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holds whose heads are Swedes show the highest average rent per apartment, per room, and per person, the households the heads of which are Slovaks show the lowest average monthly rent per apartment, and households the heads of which are Ruthenians the lowest average rent per month per room and per person.

The range in monthly rents for apartments is set forth in the following table, which shows, by general nativity and race of head of household, the percentage of households paying each specified rent per month per apartment.

TABLE 188.-Per cent of households paying each specified rent per month per apartment, by general nativity and race of head of household.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only races with 20 or more households reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.]

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Of 530 households shown, in the above table, 0.9 per cent pay under $5 rent per month per apartment, 20.6 per cent pay under $7.50, 51.7 per cent pay under $10, and 82.5 per cent pay under $12.50. The average rent per month per apartment for all households studied is $9.87. Over 4 per cent of the households whose heads are nativeborn of foreign father pay under $5 rent per month per apartment as contrasted with less than 1 per cent of the households the heads of which are foreign-born and no households the heads of which are native-born whites of native father. The households the heads of which are foreign-born show a considerably higher percentage paying under $7.50, under $10, and under $12.50 rent per month per apartment than households the heads of which are native-born of foreign father and those whose heads are native whites born of native father, which follow in the order named.

The households the heads of which are native whites born of native father report an average rent per apartment of $13.42 as contrasted with $12.28, which is the average monthly rental in households whose heads are native-born of foreign father, and $9.33, which is the average monthly rental per apartment paid by households the heads of which are of foreign birth. The households the heads of which are Slovaks, Ruthenians, and Lithuanians, show small proportions paying under $5 rent per month per apartment, as contrasted with no households

the heads of which are Germans, South Italians, Poles, and Swedes. The households the heads of which are Slovaks show the highest percentage, and those whose heads are Swedes the lowest percentage paying under $7.50 and under $10 rent per month per apartment. The households the heads of which are Poles and Slovaks show 100 per cent as contrasted with 55.3 per cent of the households whose heads are Germans paying under $12.50 rent per month per apart

ment.

The households the heads of which are Swedes and Germans show an average rent per apartment of $12.30 and $12.29, respectively, as contrasted with $7.91, which is the average rental paid by households the heads of which are Ruthenians and $7.29, which is the average monthly rental paid by households the heads of which are Slovaks. The following table shows the percentage of households paying each specified rent per month per room, by general nativity and race of head of household.

TABLE 189.-Per cent of households paying each specified rent per month per room, by general nativity and race of head of household.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only races with 20 or more households reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.]

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Of 530 households shown in the preceding table, 11.3 per cent pay under $2 rent per month per room, 86.4 per cent pay under $3, and 99.2 per cent pay under $4. The average rent per month per room for all households studied is $2.41. The households the heads of which are native-born of foreign father show the highest percentage paying under $2 rent per month per room, closely followed by the households the heads of which are of foreign birth, while those whose heads are native-born whites of native father show very small proportions paying under the above amount. The households the heads of which are foreign-born show a considerably higher percentage paying under $3 rent per month per room than the households the heads of which are native whites born of native father or native-born of foreign father, which follow in the order named. The households the heads of which are of foreign birth show 100 per cent paying under $4, while those whose heads are native-born of foreign

father show 95.7 per cent and those whose heads are native whites born of native father, 94.4 per cent paying under this amount. The average rent per room paid by the households the heads of which are native whites born of native father is $2.77, as contrasted with $2.64, which is the average rent per room paid by the households the heads of which are native-born of foreign father, and $2.34, which is the average rent paid by the households the heads of which are of foreign birth. The households the heads of which are Ruthenians report the highest percentage, and those whose heads are Swedes the lowest percentage paying under $2. The households the heads of which are Poles show 100 per cent, while those whose heads are Swedes show only 69.2 per cent paying under $3. No households whose heads are of foreign birth pay over $4 rent per room per month. The households the heads of which are Swedes show the highest average rent per room, which is $2.64, and the households the heads of which are Ruthenians the lowest average rent per room, which is $2.11.

