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Burgwin (Southwark) read the paper on “Over-pressure,” prepared by Miss Müller (London School Board). It set forth that in nearly every department of a school there were cases of over-worked children, scholars who were unable to cope with the difficulties of the elementary code, because of their exceptional mental weakness. Miss Müller saw no objection to meeting these exceptional cases by an exceptional clause to the effect that delicate children should attend as half-timers. The two great specifics against over-pressure were music and physical exercise, and she asserted that on children the effects of over-work were almost instantaneous, for no child could pay a healthy, natural attention to any subject for long, continual change being next in importance to rest. A vote of thanks having been passed to Miss Müller for her paper, considerable discussion followed, and it was ultimately resolved, That this conference is of opinion that great injury has been inflicted upon the teachers and scholars by the over-pressure of work under the Education Code, partly in mixed girls' and infant schools, and that little relief is afforded in the code just issued."

SCHOLARSHIP FOR EDINBURGH UNIVERSITY. - The Misses Steven, of Bellahouston, have presented to the Edinburgh University £2,000 for the foundation of a scholarship in agriculture, in memory of their late brother.

A HEAD mistress for the North London Collegiate School, Camden Road, will be required in September. The emoluments are between £400 and £500 per annum.

THE Board of Musical Studies have had under their consideration the desirability of offering to women the advantage of having their knowledge of the higher branches of music tested by University examination, and they recommend—(1) That the examinations for musical degrees be open to such women as can produce the required certificate of literary and scientific attainment; (2) that the examination fees to be paid by them be those demanded in the case of men; (3) that the names of those women who satisfy the examiners be published at the ordinary time, in a separate list, ar


15th, 1882

ranged in alphabetical order. The Board would point out that the examinations for musical degrees are virtually honour examinations, and that as the University has not hitherto required residence in the case of men who may be candidates for these examinations, the above recommendation only amounts to an application of the principles adopted by the Senate in graces 1-3 of February 24, 1881-viz., to admit women to the honour examinations of the University on the same conditions (as far as possible) as men.—Times, May 4th.

At the three last competitions held at the Royal Academy of Music, two of the prize winners were ladies. Miss Kate Hardy won the Llewelyn Thomas Gold Medal, and Miss Beatrice Davenport the Santley prize, which is a purse of ten guineas.


PHARMACEUTICAL TEACHING. The Central Committee of the Women's Educational Union met on April 4th, and received a report from the Sub-Committee appointed to draw up a scheme for training young women as pharmaceutical chemists.

The scheme presented proposes to raise a capital of £2500, in £1 shares, in order to establish an institution on a commercial basis, in which young women will be trained in the business routine of pharmacy, as well as in the technical knowledge, which will enable them to pass the examinations of the Pharmaceutical Society.

The scheme of the Sub-Committee removes the principle difficulty which has stood in the way of young women who wish to become pharmaceutical chemists, —viz., that of obtaining the three years' apprenticeship, enacted by the Pharmaceutical Society, from candidates for their examinations. It can easily be understood that even the few chemists, who might be willing to take female apprentices, find many difficulties in their way. A preliminary prospectus of the Company is being prepared, and will shortly be ready for publication.


The second reading of Mr. T. D. Sullivan's Bill for the Better Protection of Women and Children, was fixed for May 10th; but by the advice of his friends

who thought that so soon after the horrible occurrence in Dublin, it would be useless for any member of the Irish party to bring forward this bill with a chance of having fair play in the House, Mr. Sullivan withdrew it. Ten days previously, and therefore several days before the murders in Dublin, the Daily News had by implication, questioned the motives of the introducers of the bill. It said :—“Some Irish members have prepared a Bill for the reintroduction of the pillory, with the benevolent purpose of protecting women and children in England from crimes of violence. We do not in England fire shots into nurseries, nor shoot down innocent ladies on the high road, nor torture them by 'carding;' nor shoot their husbands in the legs before their eyes. These are incidents of the social war in Ireland, and it would be well if women and children could be protected from such infamous outrages.” In answer to this article, Miss Tod wrote a letter to

а the Daily News on April 19th, in which she pointed out that “In comparing English with Irish crime you ignore several important facts. First, that this is a time of exceptional excitement in Ireland, whereas England is in its normal condition. The mass of crimes against women which are recorded in English newspapers cannot justly be compared with the outrages caused by a fierce political and social crisis. Second, that some of the crimes mentioned have occurred only once, others once or twice, whereas the brutalities on women have been going on constantly for years. Third, although Irishmen are found among such criminals on this side of the Channel, it is here they have become such under the peculiarly inimical influences to which they are exposed. This is proved by the rarity of such crimes in Ireland, and by the severe sentences pronounced on them when they do occur.”

