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CHAPTER VII.

GENERAL PROGRESS AND ASSIMILATION.

Ownership of homes-Investments-Status of children in the households studiedCitizenship-Fraternal and other organizations-Ability to speak English-Progress of immigrants-Immigrants in street trades-Immigrants in business-Immigrants in the professions Churches-Libraries-Americanization-[Text Tables 206 to 214 and General Tables 162 to 167].

OWNERSHIP OF HOMES.

The accumulation of property is not only an indication of thrift on the part of the owner, but, where the owner is a person of foreign birth, it also exhibits a tendency toward permanent settlement. In this connection the following table is submitted, showing the number and percentage of families owning home, by general nativity and race of head of family.

TABLE 206.-Number and per cent of families owning home, by general nativity and race of head of family.

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Of 735 families shown in the above table, 21.2 per cent own homes. The families the heads of which are native-born of foreign father show 22.6 per cent owning homes, closely followed by the families the heads of which are foreign-born and those whose heads are native whites born of native father which follow in the order named. Of the families the heads of which are of foreign-birth those whose heads are Germans show 45.2 per cent owning homes. The families the heads of which are Lithuanians and Swedes show 33.7 per cent and 29.7 per cent respectively, while the families whose heads are of

other specified races show considerably smaller proportions owning homes.

INVESTMENTS.

No definite information regarding the amount of money sent abroad by the various races could be obtained. The records of the international money orders sent through the post-office of the city' for the year ending November 30, 1908, have been examined and the amount thus sent to each foreign country is shown in the following statement. But these records do not show the race of the sender, and the post-office is but one of the agencies employed for sending money abroad; how much was sent through banks, foreign exchange agencies, and steamship agencies, could not be ascertained.

Money sent abroad through the Community C post-office during the year ending November 30, 1908.

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STATUS OF CHILDREN IN THE HOUSEHOLDS STUDIED.

The tables next presented are instructive as indicating the tendency on the part of children in the families studied to attend school or begin work when working age is reached. The first table shows, by general nativity and race of individual, the percentage of children 6 and under 16 years of age at home, at school, and at work.

TABLE 207.-Per cent of children 6 and under 16 years of age at home, at school, and at work, by sex and general nativity and race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only races with 40 or more children reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.]

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TABLE 207-Per cent of children 6 and under 16 years of age at home, at school, and at work, by sex and general nativity and race of individual-Continued."

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Of 612 children 6 and under 16 years of age shown in the preceding table, 5.2 per cent are at home, 89.2 per cent are at school, and 5.6 per cent are at work. The children of foreign birth show the highest percentage at home, followed by those who are native-born of foreign father and those who are native whites born of native father in the order named. The children who are native whites born of native father show the highest percentage at school, followed by the children native-born of foreign father and those who are foreign-born in smaller proportions. The foreign-born children exhibit a very much higher percentage who are at work than do the children who are native-born of foreign father, and the children who are native whites born of native father which follow in the order named.

Of the children who are native-born of foreign father, those of Polish parentage show the highest percentage and those whose parents are Slovaks the lowest percentage at home. The children whose fathers are Slovaks show the highest percentage and those whose fathers are Poles the lowest percentage who are at school. The children whose fathers were born in Germany show the highest percentage and those whose fathers are Poles the lowest percentage who are at work.

The female children show a somewhat higher percentage at home. and at school than do the male children, while the proportion of male children who are at work is somewhat larger than that of the female children who are at work.

The following table shows the number and percentage of children 6 and under 16 years of age, at home, at school, and at work, by general nativity and race of father and by birthplace of child.

TABLE 208.-Number and per cent of children 6 and under 16 years of age, at home, at school, and at work, by general nativity and race of father and by birthplace of child.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only races with 20 or more children born in the United States and also 20 or more children born abroad. The native-born of native father are shown for comparative purposes.]

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The preceding table shows that of the children who are nativeborn whites, 4.2 per cent are at home, 93.8 per cent are at school, and 2.1 per cent are at work. Of the South Italian children who were born in the United States, none are at home; while 94.4 per cent are at school, and 5.6 per cent are at work. Of the South Italian children who were born abroad, 10 per cent are at home, while only 77.5 per cent are at school and 12.5 per cent are at work.

CITIZENSHIP.

The extent to which the foreign-born males in the households studied have acquired or manifested an interest in attaining citizenship is exhibited by the table next presented. The table shows, by race, the present political condition of foreign-born males who have been in the United States five years or over and who were 21 years of age or over at time of arrival in this country.

TABLE 209.-Present political condition of foreign-born males who have been in the United States 5 years or over and who were 21 years of age or over at time of coming, by race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States.]

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Of 380 foreign-born males who have been in the United States five years or over, and who were 21 years of age or over at time of coming, 31.8 per cent are fully naturalized and 11.8 per cent have first papers only. The Swedish and German male employees show 84.5 per cent and 71 per cent, respectively, who are naturalized. The Lithuanian and Polish employees follow with 28.6 per cent and 20 per cent, respectively, while no males of the other specified races show as high as 20 per cent, and the Ruthenians only 2.6 per cent who are citizens. The Lithuanians show the highest per cent having first papers only and the Ruthenians the lowest per cent.

ABILITY TO SPEAK ENGLISH.

The extent to which foreign-born persons of non-English-speaking races, in the households studied, are able to speak English is set forth in the following series of tables. The first table presented shows, by sex and general nativity and race of individual, the percentage of persons 6 years of age or over who speak English.

TABLE 210.-Per cent of persons 6 years of age or over who speak English, by sex and general nativity and race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only non-English-speaking races with 40 or more persons reporting. The totals, how ever, are for all non-English-speaking races.]

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The preceding table includes 2,665 persons, 1,503 of whom are males and 1,162 females. Of the males 78 per cent and of the females 70.2 per cent speak English-74.6 per cent of the total number having acquired this knowledge. Over 98 per cent of both the males and females native-born of foreign father, as compared with 72.6 per cent of the foreign-born males and 57.4 per cent of the foreign-born females speak English. Of the foreign races, only one, the German, shows a larger proportion of females than males who speak English. The Russian with 54.3 per cent of the males and 4.8 per cent of the females, shows the lowest proportion of their total number who speak

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