The real situation relative to congestion is set forth in the following table, which indicates the extent of crowding within the households studied by showing, according to general nativity and race of head of household, the percentage of households paying each specified rent per month per person.

TABLE 190.-Per cent of households paying each specified rent per month per person, by general nativity and race of head of household.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only races with 20 or more households reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.]

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Of 530 households studied in the above table, 9.4 per cent pay under $1 rent per month per person, 54.7 per cent pay under $2, 73.4 per cent pay under $3, and 85.1 per cent pay under $4. The average rent per month per person for all households studied is $1.81. The households the heads of which are foreign-born report 11 per cent paying under $1 rent per month per person, while no households the heads of which are native-born of foreign father or native whites. born of native father pay under that amount. The households the heads of which are foreign-born show the highest per cent paying under $2, under $3, and under $4 rent per month per person, while

those whose heads are native-born of foreign father and native whites born of native father show much smaller proportions paying under each of the above-mentioned amounts. The households the heads. of which are native whites born of native father show an average rent per person of $3.94, those whose heads are native-born of foreign father show an average rent per person of $3.62, and the households whose heads are of foreign birth show an average rent per month per person of $1.61. The households whose heads are Ruthenians show the highest percentage paying under $1 and under $2 rent per person, while none of the households whose heads are Germans or Swedes pay under $1, and comparatively small proportions pay under $2. The households whose heads are Poles and Ruthenians show 100 per cent paying under $3, while only 47.4 per cent of the households whose heads are Swedes pay under that amount. The households whose heads are Poles, Ruthenians, and Slovaks show 100 per cent. as contrasted with 73.7 per cent of the households whose heads are Germans and 69.2 per cent of the households whose heads are Swedes paying under $4 rent per month per person. The households whose heads are Swedes show the highest and those whose heads are Ruthenians the lowest average rent per month per person.

BOARDERS AND LODGERS.

The practice of the wives of employees in Community C in supplementing the earnings of their husbands by taking boarders or lodgers into the home has already been discussed. The extent of this practice and its bearing upon living conditions are considered in the two following tables, the first of which exhibits the number and per cent of households keeping boarders or lodgers, by general nativity and race of head of household.

TABLE 191.-Number and per cent of households keeping boarders or lodgers, by general nativity and race of head of household.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[Information relating to boarders or lodgers covers only immediate time of taking schedule and not the entire year. Boarders are persons who receive both board and lodging.]

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ers.

Of 686 households studied in this locality and for whom information is shown in the preceding table, 37.5 per cent keep boarders or lodgThe households the heads of which are of foreign birth show 43.2 per cent as contrasted with 3.3 per cent of the households the heads of which are native-born of foreign father and 2.9 per cent of the households the heads of which are native-born whites of native father keeping boarders or lodgers. Of the households whose heads are of foreign birth, those whose heads are Poles show 88 per cent, those the heads of which are Ruthenians 78.7 per cent, and those whose heads are South Italians 58.2 per cent keeping boarders or lodgers. The households the heads of which are of other specified races show considerably smaller proportions; households whose heads are Swedes exhibiting only 1.8 per cent keeping boarders or lodgers. In the following table the average number of boarders or lodgers per household is shown according to general nativity and race of head of household. The averages are based (1) on the total number of households, and (2) on the number of households taking boarders or lodgers.

TABLE 192.-Average number of boarders or lodgers per household, by general nativity and race of head of household.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[Information relating to boarders or lodgers covers only immediate time of taking schedule and not the entire year. Boarders are persons who receive both board and lodging.]

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The preceding table shows that of 686 households studied 257 keep boarders and lodgers, the number of boarders and lodgers kept being 709. The average number of boarders and lodgers per household is 1.03 as based on the total number of households. The average number of boarders or lodgers per household as based on the number of households keeping boarders or lodgers is 2.76.

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