Mr. Sullivan gave the following reasons to Miss Tod for his withdrawal of the Bill :

HOUSE OF COMMONS. DEAR Miss Top-Many thanks for your note received this morning. I saw your admirable letter in the Daily News, and would have written to thank you for it had I known your address. I fear this horrible occurrence in Dublin will have the effect of causing me to abandon my Bill for the Better Protection of Women and Chil


dren. Several of my colleagues of the Irish party have spoken to me on the subject this evening, and expressed an opinion that under present circumstances such a bill coming from one of us would have no chance of getting fair play in the House, and consequently that it had better be deferred, To drop it is against my own will and judgment, but I will not go against the opinion and feeling of my colleagues. I believe that I could make out a good case for the Bill; if the House would not listen to it, on them be the responsibility. I acknowledge that my position in promoting such a measure would have been rendered somewhat difficult and embarrassing by that most horrible crime that has been committed in Dublin; but for my own part I was perfectly willing to face the trial and go through with it. I am sorry that I shall not have the opportunity of speak. ing my mind about the wife beaters, and woman beaters, and child beaters. I am no advocate of flogging as a general mode of punishment; I would be against the flogging even of garotters; but for the unnatural and brutal crime of woman beating and child beating, I would certainly, if I could have the lash applied—not in all cases, but at the discretion of the magistrates and judges. I had got together a mass of evidence in favour of the proposal—including the

Report on Brutal Assaults," published in 1875, which I suppose you have seen ; but after this disappointment I think I shall do no more in the matter. Let Englishmen and English women look to it. How they can be satisfied to let things go on as they are going passes my comprehension.-Respectfully yours,

T. D. SULLIVAN. BRISTOL WOMEN'S LIBERAL ASSOCIATION. On May 5th a soirée was held in connection with this association, at the Old Library, top of Park Street. Tea and coffee were served at seven o'clock, and subsequently a meeting, presided over by Miss Priestman, was held. In spite of the very wet weather there was

. a numerous attendance, chiefly of ladies.

Miss PRIESTMAN said she regarded the attendance that evening as showing that the importance of their work was being felt in circles in which it had strangely failed to be recognised hitherto. She said strangely, for politics concerned the welfare of all classes of society, and the principle involved could be studied by their own fireside, and while they were engaged in domestic duties. She would ask Miss Sturge to address them on "Government by Party."

Miss STURGE said it was only recently that ladies had taken much practical interest in politics. They were not brought up from their childhood, as many of the other sex were, to look upon politics as a matter which


concerned them, and a great many had therefore neglected to make themselves acquainted even with the broad political principles before them. She therefore must be excused if what she said to them was what many might be supposed to know. Government by party had great advantages, for it provided an easy, orderly and peaceful way of making necessary changes, so that the Government might represent the opinion of the country. Revolution was hardly likely to take place so long as these changes could be easily made. A government was stimulated to the greatest activity by the criticism of the Opposition party, and though in various countries the character of the opposing parties might differ from those in their own country, and often owed their form to difference of opinion on some great question, which for a time overshadowed the principles involved in it, yet it might be taken that in most nations there was a progressive party, and a party who gave more attention to the maintenance of the existing institutions. There were a few disadvantages in party go

. vernment. There was always a danger it should degenerate into mere strife for place and power. She did not deprecate party discipline, but deprecated independence of judgment being sacrified to party, and men surrendering the impartiality of their judgment to a party leader. There was a danger they should be led to think there was no good or right in the other side. If the more advanced portion of the Liberal party had its way changes would too suddenly come. Conservatism was therefore useful as a dead weight to prevent this. Liberalism meant progression, while the Conservatives, as they always had been, were more particularly upholders of existing institutions, and very much slower to see the need of change. They had founded this association in the hope that they might do something to help on those Liberal principles which were as dear to many of them as they could be to men.

After Mr. Charles Townsend, President of the British Liberal Association, had spoken, Mrs. W. CLARK (Street) said some of them had been arguing for some time that women should take an interest in political matters, and it would be especially well if they came forward on the

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