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TABLE 152.-Per cent of foreign-born persons 6 years of age or over who speak English, by years in the United States and race of individual.


By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States. This table includes only non-English-speaking races with 40 or more persons reporting." The total, however, is for all nonEnglish-speaking races.]

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In this locality the Swedes and French Canadians have the largest proportion of individuals in the United States under 5 years who speak English. All of the Swedes who have been in the United States from five to nine years and ten years or over speak English. With this exception, of the proportion of individuals in the United States from five to nine years who can speak English is largest for the French Canadians and the proportion who have been here ten years or over who can speak English is largest for the Germans and French Canadians, in the order mentioned, and smallest for the South Italians.


The large majority of immigrants who have come to Community B have been members of the Roman Catholic Church, and when the membership of one race is sufficiently large a church for that particular race is erected. There are two Irish, one German, one Italian, one French Canadian, and one Polish Catholic Church in this community. Churches of most of the protestant denominations, as the Protestant Episcopal, Methodist, Baptist, Congregational, German and Swedish Lutheran, and Universalist, are found in Community B, and they receive immigrants of their beliefs into membership. In addition to these churches, there is a Jewish synagogue in which Jews of all races attend. The negroes attend the African Methodist Church. Members of the Greek Catholic Church of Russia, composed of Austrians, Russians, and others affiliated with that body, hold services in the parish house of one of the Protestant Episcopal churches. No special work is done by the Catholic church among the immigrants. Of the Protestant churches, the Baptist maintains a preaching service, a Bible class, a sewing school for girls, and a physical training school for boys at a hall in the Italian quarter. An Italian missionary is engaged to work among these people. The Universelist Church does social and religious work through the Connecticut Bible Society, which reaches all aliens in the State. The Congregational Church helps to support a smaller church of that denomination in Community B, and the Congregational Home Missionary Society

contributes to the support of the minister. This society also does work among the immigrants of Connecticut, especially among the Italians, with whom they have met with a large measure of success. The Catholic churches have, approximately, the following membership: Irish Catholic, 6,000; German Catholic, 1,000; Italian Catholic, 1,200; French Canadian Catholic, 1,950; Polish Catholic, 2,000. In the Protestant Episcopal Churches are found a large number of English, some Germans, while the remainder are Americans. The Congregational Church has a large percentage of Germans, some Swedes, and a few Italians among the foreign races. The Universalist has a membership of 300, of which 9 are foreign-born, 26 nativeborn of foreign parents, and 265 Americans. Almost all of the foreign-born and native-born of foreign parentage are Germans; however, a few are Russian Jews and Lithuanians. In the Baptist Church are found 31 English or the children of English, 30 Germans or the children of Germans, some Swedes, and a few Italians. The Methodist Church has a number of English, Irish, Polish, and Scandinavians in attendance. The Swedish and German Lutheran churches have good attendance, one of the German Lutheran churches having a membership of over 100. The Catholic churches are attended by races so that the question of relationship does not enter, but in the Protestant churches all of the ministers state that the relationship is most pleasant. One minister states, "The children, whether of foreign or American birth, assimilate the American spirit so quickly that it is difficult to determine their origin." The City Mission, on whose board of trustees most of the Protestant ministers are members, does some religious work among immigrants, in connection with its charitable undertakings. The Salvation Army does religious and charitable work among the poor, and the members of the Jewish synagogue carry on religious and charitable work among the Jews of the community.


There are no libraries equipped for immigrant races in this community, and no special efforts are made to provide the same. An organization connected with the French Canadian Roman Catholic Church and one of the Polish societies have small libraries with books in the native languages, but small interest is shown and they are not considered as being very successful. The public library is open to immigrants and their children, but such interest as is shown. is confined to those children who are attending schools. The immigrants themselves manifest no interest in the public library of this community. Among the children of immigrants an increasing interest is being shown by the Polish children who are attending school. Children of English and German speaking races also manifest a decided interest in the library.

The children of English-speaking immigrants generally call for fiction, while the Polish children in addition to the reading of fiction, are also readers of biography. As previously stated, the immigrants themselves do not patronize the library. The books are almost all in English and the difficulties to be overcome are too great or the incentive too small to induce them to become readers.


