the country can apply to the Hon. Sec., Miss Thorne, Southover Grange, Lewes.

FEMALE POSTAL AND TELEGRAPH CLERKS. Mr. W. CORBETT asked the Postmaster-General on February 27th whether the female clerks and telegraphists employed in his department had given general satisfaction by their intelligence and efficiency in the discharge of their duties; and whether, looking to the great importance, in a social point of view, of enlarging the field of female employment, he would, as occasion offered, throw open all the appointments in the postal and telegraph services that were suitable for females but were now reserved exclusively for men; and whether, as vacancies occurred, he would promote to some at least of the higher offices women who had given proof of their capacity and fitness for the discharge of the higher duties.

Mr. FAWCETT said, in reply to the hon. member for the County of Wicklow, "I am glad to be able to say that the female clerks and telegraphists employed by the Post-office have given general satisfaction. So much is this the case that the employment of women has been gradually and steadily extended. Any claims that they have to promotion will be carefully considered, and I can readily give an assurance that I shall lose no opportunity of still further extending the employment of women whenever it can be done with advantage to the public service.”

ELECTRIC LIGHTING.–The Pall Mall Gazette says, one feature of the new industry which electric lighting creates, is the increased employment it will give to women. At Mr. Swan's factory at Newcastle over a hundred hands are constantly employed, under a lady superintendent.

LIVERPOOL TAILORESSES ASSOCIATION. A public meeting in support of this Association was held Feb. 13th at the Concert Hall, Lord Nelson Street, Liverpool. Mr. E. Jones took the chair. A letter from Mrs. Josephine Butler was read in which she said :

It is necessary that spontaneous and combined action on the part of women should exist, in order to counteract the tendency of the Legislature to hamper and restrict the labour of women by unions, though no doubt the legislation is well-meant. If women show throughout the country an intelligent appreciation of their own position, and can obtain by combined efforts shorter hours of work and remuneration, Parliament will have little excuse for forcing on them unwise and oppressive measures for restraining women's workmeasures which only have the effect of aggravating the difficulties which already surround self-supporting women, or those who are striving to be self-supporting.

At the conclusion of the meeting many new members joined the Association. Mrs. Albert Crompton and Mrs. Coulthard are Trustees, and Mrs. Sydney Style, Hon. Sec.

LADIES' SANITARY ASSOCIATION. Since the time of its formation in 1857, the Ladies' Sanitary Association has been doing good work in the path of public usefulness its members had at the time of its establishment marked out for themselves. The association is now affiliated with that for the Promotion of Social Science, the Sanitary Institute of Great Britain, and La Société Française d'Hygiene, and has (amongst others) for its patronesses the Princess of Wales, the Crown Princess of Germany, the Princess Christian, and Princess Mary of Teck. It was originally established by a number of ladies who had become convinced that the major portion of the debility, disease, and premature mortality in this country arose from the ignorance of the masses respecting the commonest laws

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of health. They, therefore, applied themselves to remedying this state of things, as far as lay in their power, by giving practical lessons in the art of sanitation. Dr. Richardson has already delivered two courses of lectures, and on March 4th, at Exeter Hall, commenced the third, on “Domestic Sanitation," before a large and attentive audience. This course will consist of nine lectures, at the end of which a competitive examination will be held, and prizes awarded. It is much desired by the committee that it should be fully understood that the association, lectures, and prizes are open to gentlemen as well as ladies. In conclusion, we may mention that the association is entirely dependent upon voluntary aid, and all those who are interested in sanitary reform are requested to send their contributions to Miss Rose Adams, secretary, at the offices, 22, Berners Street, Oxford Street, W.

PROTECTION OF YOUNG GIRLS. On February 28th the Earl of DALHOUSIE moved the reappointment of the Select Committee appointed on the 30th May, 1881, to inquire into the state of the law relative to the protection of young girls from artifices to induce them to lead a corrupt life; he assured the House it was proved that prostitution was increasing with fearful rapidity in London, and that, under the present law, it was perfectly easy and safe for persons in this country to carry on a traffic in English girls for the purposes of prostitution. Towards the end of July the House had passed a resolution to the effect that, , considering the late period of the session, and the necessity for full consideration, it was inexpedient to deal with the matter then. He now asked for a reappointment of the committee.

The reappointment of a Select Committee was, therefore, agreed to.

THE BRITISH ROUGH. The public will have learned with great satisfaction the severe sentences passed by Mr. Justice Hawkins upon the recent cases of street ruffianism. These crimes are fearfully on the increase in England, from the

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