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REPRESENTATIVE COMMUNITY F.

CHAPTER I.

INTRODUCTION.

Industrial significance of the community-Households studied-Members of households for whom detailed information was secured-[Text Tables 320 to 323 and General Tables 241 and 242].

INDUSTRIAL SIGNIFICANCE OF COMMUNITY.

Community F, New York, is a manufacturing town, north of New York City, situated on the Hudson River. In 1880 it was a town of 18,892 persons, but since then its growth has been remarkable. In 1890 the census returns gave it a population of 32,033, and in 1900 it had become a city of 47,931 persons. From 1900 to 1905 it showed the most extraordinary growth, setting the figure of 61,414 in population. In racial composition the population is largely foreign, 30.4 per cent being foreign-born, 38.5 per cent native-born of foreign father, and but 28.7 per cent native-born of native father.

Through the industrial activities of two manufactures-molasses refining and carpet making-the manufactured products of the city showed tremendous growth between 1900 and 1905, the number of employees rising from 7,555 to 9,779, and the value of products from $17,303,690 to $33,548,688, an increase of 29.4 per cent in the first and 93.9 per cent in the second instance. The disproportionate increase in the number of employees and the value of the products. are due to the installation of labor-saving machinery in the carpet mills and molasses refineries.

New York State ranks second in the manufacture of carpets, products to the value of $19,404,133 being produced in 1905 by 10,225 employees. The value of the industry to Community F may best be realized when it is noted that 6,061 out of the total number of 9,779 employees are employed in the four carpet factories. The labor and wage conditions are good in the city, and employees in the carpet factories all work from fifty-two to fifty-seven hours per week.

HOUSEHOLDS STUDIED.

A total of 610 households, the heads of which were employed in the various industries of Community F, were studied in detail. The table next submitted shows, by general nativity and race of head of household, the number and percentage of the households of each race studied.

TABLE 320.-Households studied, by general nativity and race of head of household.

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It appears, from the data presented in the above table, that the heads of 92.6 per cent of the households studied in this locality are foreign-born, that the heads of 5.1 per cent of the households are native-born of foreign father, and that the heads of 2.3 per cent of the households are native-born of native father. Among the households of foreign-born heads, those of which the heads are Ruthenians, Magyars, and Slovenians, in the order mentioned, have the largest and those of which the heads are Armenians, North Italians, and Welsh have the smallest representation.

MEMBERS OF HOUSEHOLDS FOR WHOM DETAILED INFORMATION WAS SECURED.

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In the next table the persons in the households studied and sons for whom detailed information was secured are shown according to general nativity and race of head of household.

TABLE 321.-Persons in households studied and persons for whom detailed information was secured, by general nativity and race of head of household.

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It appears from the above table that 93.8 per cent of the persons in the households studied and 93.7 per cent of the persons for whom detailed information was secured are in the households of foreign-born heads; that 4.4 per cent of the persons in the households studied and 4.4 per cent of the persons for whom detailed information was secured are in households of which the heads are native-born of foreign father; and that 1.9 per cent of the persons in households studied and 1.9 per cent of the persons for whom detailed information was secured are in households of which the heads are native-born of native father. Among the persons in households studied and the persons for whom detailed information was secured who were in the households of foreign-born those in households the heads of which are Ruthenians, Magyars, and Slovenians, in the order mentioned, have the largest and those in households of which the heads are Armenians, Welsh, and North Italians the smallest representation.

The table following shows, by general nativity and race of head of household, the sex of persons for whom detailed information was secured.

TABLE 322.-Sex of persons for whom detailed information was secured, by general nativity and race of head of household.

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Of the 1,888 persons in this locality for whom information was secured 56.2 per cent are males and 43.8 per cent are females. The proportion of males is largest in the foreign-born households, slightly smaller in the households of the native-born of foreign father, and smallest in the households of native-born of native father. Of the foreign-born households, those of which the heads are Syrians, Armenians, Lithuanians, and Magyars, in the order mentioned, have the largest, and those of which the heads are North Italians the smallest proportion of males.. In the households of the foreign-born and the native-born of foreign father, and in the households of every foreign race, with the exception of the North Italians and Welsh, the males outnumber the females.

The table which immediately follows exhibits, by sex and general nativity and race of individual, the persons for whom detailed information was secured in the household investigation.

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