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the men doctors. Possessing as great a store of medical knowledge as these latter, they threw themselves entirely and self-denyingly into their work, being moreover ensured, by the gentleness of their sex, from the pernicious concomitants of our provincial life, such as cardplaying, drunkenness, and such like.
But the most brilliant examples demonstrating the advantage and utility of women doctors, and their claims to equal rights with men, were afforded in the Turkish War of 1877-78, during which eventful period they were enabled to render a fitting tribute of recognition to the Minister of War, whose exertions, in behalf of their cause, had infused life and vigour into the courses of instruction of the female students. In the quality of directing surgeons of hospitals (ordinatoroff) and of independent doctors, they at all times throughout the war laboured equally with the personnel of the men doctors, directing and assisting in the operations in the wards of the therapeutic and surgical hospital. Their usefulness and activity were not confined to the duties of “ordinators” in the hospitals, but also expressed itself in independent practice in the quality of regimental doctors, or medical assistants with advanced guards and detachments, and in dressing wounds, the number of sick and wounded having overtaxed the energies of the ordinary medical regimental staff.
Thus many of them worked together with the professors of surgery, in conducting the more important surgical operations in Bulgaria, and one of the women doctors, Mdme. Bolbot, worked in one of the batteries of the division investing Plevna, and thoroughly and satisfactorily carried out the responsible duties devolving upon a military surgeon, transferring afterwards her sphere of usefulness to the military hospitals inside Plevna after the fall of that place. It would require more space than we have at command to recount the numerous military services of the women doctors during the late campaign, at which we have merely glanced superficially ; they, indeed, fully justified the hopes, which through their admission to the courses of medical instruction, their supporters had entertained the hope of their becoming useful instruments in the service of the empire and the general community.
Notwithstanding this, as is doubtless known to many of our readers the Minister of War has lately stated that he does not find it convenient to retain under his control the medical courses of instruction for women, and desires to hand them over to some other department. The Minister of Public Instruction also, on being applied to replied that it was impossible for him to take them under his direction, and at the present time it appears more than probable that these courses will be transferred at an early date to the General Municipal Council of St. Petersburgh. We do not doubt that this change will be for the best, and that the Municipal Council of the capital will honourably and thoroughly fulfil the obligations it is about to accept, and will accord to this movement the full measure of development which its rights demand
The Gazette des Femmes says that the Inspector of the Health of the Army found the services of these women doctors so valuable that in his official report of 1878, he demanded that those ladies who had participated in the military operations should be decorated with
the order of St. Stanislaus, third class. Twelve women physicians are officially attached to the medical schools for women. Thirty are officially in the service of the Zemstvos (country districts), and forty are serving in the hospitals and infirmaries. All these are decorated.
FINLAND. A YOUNG Finnish lady, Miss Irene Aström passed the examination for a candidate of philosophy at the University of Helsingfors on May 24th, with great honours. The young lady was subsequently, through a deputation of ladies presented with a gold watch and chain at a festive meeting given in her honour at the Æsthetic Club, Hesperia.--Nature, June, 1882.
EGYPT. The Echo says the “ Lady of Alexandria," who is contributing to the Kolnische Zeitung those interesting sketches of home life in Egypt, which none but a woman could give in such detail, sends a picture of the interior of the Khedive's house. Tewfik Pasha, as most persons are probably aware, has distinguished himself from his predecessors and his contemporaries upon Eastern thrones by restricting himself, after the Western and Christian manner, to one wife. The ViceQueen, as “the Lady” calls Tewfik's spouse, is a daughter of El Hamid Pasha, and grand-daughter of the famous Abbas Pasha. She is a beautiful and cultivated woman, who tenderly loves her husband and her four children, and takes an active part in the education of the latter. The eldest boy, Abbas, and his brother are taught by a Swiss pedagogue, and the two little girls are placed under the care of English nurses. The Khedive's wife is not free from hateful tricks of petty annoyance, which are often played off upon her. Thus, she received lately a visit from two Turkish ladies of high position, to whom she offered, after the usual custom, cigarettes with the chiffre of the Khedive upon them. When they had gone, the black servants said that these ladies had left behind them in the ante-chamber numbers of the cigarettes with the chiffre of the Arabi Pasha, as an insult to the Khedive through his wife. Lady” says that the “Vice-Queen” has passed through agonies since the first tumults in Cairo. Like the Imperial Family in Russia, she is in fear of Palace intrigues, and has only a few Circassians about her in whom she can place perfect confidence, and they are slaves. She told her European visitor that nothing would be so great a joy and relief to her as an entire renunciation of the precarious and dangerous splendour and dignity in which she lives, and the retirement with her husband and children to a safe and quite private life. She has always hitherto been profuse in her charities towards the Arab population ; but since the outbreak of the ilth of June, and the fearful scene of which she was a trembling eye-witness from behind the iron bars of the harem windows, she declares that she shall in future be more circumspect in her benevolence.
AMERICA. THE Connecticut State law has just been amended by the House of Representatives so that women as well as men may vote on the election of trustees of Methodist churches.
At the last November election held in the city of Cheyenne, Wyoming Territory, 1,434 votes were polled, 510 of which were voted by the women. This proportion confirms the recent statement of Governor Hoyt that women vote in proportion as largely as the men, in Wyoming.
