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termination of the suit, and the mother must not have access to them during the short time which will elapse before I shall have to enter on this subject, I regret to say, with more minuteness than I am now treating it
. Having regard to the principle of law affirmed in the judgment of the Lords Justices, I am satisfied that the proper course is to let the children remain without the temptation on their side and that of the mother to enter into religious controversy. I shall not, therefore, allow the mother, in the absence of any peculiar circumstances, to have access to the children between the present time and the hearing of the cause. With this order there will be the usual direction that the children shall not be taken out of the jurisdiction of the Court.
FOREIGN NOTES AND NEWS.
FRANCE. At the Municipal elections which recently took place in Paris, a woman, Mme. Léonie Rouzade, candidate for the Bercy quartier received 57 votes. It may be observed that the voting papers which contained her name were at the time of the examination counted as legal votes. Hitherto any ballot papers containing the names of women have been annulled.—Le Droit des Femmes.
The Droit des Femmes has an article upon women who are pharmacists. Any lay practitioner, men as well as women, are compelled to have a diploma, as in England, but an exception is made in favour of nnns, of whom even the most ignorant may make up and distribute medicines without having passed any examination whatever. Several serious accidents have lately been the consequence.
Le National, in commenting on the progress women have made during the last twenty-five years, says that last year the Congrèsphylloxerique, assembled at Bordeaux, had two grand prizes to award to the viniculturists who had signalised themselves by intelligence, activity, and perseverance in the conflict with the phylloxera. They were awarded to two ladies. The writer in Le National had forgotten the name of the recipient of the first prize. She is the proprietor of a large vineyard in the environs of Le. tourne, and she received the medal of honour. The second is the Countess de Fitz James.
At the meeting of the Committee of the Institution for English Nurses in Paris, 29, Avenue Wagram, Paris, recently, it was reported that his Excellency Viscount Lyons, the English Ambassador, and his Excellency the Hon. L. B. Morton, Ambassador of the United States, have consented to become patrons of this Institution, which, supported by an English lady, sends an English trained nurse to any part of the Continent.
ITALY. Miss MERTENS, a young English musician, after one year's study at the Milan Conservatorio, has gained the Premio d'onore" and silver medal for singing and general musical knowledge. This is the first time since the Conservatorio was founded that the honour has been conferred upon a foreign lady.—Birmingham Daily Post, December 21st, 1881.
SWEDEN. SWEDISH WOMEN'S WORK.-Mr. Drummond Hay, British Consul at Stockholm, calls attention to the remarkable development in the export trade in Swedish matches. Nearly 23 millions skalpunds (about 19 milions of pounds avoirdupois) were shipped during 1880. One “tändsticker fabrick" alone, which is stated to be fast gaining a world-wide celebrity for the quality combined with cheapness of its products, employs 872 hands, of which 339 are women. This factory was originally started on a very small scale in 1845. The precautions adopted against fire are said to be so efficient, that the buildings are insured for comparatively low premiums.
M. PAUL DU CHAILLU, in his “ Land of the Midnight Sun,” calls attention to the large number of women employed as managers and stewards on board the steamers. The custom of employing them on board originated, he says, in the wars of Charles XII., which drained the country of all the men.
AMERICA. AN ARGUMENT FOR FEMALE SUFFRAGE IN THE UNITED STATES. One of the first acts of President Arthur has been to issue an authoritative announcement that in the future no Government appointments will be given to women. Women are no longer to be regarded as eligible for clerkships in the post offices, pension agencies, &c., and thus one promising opening for the employment of women has been abruptly closed. No reason is given officialy, but in private it is admitted that the reason for the new ukase is the dissatisfaction of the “party” at female appointments. Women have no votes. The action of the President materially strengthens the case for women's suffrage.
