The International Law of Antarctica
Springer Netherlands, 1992 M07 23 - 612 páginas
Antarctica is the last, most inhospitable frontier on earth, yet it presents a great number of unresolved conflicts between nations, individuals, environmentalists, scientists and business groups. The International Law of Antarctica addresses the crucial question of how international law can respond to claims that will certainly shape tomorrow's Antarctica. The author adopts a policy-oriented approach and focuses on the primary issue of determining the effective norms by which the process of value shaping and sharing develops in Antarctica, and to what extent such norms satisfy the prevailing aspirations of the world community. Where discrepancies are significant policies are proposed that may better meet such aspirations, as well as methods for their implementation.
Part I of this study describes the social, power, and legal processes relating to Antarctica; reviews the geographic, technological, economic, and historical context in which these processes evolve, and how their special features affect such processes; and finally postulates the basic community policies with reference to which the process of claims and decisions in Antarctica are analyzed. Part II focuses on national claims to Antarctica by reviewing claims relating to the modes to establish exclusive appropriation of the area. Part III is a detailed examination of specific claims to Antarctica resources: claims to mineral and living resources, and claims relating to space-extension resources, namely, Antarctica sea and air space. It is concluded by an appraisal of the congruence of the existing order of Antarctica with the postulated basic policies, critically reviewing proposals for a new order, and advancing long-term and more immediate alternatives.
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Resources May 20 1980 reprinted in 19 I L M 837 1980
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activities acts adopted agreement allocation American Antarctic Treaty Antarctica application Arctic Argentina asserted ATCPs Australia authority bases basic basis become Britain British century Chile Chilean concern Conference considered constitute consultative continent continental Convention countries decision depends discovery economic effective established exclusive existence expedition exploitation exploration extension fact fishing Foreign important increased INT'L interest international law Island issue land limits living maintain major marine matter meetings mineral Norway occupation Ocean operations organized participation parties permanent POLAR policies political position practice principle proposal protection Recommendation regarded regime regions relating Report reprinted requires respect result scientific seas sector shelf situation South Southern sovereignty Soviet Union space station status supra note System territorial claims tion Treaty System United waters whaling
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