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themselves of each new concession to the right of suffrage.

An important step has also been gained in the new dignity, which women graduates of the London University enjoy. In January last the London University finally decreed their admission as Members of Convocation. It will be remembered that the Charter of 1868, which gave the University the power to confer degrees expressly provided that they were not to be Members of Convocation till adınitted by that body. With only three or four dissentients, the Members of Convocation, on January 17th, resolved to admit women graduates; this vote is evidence of a distinct growth in the public sentiment of justice. It has been pointed out that it possibly involves something more. Although that part of the motion which included the right of women graduates, who are Members of Convocation, to vote in the election of the Members of Parliament for the University was withdrawn, yet as other graduates of a certain standing have that right, and as no disqualification on the ground of sex now exists in the University Charters, it may be presumed that women graduates should be entitled to be placed on the roll of parliamentary electors. The question may, at any rate, be raised at a future time.

In other respects the educational status of women is rapidly improving: Women have passed very successful examinations in the Royal University of Ireland. His Grace, the Duke of Abercorn, when the first ceremony of conferring degrees took place on November 7th, emphatically referred to this fact, saying:

“At our first Matriculation Examination, 28 of the fair sex availed themselves of the privilege, and at the matriculation which has just concluded the number has increased to 51; while amongst the exhibitioners in December, 1881, are to be found the names of three ladies, we find that in 1882 the exhibition list includes the names of four ladies, and it is also noteworthy that among the candidates who have obtained high honours in the various subjects, including Latin and mathematics, ladies are to be found."

The foundation of the Liverpool University College,



which admits women to most of the classes attended by men, removes the obstacle which has hitherto prevented them from profiting by the Charter of the New Victoria University, which has power to confer degrees on all persons, male and female, who have graduated in one of its colleges. And signs are not wanting that even Owens College, at no distant period, may relax its adamantine rules and allow the affiliation of a woman's College.

Great in honour, if not in years, has been the society for promoting the Higher Education of Women, which, during the past few months bas terminated its useful career. During the eleven years of its existence it has done a variety of unpretending work, of which the solid results are almost incalculable. It found the only education attainable by girls wofully incomplete and superficial, and it has established the Girl's Public Day School Company, and by this and other means has opened high schools in all the largest cities in the kingdom where solid education can be obtained at a very cheap rate. It found only a scanty recognition of the claim of women to University teaching, and it has left them students in the two older Universities and receiving their degrees from those of London nd Ireland. It instituted, and, by its example, caused others to institute lectures to ladies on many subjects of science, literature, and history. It established scholarships to be given in connection with the University Examinations, to enable girls to continue their studies after the ordinary school age; it took up the good work which had been already originated of holding evening classes for working women. One of its last efforts was to establish the Teachers' Training and Registration Society, which will do much to organise the national methods of teaching. The Union felt at last that it was no longer needed as a separate organisation, not because girls and women are already placed on a level with boys and men as regards education, but because the separate societies which it has established to carry on the different branches of its work absorbed the time and money of its friends, and left the parent stem unsupported; and, moreover, what




it has accomplished has been so thoroughly done that the public demand for a higher education for women is now strong enough to dispense with a special association for its advocacy.

The rapid increase in the number of ladies who were elected last spring to fill the responsible office of Poor Law Guardian gives confirmation strong of the increasing sense that women have certain functions to perform in the public service which cannot so well be accomplished by men. In 1881, the number of women who served as Guardians in London was only seven, and four in other towns and districts. This year the number was increased to eleven in London and fifteen in the country. Birmingham, Bridgwater, Leeds and Bristol elected two or more ladies, a wise precaution, as by mutual co-operation their sphere of usefulness is greatly extended. In some towns where ladies were candidates, the election failed though no hostility towards themselves, but from local politics, or from some flaw in the qualification. It is certain that whatever arguments may be adduced in favour of retaining ratepaying as the necessary qualification for being elected as a Guardian, it limits greatly the number of women who are eligible for the office, and specially removes from the competition many of those ladies who being free from absorbing domestic duties could give a large portion of their time to philanthropic work. If, as seems probable, the Government should revise the whole subject of Local Government, this question of property qualification will probably come under their notice. Meanwhile it is evident that while a very small proportion of men who are fit for such duties are excluded from them by not being householders, a very large number of women who could bring specially valuable assistance to such work, are shut out from it by the maintenance of the property qualification.

The School Board elections have also been satisfactory. A diminished number of ladies it is true have been elected on the new London School Board; but the withdrawal of three of the lady members was due to temporary and personal causes, and not one single lady who has come forward has failed of election. The Tower Hamlets electors have for the first time returned a lady. It is a satisfactory sign also that in Bradford and Sheffield, where hitherto no woman has found a seat on the School Board, ladies have been triumphantly elected.

The appointment of women as Registrars of births and deaths in four different parishes, though not absolutely new, points to an increasing disposition to place women in an office for which they have been specially trained by previous circumstances, and we hope that such appointments may be frequently repeated. It very often happens that the daughter or wife of a registrar has greatly assisted him in his duties, and thus become the fittest person

to succeed him in the event of his death; and we are glad to see that the prejudice which has hitherto prevented their appointment in slowly dying out.

Not only in England have we great reason for thankfulness at the advance made in our work this

In France we have had to chronicle the establishment of a sound law for the Secondary Education of girls which will probably do more than any other measure to raise the social position of women. The mountain barrier of the Pyrenees has been no obstacle to the advancing wave of progress. One lady has already received her medical degree from the Madrid University, and we are told of another who is following in her footsteps; and the Supreme Council of Education has recommended to the Government measures for spreading and improving the education of women. In other countries which are supposed to be quite outside the current of reform, the same progress is visible; and both in the Sclavonic province of Croatia and in Iceland, the outpost of the Scandinavian race, the Municipal Franchise has been conceded to women. In America several of the Legislatures of the Western States have passed women's suffrage bills, and though our friends failed when making the final appeal to the electors in Nebraska, 40,000 men voted for it, no inconsiderable number when we remember the large proportion of foreign immigrants in the State whose prejudices in favour of the subjection of women are still flourishing.




On the whole then, there, is deep cause for thankfulness on reviewing the record of the year, and from the good that has been won, let us take courage to battle with the evil that still remains to be overcome. These evils are of gigantic size, and of deep root, they are the offspring of injustice, of sloth, of cowardice, of prejudice and of selfishness; they must be combated by greater bravery and greater exertions on the part of women, by broader conception of justice and equality on the part of men, and by the frank abandonment by both of prejudice when the clear light of reason shines upon it. But new workers are coming in fast, and with new duties they find fresh powers to undertake them : and if the past has been full of gain achieved, the future is also full of promise of

The nobler modes of life,
With sweeter manners, purer laws.

ART. II.-MADAME HENRIETTE DELONG. Inventor of machines, tools and operations for cutting all hard metals

mechanically by saws. Originator of a new art-industry, especially applied in architecture.--Notes from French official documents,

by S. Orth. “ Are Women Inventors ?” was the heading of a paper in the October number of the ENGLISHWOMAN'S REVIEW, 1882, which has induced the collector of these notes to direct the attention of English readers to a very remarkable, ingenious and courageous woman-inventor.

According to the official testimony of various French commissioners, and many eminent French architects, as Messieurs Violet le Duc, Lalande, Duc, Lefuel and others, Madame Delong has originated a new art-industry, which finds extensive application in the decorations of buildings, of furniture, windows, doors, and in a large number of products known as “ Articles de Paris ;" and the various inventions of this lady have been patented in France, England and other countries. The products of

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