INDIA. THE Journal of the National Indian Association has made an addition to its name, the words “and Female Education” being inserted after “in Aid of Social Progress.” This change shows the deep interest the Association takes in the growing, though not yet very wide spread desire of women in India, and of their relatives, that they may share the advantages of modern culture. The Journal is full of interesting information about female education.
The Madras Standard states that four young ladies, one of whom is a Hindu, have joined the Madras Medical College, and a fifth was expected to join shortly.
THE Bengal Ladies' Association (Calcutta) held a meeting a few weeks ago, at which a paper was read by Miss Kadambini Bose on “ The Advantages to be derived from Social Meetings.” On these occasions the members read and discuss news from Europe and the United States relating to education and progress. WOMEN DOCTORS.
A letter in the Times, December 6th, gives the opinions of Sir Salar Jung upon the necessity of having a greater supply of women physicians in India. He stated his views very
fully on this matter. His opinion was, that it would be a great benefit to India--a benefit which could not be exaggerated—if English medical women, completely educated in England, could settle in the chief towns to act as teachers as well as practitioners. He said that in the rural districts a class of ordinary female practitioners, not of the stamp of teachers, would be very acceptable to the vast native populations. He was of opinion that both classes would obtain a suitable and an honourable professional maintenance; and though it would be impossible to give any precise estimate of the required numbers, 250 of the first class, and 1,000 of the second might be safely named. If the attempt were successful, these numbers would probably prove wholly insufficient.
AFRICA. The Government of Liberia has given two hundred acres of land for the foundation of a seminary for the education of young girls. Miss Margaretta Scott has gone to Liberia to begin the work. She carries with her 5000 dols. for a commencement and a charter from the State of Maryland, also an annual endowment of 5,000 dols.
A BRAVE GIRL. — The following account of a piece of heroism on the part of a young English woman, by which she lost her life, has lately come from the Cape. On the 23rd September last Miss Burton, a governess in the family of Mr. Saul Solomon, resident at Capetown, was out with her little pupils, when the youngest, a girl of five, fell into a reservoir of water. Miss Burton endeavoured vainly to rescue her little charge by ineans of her parasol, and then jumped in after her. The elder children ran home to raise the alarm, but when help was obtained both the governess and child had disappeared, and is was necessary to use drags for the bodies. Great sympathy was expressed throughout the town for the bereaved parents, and also much admiration for the brave girl who lost her life in attempting to save that of the child entrusted to her.
SOUTH AFRICA. The silver medal for deeds of gallantry on land has been awarded by the Chapter of the Order of St. John to Mrs. Marion Smith, widow of bandmaster B. Smith, 94th regiment, for her courageous self-devotion in remaining under fire during the action of Bronkhorst Spruit, on December 20, 1880, alleviating the sufferings of the wounded in every possible manner, even tearing up her own dress to make bandages; and also for the good service rendered by her for a period of three months, when she voluntarily remained with the prisoners of war, many of them wounded, to whose comfort she displayed unremitting attention under the most trying circumstances. Mrs. Smith's humanity and courage were made the subject of a special district order, published by Colonel Bellairs, at Pretoria, on April 5th.
HONOLULU, HAWAIIAN ISLANDS. DEATH OF Miss CROWNINBERG.—The deceased Miss Crowninberg was a highly educated and esteemed young lady, possessing the most refined and polished manners, having attended the St. Cross Seminary, Lahaina, fifteen years, under the able management of Sisters Bertha and Phoebe, of the Anglican Mission. She was proficient in
the English and French languages; as also music, a thorough knowledge of which she acquired from the accomplished Miss Eva Spencer. Miss Crowninberg will be long remembered by many small-pox patients on account of the invaluable services rendered by her during the late epidemic in Honolulu; nor was she forgotten by the Princess Regent, the good Liliuokalani, who paid the young lady (then on her dying bed) a visit on the occasion of her late tour around the island of Maui. The St. Cross Seminary of the Anglican Mission at Lahaina may well be proud of Miss Crowninberg's having been at one time a pupil ; and, it may be added, that the lamented deceased young lady truly deserved the name of the “ Hawaiian Florence Nightingale.”—Pacific Commercial Advertiser.
