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on various subjects of science, literature, and history, For years the Education Union Journal kept a careful register of these lectures. Here again, as in the case of the Public Day Schools, the Union did not originate all the lectures, but it took cognisance of all, and gave what assistance it could. The Ladies Educational Association for Securing University Lectures to Women had commenced in 1869. It was discontinued when the London University College admitted women as regular students. The Union gave considerable help in establishing the King's College lectures to ladies, which have been so successful, that a scheme is now on foot to build a College for Women in connection with King's College.

Encouragement was given to young women to continue their studies beyond the school age, by the offer of scholarships to be held in some place of higher education approved by the Committee. These scholarships were awarded on the result of the University Senior Local Examinations, and were intended as an incentive to proceed to the higher examinations. The example of the Union was soon followed by other societies and individuals, and there are now a large number of scholarships and exhibitions offered in connection with the University Local Examinations.

In 1872, the Union established a system of scholarships, to be given in connection with the University Examinations, the object being to encourage girls to continue their education after the ordinary school age. Five or six scholarships of £25 each, tenable for one year, at some place of higher instruction approved by the Union, were given every year, so long as the condition of the funds permitted this. Efforts were also made to secure that a proper proportion of endowments should be allotted to girls in future educational schemes.

The Union also established evening classes for women who are employed during the day, in Brompton. These classes are conducted like those at the Working Women's College near Fitzroy Square, or like the older College for Men and Women in Queen's Square, and are a great boon to the students. Efforts have also been made to improve the technical education of women,


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which have already to a great extent been successful, for women are admitted to many technical and art classes on equal terms. A registry for teachers was also established at Brompton.

Women are also everywhere admitted to the lectures instituted by the University Extension Scheme, and in the establishment of new Art and Science Colleges, special reference is usually made to their participation in their educational advantages.

Another important part of the work of the Union was the provision of means for training female teachers, and for testing their efficiency by examinations of recognised authority. Lectures to teachers on “Methods of Teaching Special Subjects,” were instituted, and out of these grew the Teachers' Training and Registration Society, which has prospered so well that only the other day a meeting was held, presided over by the Earl of Morley, in support of a scheme for training schoolmasters at the Cowper Street School on the same system as that which has been carried out for schoolmistresses at the Bishopsgate Training College for Women. The University of Cambridge has also consented to test the results of the Training College by a special examination for teachers. The Annual Conferences of Head-mistresses, the last of which has been held at Manchester, are doing excellent service by comparing the different systems of education and suggesting improvements. Thirty-three head-mistresses were present in Manchester.

Other institutions also have grown out of the Union, which will not be necessarily affected by its dissolution. One valuable scheme was the Students' Library, which may possibly be handed over to the London Association for Schoolmistresses. Another was the Teachers' Education Loan Committee, to advance loans of money to students preparing for teaching, to enable them to pay education fees. We understand this will be carried on as before, applications for loans, &c., to be made to Miss Ewart, Hon. Sec., 3, Morpeth Terrace, S.W.

The Journal of the Union has recorded all the proceedings of the Association, and bas borne a valuable part in spreading information and interest on the subtect of Women's Education.

These various branches of useful work, while demonstrating the usefulness of the National Union, drained its resources, and two years ago it was in contemplation to dissolve the Association, but the strong expression of public opinion in favour of its continuance induced its supporters to carry it on for a further period. The subscriptions have nevertheless gradually fallen off, and an appeal has now been sent round to the subscribers, to make up the deficit, so that an unfair share of expense may not fall upon the Committee, who have voluntarily given so much time and attention to the business of the Union.


SCOTTISH WOMEN. EVEN during this Session of unexampled obstruction in the wheels of the Parliamentary machine, an important advantage has been gained for women by the quiet perseverance of Dr. Cameron. It will be remembered that it is to him that the women of Scotland owe the possession of the Municipal Franchise. In the Act, last Session, the Municipal Franchise was conferred on female ratepayers, in Royal and Parliamentary burghs of Scotland, to the same degree as it is enjoyed by them under the English law; but this did not extend to police burghs, populous places, endowed with powers of local self-government under the General Police and Improvement (Scotland) Act of 1862. Dr. Cameron has, this Session, introduced and carried an accompanying Act, which gives the female ratepayers, who come under it, the right not merely of voting at elections of the borough Commissioners, but also of voting with the other inhabitants as to whether a populous place shall be constituted a police burgh or not.

The words of the Act are as follows. After the first preamble it says:

“ 3. Section three of the General Police and Improvement (Scotland) Act, 1862, Amendment Act is hereby repeated, and in lieu thereof it is enacted as follows: The word "householder' in the General Police and Improvement Acts means and includes a male occupier of lands or premises of the yearly value of four pounds and upwards as appearing on the Valuation Roll,' and also a female occupier of lands or premises as aforesaid, who is not married or being married does not live in family with her husband.' Provided always that no female shall be eligible for election as a commissioner or trustee of police.

“ Wherever words occur in the General Police and Improvement Acts which import the masculine gender, the same shall be held to include females for the

purpose of this Act.”

We may observe here that the method of enfranchising women in Scotland has been necessarily different to that adopted by the promoters of the Municipal Amendment Act in England. In England, in non-corporate towns, every ratepayer, male or female, voted from immemorial time on matters of local government and expenditure, but by the passing of the Municipal Corporation Act, of 1835, as soon as any district became incorporated into a municipal borough, the women ratepayers in such district were summarily disfranchised. The action of Parliament, in 1869, was by the Municipal Amendment Act to remove this arbitrary disfranchisement of women ratepayers in boroughs, and restore to them the rights they already enjoyed in non-corporate towns. In Scotland a different procedure has been necessary. There women ratepayers had no votes in any district. Dr. Cameron’s course has been first to claim enfranchisement for the women in municipal districts, and when that was obtained to extend the same right to women in non-municipal districts. By these means the condition of women in these two countries is equalised, and Dr. Cameron has established a claim to a very deep feeling of gratitude on the part of all well-wishers to women,


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A CONTEMPORARY says that “Some young men in Kent have formed a society for the Protection of the Natural Form of Women, and have bound themselves to induce their sisters and all ladies who are injuring their bodies for the sake of fashion, to sever the remaining link which connects the present generation with barbarism. One of the six laws drawn up is a pledge that each member shall be a continual worry to girls neglecting the healthy advice of the society.” We hail the news with great pleasure. The scheme of becoming a “continual worryto any individual neglecting “ healthy advice” is most frankly and engagingly put forward. We would suggest to the young ladies in Kent to form a kindred association, for the "cultivation of agreeable and healthy habits in men,” directing their attention mainly to the injurious and ever increasing habit of smoking which not only narcotises and stultifies the individuals practising it but is noisome and offensive to their neighbours. If girls would organise themselves to be a “continual worry” to the juvenile smokers, who neglect the healthy advice of the society, an excellent sanitary and social reformation might be evolved, Arcadia might return and Kent again become what it was in Cæsar's time, “the civilest place of all this isle.”


So much has already been said and written on the hardships to which women of good social position are exposed in their endeavours to earn a living by teaching, that nothing new can be urged as to the importance of lessening these hardships.

But alas! the evil is hydra-headed, and what with higher educatioual requirements, the great advance in day and boarding-schools, the increased expense

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