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TABLE 335.-Wives at work, by general nativity and race of head of family.

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a For selection of families, see Vol. II, p. 6. Not computed, owing to small number involved.

From information secured from 584 wives it was found that 8 per cent are at work. Of the foreign-born wives 8.3 per cent are at work, as contrasted with 4.8 per cent of the native-born wives who are at work. Of the foreign-born wives the Ruthenians show 17.5 per cent at work, families whose heads are Magyars show 13.2 per cent of wives at work, families whose heads are Slovenians show 11.3 per cent of wives are at work, while families whose heads are Scotch, Slovaks, Irish, and Lithuanians exhibit less than 6 per cent of wives who are working.

RELATION BETWEEN THE EARNINGS OF HUSBANDS AND THE PRACTICE OF WIVES OF KEEPING BOARDERS OR LODGERS.

It has been seen that only a small proportion of the wives in the families studied were regularly employed for wages outside the home. On the other hand, a considerable proportion of the wives supplements the earnings of the husbands by keeping boarders or lodgers. The extent to which this is done is exhibited in the following table, which shows, by yearly earnings of husband and by general nativity and race of head of family, the percentage of families in which wife has employment or keeps boarders or lodgers.

TABLE 336.-Per cent of families in which wife has employment or keeps boarders or lodgers, by yearly earnings of husband and by general nativity and race of head of family.

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@ This column includes 3 families in which husbands' earnings are reported as "none."
Not computed, owing to small number involved.

It appears from the above table that 52.8 per cent of the wives whose husbands earn under $400 per year, as compared with 50.4 per cent of the wives whose husbands earn $400 and under $600, 27.9 per cent of the wives whose husbands earn $600 or over, and 42.9 per cent of all wives for whom information was secured, have employment or keep boarders or lodgers. In other words, the proportion of wives having employment or keeping boarders or lodgers is largest where the earnings of husbands are smallest. While this is true of all wives, it will be noted that in the case of the Slovenians and Poles a larger proportion of wives whose husbands earn $600 or over than of wives whose husbands earn $400 and under $600 have employment or keep boarders or lodgers, and that in the case of the Ruthenians, Magyars, and Lithuanians a larger proportion of wives whose husbands earn $400 and under $600 than of wives whose husbands earn under $400 have employment or keep boarders or lodgers.

SOURCES OF FAMILY INCOME.

The sources of family income are indicated in detail by the table next presented, which shows, by general nativity and race of head of family, the percentage of families having an income within the year from husband, wife, children, boarders or lodgers, and other sources.

TABLE 337.-Per cent of families having an income within the year from husband, wife, children, boarders or lodgers, and other sources, by general nativity and race of head of family.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only races with 20 or more families reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.]

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Of the 592 families selected for study in the foregoing table, 95.9 per cent have an income from earnings of husband and only 7 9 per cent have an income from earnings of wife. The children of 17.9 per cent of the families make contributions, and 36.8 per cent of the families augment their income by keeping boarders or lodgers, while 12.3 per cent of the families have an income from other sources. All of the families the heads of which are native-born of foreign father have an income from earnings of husbands and none have an income from earnings of wife, while 95.6 per cent of the families the heads of which are foreign-born have an income from the earnings of husband and 8.2 per cent have an income from the earnings of wife. A larger proportion of the families the heads of which are foreign-born than of the families the heads of which are native-born of foreign father have an income from contributions of children, payments of boarders or lodgers, and other sources. All of the families the heads of which are Lithuanian, Polish, Scotch, and Slovak; over 90 per cent of the families the heads of which are Hebrew, Magyar, Ruthenian, and Slovenian; and 78.3 per cent of the families the heads of which are Irish have an income from the earnings of husband. The proportion of families the heads of which are of each race, except Hebrew and Polish, having an income from earnings of wife, ranges from 17.2 per cent of the Ruthenian to 2 per cent of the Lithuanian. The proportion of families the heads of which of each race receiving contributions from children ranges from 43.5 per cent of the Irish to 6 per cent of the Ruthenians, and the proportion having an income from payments of boarders or lodgers ranges from 74 per cent of the Lithuanians to 4.2 per cent of the Slovaks. The families the heads of which are of each race, except the Hebrews, show a certain propor

tion as having an income from other sources, the Ruthenians showing the largest and the Lithuanians the smallest.

In the following table, in which the sources of family income are again shown in detail, each source specified is exclusive of all other sources. In other words, the proportion of families appearing under each designated source have their entire income from that source.

TABLE 338.-Source of family income in detail, by general nativity and race of head of family.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only races with 20 or more families reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.]

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Of the 592 families selected for study in the foregoing table, the largest proportion, or 36.8 per cent, have their entire income from husband-28.5 per cent having entire income from husband and boarders and lodgers; 11.1 per cent having entire income from husband. and children; and 5.1 per cent having entire income from husband and wife. Less than 2 per cent have their entire income from any other specified source, while 15 per cent have their entire income from sources or combination of sources not specified. All of the families the heads of which are native-born of foreign father have their entire income from husband, husband and children, husband and boarders or lodgers, and sources not specified, while the families the heads of which are foreign-born, in addition to showing a smaller proportion having entire income from husband and a larger proportion having entire income from husband and children, husband and boarders or lodgers, and sources not specified, shows also a certain small proportion having entire income from each other specified source, except wife and boarders or lodgers.

The largest proportion of the families the heads of which are of each given race have their entire income from husband, husband and children, husband and boarders and lodgers, and sources or combination of sources not specified, less than 10 per cent of the families the heads of which are of each race having their entire income from any other specified source.

RELATIVE IMPORTANCE OF DIFFERENT SOURCES OF FAMILY INCOME.

The relative importance of the different sources of income of the families studied in the community may be seen from the following table, which shows, by general nativity and race of head of family, the percentage of total family income within the year from husband, wife, children, boarders or lodgers, and other sources:

TABLE 339.-Per cent of total family income within the year from husband, wife, children, boarders or lodgers, and other sources, by general nativity and race of head of family.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only races with 20 or more families reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.]

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Of the total yearly income of 592 families selected for study in the foregoing table, 71.4 per cent is from earnings of husband, 14.4 per cent from contributions of children, 7.3 per cent from payments of boarders or lodgers, 3 per cent from earnings of wife, and 3.8 per cent from other sources. A higher proportion of the yearly income of the families the heads of which are native-born of foreign father than of the families the heads of which are foreign-born is from earnings of husband, while the proportion of the yearly income from each other source is larger for the families the heads of which are foreign-born than for the families the heads of which are native-born of foreign father. Considering the foreign-born, by race, it is seen that the proportion of total income from earnings of husband ranges

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