PARAGRAPHS. STATUS OF WOMEN AMONG UNCIVILISED NATIONS. An article in Knowledge, on December 23rd, by Miss A. W. Buckland, upon the Wyandotte Indians, gives an interesting addition to our information of the customs of so-called savage tribes with regard to the position of women; it is an abstract of the account given by Mr. John W. Powell, Vice-President of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, of the form of government among the Wyandotte Indians. In the Wyandotte government four groups are recognised—the family, the gens, the phratry, and the tribe.
The family is nearly synonymous with household. The head of the family is a woman.
The gens is an organised body of consanguineal kindred in the female line. 6. The woman carries the gens,” is the formulated statement by which a Wyandotte expresses the idea that descent is in the female line. Each gens has the name of some animal—the ancient of such animal being the tutelar god.
There are four phratries in the tribe, and this division seems to be used chiefly for religious purposes, in the preparation of medicines and in festivals and games. The eleven gentes, as four phratries, constitute the tribe. Each gens is a body of consanguineal kindred in the female line, and each gens is allied to other gentes by consanguineous kinship through the male line, and by affinity through marriage.
The civil government belongs of right to a system of councils and chiefs. In each gens there is a council composed of four women. These four women councillors select a chief of the gens from their brothers and sons, and this chief is the head of the gentile council
. The tribal council is composed, therefore, of one-fifth men and four-fifths women,
The four women councillors of the gens are chosen by the heads of households, themselves being women. There is no formal election, but by frequent discussion it is decided that in the event of the death of any councillor a certain person will take her place. When a woman is installed as councillor, a feast is given by the gens to which she belongs, to which all the members of the tribe are invited. The woman is painted and dressed in her best attire, and the sachem of the tribe, who is chosen by the chiefs of the gentes, places upon her head the gentile chaplet of feathers, and announces in a formal manner to the multitude that the woman has been chosen a councillor.
The gentile chief is chosen by the council women after consultation with the other women and men of the gens. At his installation, the councilwomen invest him with an elaborately ornamented tunic, place upon his head a chaplet of feathers, and paint the gentile token on his face.
It is the function of government to preserve rights and enforce the performance of duties. These rights are1. Rights of marriage; 2. Rights to names ; 3. Rights to personal adornment; 4. Rights of order in encampments and migrations ; 5. Rights of property; 6. Rights of person ; 7. Rights of community ; 8. Rights of religion.
Marriage between members of the same gens is forbidden. Polygamy is permitted, but the first wife remains the head of the household. A man seeking a wife consults with her mother, and the mother of the girl tries to obtain the consent of the women councillors, but their consent is usually quietly submitted to. When a mother dies, the children belong to her sister or nearest female kin, the matter being settled by the council women of the gens.
Once a year, the council women of the gens select the names for the children born during the year, and the chief of the gens proclaims them at the festival. No person may change his name, but by honourable conduct he may win another.
Within the tribal area, each gens occupies a tract for cultivation. The women councillors partition the gentile land among the householders. The ground is repartitioned once in two years. Cultivation is communal, that is, all of the able-bodied women of the gens take part in the cultivation of each household tract.
The wigwam, or lodge, and all the articles of the household belong to the woman, the head of the bousehold; and at her death are inherited by her eldest daughter or nearest of female kin. The matter is settled by the council women. If the husband die, his property is inherited by his brother, or his sister's son, except such portion as may be buried with him. His property consists of his clothing, hunting and fishing implements, and such articles as are used personally by himself. Usually a small canoe is the individual property of the
Large canoes are made by the male members of the gentes, and are the property of the gentes. Each gens has a right to the services of all its women in the cultivation of the soil. Each gens has the right to the service of all its male members in avenging wrongs, and each tribe has the right to the service of all its male members in time of war,