DENTISTS.—Ďrs. Julia C. Mann and Jennie C. Kollock, dentists, were admitted to the Chicago Dental Society on Tuesday, April 4. These were the first ladies who were ever admitted into a Dental society in Illinois, another evidence of the proper recognition of women in a new field of labour.
ASTRONOMERS.-Several ladies are employed on the staff of computers in the astronomical observatory of Harvard College.
STATION HOUSE MATRONS. - We noticed a short time ago the efforts made in New York to procure the appointment of female officials in the station houses. It has been successful, and Commissioner Jourdan of New York has addressed the following letter to the superintendent of police :
You are hereby notified that Mrs. H. F. Crocker, of 315 Monroe street, and Miss H. A. Johns have this day been appointed police matron and assistant matron, respectively. You will instruct the captains to permit these ladies to visit the station houses at all times for the purpose of seeing females who may be arrested for disorderly conduct, and the commanding officers will facilitate them in every way they can, consistent with their duties. By order of the commissioner,
Dep. Com. and Chief Clerk.
INDIA. THE Burdwan Sanjibani gives an account of the election of a Municipal Commmissioner for a single ward of the Burdwan Municipality. There were two candidates who secured respectively 750 and 400 votes. Several Zenana ladies appeared in carriages to give their votes.
LADY DOCTORS. — Miss Beilby, in a letter to the Pioneer Mail quoted by the Indian Association Journal, said: “I think every lady doctor who comes to this country to practice medicine should have gone through the full curriculum of studies, and should have obtained à diploma qualifying her to practice. For if, in England, it is necessary that this should be done before a student can practise, how much more is it necessary in this country where not only we have the climate and other things to contend with, but also from the scarcity of lady doctors, it is impossible to have consultations in difficult cases ; and though I have always found the civil surgeon most kind and willing to help and forward my work, still from the fact that my patients are Zenana ladies, he can give me very little help in difficult cases. One of my greatest objections to the societies, who send out Zenana medical missionaries is, that they think if the said missionaries have enough knowledge to work as sick nurses at home, such knowledge will be sufficient to fit them to undertake the difficult task of a lady doctor out here. This is a most fatal mistake, and one that sooner or later will bring the work of Zenana medical missions into disrepute.”
The journal of the Indian Association, for June, reports an
excellent lecture, by Pundit Shivanath Shastri, in Calcutta, on Female Education.
MATRIMONY IN JAPAN.—T'he local papers announce that the Japanese Government have lately drafted_new regulations for marriages. According to these no man in the Empire will henceforth be permitted to marry before arriving at the age of twenty. Women, however are to be privileged to marry at eighteen.
NEW SOUTH WALES. WOMEN AT THE UNIVERSITY OF SYDNEY.-The Chancellor of the University of Sydney calls the attention of lady students to the fact that two bursaries of £50 a year each, with exemption from fees, and tenable for three years, are offered to them under Mr. Walker's endowment, and to repeat for their information that these bursaries are intended for ladies who are prepared to enter upon the full University course for a degree, but whose financial circumstances would otherwise preclude them from devoting their time to that object. The Chancellor also announces that ladies will be admitted to any separate course or courses of lectures without matriculating upon application through the Registrar, and payment of the ordinary lecture fees.
A LANCASHIRE ELECTION INCIDENT.—A few days ago, in the arrangements for an election of Guardians, policemen were employed to deliver voting-papers to the ratepayers of Kirkham, a little town in the heart of the agricultural districts called the Fylde, in Lancashire. One of the officers, having knocked at the door of a cottage standing a short distance off the highway, was confronted by a middle-aged woman. who, on seeing him, placed her arms akimbo, and said: “ Naa then! wod are ta after naa ? Wod does ta meon ? Tha's nowt ta do here this toime. Gooa thy ways an' tak’ thy summonses somewheer else; for aw con tell thee as noather me nor my mon's bin drunk for aboon a week, sooa thee gee oot with thy pappers, an' tak’ 'em somewheer else." As the amazed policeman made no sign of departure, she shouted wrathfully, “Does ta yer? Be af wi' tha’” and turning round suddenly, she grasped a broom-handle, upon which the officer dropped the voting-paper on the threshold, and directly hurried away
ENGLISH WOMAN'S REVIEW.
No. CXII.-AUGUST 15TH, 1882.
ART. I.--THE INDEPENDENT ENGLISHWOMAN
ABROAD. IF statistics could be taken, and somewhat amusing they would be, of the multitudes who travel at the present day, it would be found that a vast amount of travelling is undertaken by women independently ; ladies that is, either singly or in parties, unaccompanied by any gentleman. Of the women who are thus seeing the world-well, accept the expression which is trembling on our pen-on their own hook, there are travellers and travellers. To speak only of our own countrywomen, look round the long table d'hôte of any foreign hotel or pension, and we see typical specimens of the independent English woman abroad. There are widows with children, and widows without ties; spinsters travelling for pleasure, and spinsters abroad for health ; ladies who have let their houses, or left them in the charge of servants, and ladies who have given up housekeeping altogether. It is surprising how many of the latter, wanderers on the face of the earth, oue encounters at hotels and pensions ; circunstances probably led them in the first instance to give up their settled home, and the propensity for rambling grows with the indulgence. Possessed by a restless spirit, they are never long in one place, and there are few places of favourite resort which they do not know.