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Of 686 households studied in this locality 85.7 per cent have heads who are of foreign birth, the heads of 9.9 per cent of the households are native-born whites of native father and the heads of 4.4 per cent of the households are native-born of foreign father. Of the households whose heads are native-born of foreign father, those whose heads are of English, German, and Irish parentage each show 1.5 per cent of the total number of households for whom information was secured. Of the households whose heads are foreign-born, those whose heads are Swedes show 16.2 per cent, while households the heads of which are Lithuanians, Slovaks, Poles, South Italians, and Germans show over 10 per cent; the households the heads of which are Ruthenians show over 6 per cent; while the households the heads of which are Russians show only 1.6 per cent of the total number of households studied in this locality.

MEMBERS OF HOUSEHOLDS FOR WHOM DETAILED INFORMATION WAS SECURED.

The table next presented shows, by general nativity and race of head of household, the persons in households studied and persons for whom detailed information was secured.

TABLE 155.—Persons in households studied and persons for whom detailed information was secured, by general nativity and race of head of household.

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Of the 3,688 persons in the 686 households studied in this locality, 90.9 per cent are in households the heads of which are foreign-born, 3 per cent in households the heads of which are native-born of foreign father, and the remaining proportion, a fraction over 6 per cent, in households the heads of which are native whites born of native father.

Concerning those in households the heads of which are foreignborn, only 2.2 per cent are in Russian households, and 9.1 per cent each in German and Ruthenian households, as compared with proportions in Polish, Swedish, Lithuanian, South Italian, and Slovak households, in the order named, ranging from 16.3 to 13 per cent. In households, the heads of which are native-born of foreign father, the proportions in those the heads of which are the second generation of English, Germans, and Irish, are practically the same. As regards those persons for whom detailed information was secured, it will be noted that the proportions in the various households vary only slightly, when at all, from the proportions shown for all persons in the households studied.

The following table shows, by general nativity and race of head of household, the sex of persons for whom detailed information was secured:

TABLE 156.-Sex of persons for whom detailed information was secured, by general nativity and race of head of household.

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The preceding table shows that of 3,675 persons for whom detailed information was secured, 54.8 per cent are males and 45.2 per cent are females. The persons who are native-born whites of native father, and those who are native-born of foreign father show a higher percentage of females than of males; while the employees of foreign birth show a considerably higher percentage of males than of females. Of the employees who are native-born of foreign father, those of English and Irish parentage show a much higher percentage of females than of males; with the employees of German parentage the reverse is true.

Of the foreign-born employees each race shows a higher percentage of males than of females.

The table following shows, by sex, and general nativity and race of individual, persons in the households studied for whom detailed information was secured.

TABLE 157.-Persons for whom detailed information was secured, by sex and general nativity and race of individual.

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The preceding table shows that of 3,675 persons for whom detailed information was secured, 2,014 are males and 1,661 are females. Of the total number for whom information was secured 55.1 per cent are of foreign birth, 37.8 per cent are native-born of foreign father, and 7.1 per cent are native-born whites of native father. Of the persons who are native-born whites of native father and those who are native-born of foreign father the table shows that information. was secured from a higher percentage of females than of males, while of the foreign-born persons information was secured from a higher percentage of males than of females.

Of the persons who are native-born of foreign father, those of Swedish parentage show 7.5 per cent, followed in the order named by those of Slovak, Lithuanian and German parentage, while no persons whose parents were of any other specified race show over 5 per cent of the total number for whom information was secured. All of the persons who are native-born of foreign father, except those whose fathers were born in Russia, show a higher percentage of females than of males.

Of the foreign-born persons the Poles show 12.2 per cent, followed by the South Italians, the Lithuanians, the Slovaks, the Swedes, and the Ruthenians, while none of the other specified races show over

4.5 per cent of the total number for whom information was secured. In this group the Bohemians and Moravians, English, Irish, and Swedes show a higher percentage of females than of males.

EMPLOYEES FOR WHOM INFORMATION WAS SECURED.

Detailed data were also secured for 3,924 members of the foundry and machine shop products manufacturing establishments of the community. The following table shows, by sex, the number and per cent of employees of each race for whom information was secured: TABLE 158.-Employees for whom information was secured, by sex and general nativity and race.

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CHAPTER II.

RACIAL DISPLACEMENTS.

History of immigration-Estimated population at the present time (1909)-Period of residence in the United States of foreign-born employees and members of their households-Racial classification of employees at the present time. [Text Tables 159 to 165 and General Table 133].

HISTORY OF IMMIGRATION.

For seventy years the immigrant has been coming to Community C. Up to the late eighteen hundred and thirties the town was composed of a purely American population. The first of the immigrants were the Irish. The construction of the steam railroad, which was opened to traffic in 1839, brought numbers of Irish laborers into the vicinity. Upon the completion of the railroad, some of them drifted into an adjacent valley and found work upon farms near the city. From that time onward the Irish population has increased, being most rapid in its augmentation during the twenty years from 1850 to 1870.

At about the time that the Irish population began to increase most rapidly (1850), the first Germans came. Unlike the Irish, they did not come by chance, but in answer to a demand for skilled factory labor. New methods in hardware manufacture had produced a demand for more skilled labor than the local market could supply; effort was made to get machinists and lock makers; and in answer about 30 young unmarried Germans came in the year 1850. Their reports of well-paid work brought about 100 more to the community in the next three years, some coming from Germany, some from other parts of the United States. From that time on the influx of Germans was gradual until about 1870-1872, when many German families emigrated from Germany to Community C, numbers of them to escape conscription and the war in Europe. During the next twelve years (1872-1884) the arrival of Germans was considerable; but of late the stream of German immigration has been slight.

The number of Scotch in the city is so inconsiderable (only about 400) that their part in local history is not important. It is worthy of note, however, that they were among the early immigrants. They began to arrive about 1860, and during the next twenty years continued to come, a few at a time. Since 1880, however, Scotch immigrants to the community have been rare.

Next to establish himself in the community was the Hebrew. About the year 1868 the first Hebrew arrivals appeared. The period of their greatest influx, however, did not begin until some fourteen years later; the period from 1882 to 1890 saw the most rapid increase in the Hebrew population. While the first Hebrew came to open a store, most of the early, as well as the later, arrivals came because of the opportunity to work in the hardware and other factories.

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