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ELECTRIC RAILWAYS.

The table below sets forth, by race, the percentage of foreign-born male employees in electric-railway construction who had been in the United States each specified number of years.

TABLE 31.—Per cent of foreign-born male employees in the United States each specified number of years, by race-Electric railways.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)

[By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States. No deduction is made for time spent abroad. This table includes only races with 40 or more males reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign-born.]

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Of 364 male employees shown in the preceding table, 30.3 per cent have been in the United States under five years, 14.7 per cent from five to nine years, 5.8 per cent from ten to fourteen years, 8.1 per cent from fifteen to nineteen years, and 41 per cent twenty years or over. The North Italians show slightly under 60 per cent and the South Italians slightly more than 50 per cent, while the Irish report 5.4 per cent who have been in the United States under five years. The North and South Italians show a very much higher percentage than the Irish as having been in the United States from five to nine years, and a somewhat higher percentage with a residence from ten to fourteen years. The Irish show the highest percentage, followed by the South Italians and the North Italians in the order named, who have been in the United States from fifteen to nineteen years. In the group including persons with a residence of twenty years or over the Irish show 78.4 per cent, as contrasted with 8.8 per cent of the North Italians and 8.6 per cent of the South Italians having this period of

residence.

FIREARMS.

The table next submitted shows, by race, the percentage of foreignborn male employees engaged in the manufacture of firearms who had been in the United States each specified number of years.

TABLE 32.-Per cent of foreign-born male employees in the United States each specified number of years, by race. -Firearms.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)

[By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States. No deduction is made for time spent abroad. This table includes only races with 40 or more males reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign-born.]

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Of the 584 foreign-born male employees of this industry for whom information was obtained, 22.9 per cent have been in the United States less than five, 20 per cent from five to nine, 12.7 per cent from ten to fourteen, and 12.8 per cent from fifteen to nineteen years, while 31.5 per cent have been in this country twenty years or over. As between the French Canadians, Irish, and Poles with a residence of less than five and from five to nine years, it will be noted that the proportion of Poles is much larger than that of the Irish, and very much larger than that of the French Canadians among those with a residence of less than five years, and is considerably larger than the proportion of the Irish and much larger than the proportion of the French Canadians among those with a residence of from five to nine years. Little difference is noted in the proportions of French Canadians and Poles who have been in the United States from ten to fourteen and from fifteen to nineteen years, while the proportion of Irish in each instance is considerably smaller. The largest proportion, or 56.6 per cent, of the Irish for whom information was obtained have been in the United States twenty years or over, as compared with 48.4 per cent of the French Canadians, while the proportion of Poles with this period of residence amounts to only 6.7 per cent.

FOUNDRY AND MACHINE SHOPS.

The table which immediately follows shows, by sex and race, the percentage of foreign-born employees employed in the manufacture of foundry and machine-shop products who had been in the United States each specified number of years.

TABLE 33.-Per cent of foreign-born employees in the United States each specified number of years, by sex and race-Foundry and machine shop products.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)

[By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States. No deduction is made for time spent abroad. This table includes only races with 80 or more persons reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign-born.]

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Upon information secured for 9,025 foreign-born employees in this entire industry it will be noted from the table immediately preceding that of that number 38.2 per cent have been in the United States less than five years, 22.3 per cent from five to nine, 7.9 per cent from ten to fourteen, and 10 per cent from fifteen to nineteen years, while 21.5 per cent have been in this country twenty years or over. The proportion of males in each period of residence group varies only slightly from the proportion shown in the total for all employees. On the other hand, the females show a very much larger proportion with a residence of less than five years than in all other periods of residence groups combined, and consequently a much larger proportion in this shortest period of residence than is shown in the total for all employees. In each succeeding period of residence the proportion of females is below the proportion shown for the males and females combined, the difference being much more marked among those with a residence of twenty years or over than among those with a residence of from five to nine, ten to fourteen, or fifteen to nineteen years.

Considering the males, it will be noted that of the older immigrants the proportions with a residence of less than five years range from 23.3 per cent of the Scotch to 6.1 per cent of the French Canadians, while of the more recent immigrants with that period of residence the proportions range from 66.7 per cent of the Croatians to 27 per cent of the Lithuanians. Of those with a residence of from five to nine years, the proportions of the older immigrants range from 21.3 per cent of the Swedes to 6.9 per cent of the English, while of the more recent immigrants the proportions range from 36.5 per cent of the Greeks to 21.4 per cent of the Russian Hebrews. Thus it will be noted that the differences in the proportions among those who have been in the United States from five to nine years are less marked than among those with a residence of less than five years. This is equally true of those with a residence of from ten to fourteen and fifteen to nineteen years when compared with those who have resided in this country less than five years. No Greeks have been in the United States twenty years or over, while the proportions of the other more recent immigrants with this period of residence range from 14.3 per cent of the Russian Hebrews to 1.4 per cent of the Croatians, as compared with proportions of the older immigrants, ranging from 67.9 per cent of the Irish to 36.9 per cent of the Swedes. Where proportions of females are reported by the various races in the several periods of residence groups it will be noted that, as with the males, the differences are much less marked among those with a residence of from five to nine, ten to fourteen, and fifteen to nineteen than among those with a residence of less than five years. Of those females with a residence of twenty years or over, the French Canadians, Irish, and Swedes, with 66.7, 56.3, and 50 per cent, respectively, show the largest proportions, followed by the English with 22.2 per cent the proportions of the other races with this period of residence ranging from 9.5 per cent of the Germans to 0.3 per cent of the Poles..

The totals shown in the preceding table are but a combination of the males and females, and are presented so that a comparison of the proportions of each race in each specified period of residence group may be made irrespective of sex.

KNIT GOODS AND HOSIERY.

The table next submitted shows, by sex and race, the percentage of foreign-born employees engaged in the manufacture of knit goods and hosiery who had been in the United States each specified number of years.

TABLE 34.-Per cent of foreign-born employees in the United States each specified number of years, by sex and race-Knit goods and hosiery.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)

[By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States. No deduction is made for time spent abroad. This table includes only races with 80 or more persons reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign-born.]

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