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The employees who are native-born of Swedish father show the highest percentage earning under $1,000, followed by those who are nativeborn of German and of Irish father in the order mentioned. The employees who are native-born of Irish father show the highest percentage earning under $600 followed by the employees who are nativeborn of German father and those who are native-born of Swedish father. Of the foreign-born employees the Swedish show the highest average yearly earnings which is $843, the Lithuanians, Ruthenians, and Welsh show average yearly earnings of over $600, the Poles over $500, the Slovaks and South Italians over $400, and the Magyars only $398. The South Italians show the highest percentage earning under $200 and the Magyars the highest percentage earning under $400. The South Italians exhibit the highest percentage earning under $600 and under $1,000. The Swedish show the smallest percentage earning under $600 and under $1,000.

ANNUAL EARNINGS OF FEMALES 18 YEARS OF AGE OR OVER IN THE HOUSEHOLDS STUDIED.

The following table shows, by general nativity and race of individual, the yearly earnings of females 18 years of age or over in the households studied.

TABLE 285.- Yearly earnings (approximate) of females 18 years of age or over, by general nativity and race of individual.

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The above table shows the average earnings of the 46 females for whom information was obtained in this locality to be $304— the average earnings of the native-born of foreign father exceeding this amount by $3, while the average earnings of the native-born of native father, white, exceed this amount by $21. Because of the small number involved the possibility of comparing the various races earning under each specified amount, is precluded.

ANNUAL FAMILY INCOME.

In the series of tables next presented the yearly income of the families studied, together with the several sources of family income and their relative importance, are considered. The table first submitted in this connection, which immediately follows, shows, by general nativity and race of head of family, the percentage of families having a total yearly income of each specified amount.

TABLE 286.-Per cent of families having a total yearly income of each specified amount, by general nativity and race of head of family.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only races with 20 or more families reporting. The totals, however, are for all races. One family is included which reports income as "none."]

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Of 369 selected families, the greater proportion, or 55.6 per cent, have a total income of less than $750 per year, 29 per cent have $1,000 or over per year, and slightly more than 10 per cent have $1,500 or over. The proportions earning under $300 and under $500 yearly are small, being only 3.5 and 26.8 per cent, respectively. Smaller proportions of the native-born of native father than of the other nativity groups have a yearly income of less than $500, while the native-born of foreign father show smaller proportions having incomes under this amount than do the foreign-born. The nativeborn of foreign father show smaller proportions with yearly incomes under each specified amount above $500 than the native-born of native father, which group in turn shows smaller proportions under each amount than the foreign-born.

No families the heads of which are foreign-born Swedes have incomes under $500 per year, and the larger proportion of them have incomes of $1,000 or over per year, while more than 90 per cent of the families the heads of which are South Italian, 75.3 per cent of those whose heads are Magyars, and more than 50 per cent of those the heads of which are Welsh have incomes less than this amount. The families the heads of which are South Italian and Swedish show the largest and the smallest proportions, respectively, earning under each specified amount.

WIVES AT WORK.

The tendency on the part of the wives of employees to engage in occupations outside the home in order to supplement the earnings of their husbands is indicated by the following table. This table shows, by general nativity and race of head of family, the proportion of wives at work:

TABLE 287.- Wives at work, by general nativity and race of head of family.

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Of 364 wives reporting in the above table only a small proportion, or 1.1 per cent, are at work. Only wives in households the heads of which are foreign-born are reported as being at work, the proportion being only 1.4 per cent. As regards the wives of husbands of different foreign-born races who are at work only two races report in sufficient numbers to be computed, and in each instance the propor tion is but slightly more than 3 per cent.

RELATION BETWEEN THE EARNINGS OF HUSBANDS AND THE PRACTICE OF WIVES OF KEEPING BOARDERS OR LODGERS.

It has been seen that only a very small proportion of the wives in the families studied were regularly employed for wages outside the home. On the other hand, a considerable proportion of the wives supplements the earnings of the heads by keeping boarders or lodgers. The extent to which this is done is indicated by the following tables, which show, by yearly earnings of husband and by general nativity and race of head of family, the number and percentage of families in which wife has employment or keeps boarders or lodgers.

TABLE 288.-Number of families in which wife has employment or keeps boarders or lodgers, by yearly earnings of husband and by general nativity and race of head of family.

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a For selection of families, see Vol. II, p. 6. Of the selected families only those which have both husband and wife present appear in this table.

This column includes 4 families in which husbands' earnings are reported as "none." c This column includes 1 family in which husband's earnings are reported as "none.'

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TABLE 289.—Per cent of families in which wife has employment or keeps boarders or lodgers, by yearly earnings of husband and by general nativity and race of head of family.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only races with 20 or more selected families reporting. The totals, however, are for all races. For selection of families, see Vol. II, p. 6. The families here represented are only those where both husband and wife are present.]

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a This column includes 1 family in which husband's earnings are reported as "none."
Not computed, owing to small number involved.

Of the total number of wives reporting in the above table, 29.3 per cent work or keep boarders or lodgers. Over 50 per cent of wives whose husbands earn under $400 a year either work or keep boarders or lodgers, while the proportion of those at work or keeping boarders or lodgers decreases as the earnings of the husband increase. Νο wives whose husbands are native-born of native father and a much smaller proportion of the wives whose husbands are native-born of foreign father than of the wives of foreign-born husbands, are at work or keep boarders or lodgers.

Among the different foreign-born races a larger proportion of wives whose husbands are South Italians and a smaller proportion of those whose husbands are Swedish in each specified group, are at work or keep boarders or lodgers.

SOURCES OF FAMILY INCOME.

The sources of family income are shown in detail in the following table. The table shows, by general nativity and race of head of family, the percentage of families having an income within the year from husband, wife, children, boarders or lodgers, and other sources.

TABLE 290.-Per cent of families having an income within the year from husband, wife, children, boarders or lodgers, and other sources, by general nativity and race of head of family.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

This table includes only races with 20 or more families reporting. The totals, however, are for all races. One family is excluded which reports income as "none."]

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The foregoing table contains information from 368 families. It is seen that a very large proportion, or 94.6 per cent, have incomes from husband, 31.5 per cent from contributions of children, 28.5 per cent from boarders or lodgers, 12.2 per cent from other sources, while only 1.1 per cent have incomes from earnings of the wife. Comparing the families of the different nativity groups it is seen that all the families whose heads are native-born of native father have incomes from

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