The English, Irish, and Scotch have been the most rapidly Americanized races in Community B, due in large measure to the language spoken. Following are the Germans and Swedes, who, although the process has been slower, have become thoroughly Americanized. On the other hand, the Italian, Greek, and Slavic races, with entirely different languages, and with different modes of living, have been much harder to imbue with American ideals, but the process of Americanization, while slower, has also been effective, especially with the Italian race. The least and slowest progress has been among the Slavic races, and yet, even among these, especially in the case of the children, Americanization has been carried on and has exerted some influence.

The strongest cause affecting Americanization is the use of the English language. It is imperative that the immigrants have at least a smattering of English, otherwise it is almost impossible to secure employment in this community. Men who have come here and who are unable to speak any English have been obliged to seek work on the farms in the vicinity, and women and girls having no knowledge of English, on being refused work in the factories, have turned to domestic service in order to gain a knowledge of the language before taking up the employment they desire. The right of the ballot tends largely toward the Americanization of the immigrants. Although they may not always use the ballot to the best advantage, yet the idea that they have become citizens has the effect of making them more thoroughly American. The Englishspeaking races have been quick to take advantage of the ease with which naturalization papers have formerly been secured, and with their relatively low rate of illiteracy have easily passed the educational tests demanded by Connecticut. The Germans are next in securing naturalization papers, and the Scandinavian races are also eager to gain citizenship with its attendant privileges. Among these races Americanization has been strongest and most widespread in its influence. The Italian race has also shown great desire to gain the ballot, although with them the ballot has been harder to acquire on account of their difficulty in mastering English. This difficulty is also one which people of Slavic races have to overcome, but their desire for the ballot is scarcely as great as in the case of the Italians. Another cause which tends to favor Americanization is membership in the various shop societies, which are beneficial in character, and the trade unions. Here men of all races meet, and, having a common purpose, all race antipathies and customs are laid aside in behalf of the principles of the society. The language used in the meetings is English, the propositions discussed are pertinent to all, and those in which all have a voice.

The ownership of property is another cause which aids in the Americanization of the immigrant. The men of all races in this community who own property are, almost without exception, men who are the leaders of their race and the ones who have been the most open to the influence of American methods and ideals. Of all races, the German has been the most successful in this respect and the German race in Community B owns over $1,000,000 worth of property. The men of any race who own real estate are the ones

who intend to remain in the United States. In this community they are a permanent element of the population and their welfare, their aims and desires, are the same as those of the natives. For these reasons the property-owning class, the great majority of which are citizens, have been the class, regardless of race, that have made the best citizens.

The public schools, both day and night, have had a strong influence in bringing about Americanization. Through the night schools the immigrant has been reached directly, while through the day schools the children of immigrants have been acted upon. In many cases where the foreign-born have clung to customs un-American the influence of the public school upon the children has been to modify the views of the fathers through the children. In the home the native language may be spoken, but in the school the child acquires a knowledge of the English tongue, mingles with children of all races, and absorbes American ideas, which it brings to the home. The night school is of value because it teaches the immigrant the language of our country, and with this as a basis advancement is always rapid. Marriages between races play a very small part in aiding Americanization. With the English, Irish, and French Canadian races, who in many cases have married native women, it has had an effect, but with the races whose native tongue is other than English its influence has been small. One cause that tends to hinder Americanization is the segregation of races, as in the case of the Slavic and Italian races. The quarters of the city given up to the Poles and other Slavic races has had a tendency to isolate them. This is true also of the Italian, and to a less extent of the French Canadians. Isolation has been brought about by willingness on both sides. The immigrant naturally goes to his own people, and the native is perfectly willing that he should. The result has been to keep the immigrant to himself, and he has not felt the broadening influence of Americanization which those of other races not segregated have felt.

The social-caste system which exists in Community B has also hindered Americanization. Men of different races, aside from the English speaking, do not meet socially. Race traits enter into this problem, and in many cases the love of the native language and the common religion cause men of other tongues to cling together. They have little in common with the native, especially with those of the lower classes, and when work for the day is over each goes his own way. Socially, excepting the English-speaking races, the races found in this community do not mix with each other or with the natives, and the barriers of race, which employment, politics, and other forces tend to break down, are strongly upheld when the social side of life is taken into consideration.

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