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means. In the epistle to Philemon, he expresses a confidence of being soon set at liberty, and promises, in that case, shortly to pay them a visit.
Having obtained his liberty in the year 63, he most probably would soon fulfil his promise to visit the Hebrews; after which he might see his Colossian friends. That he ever visited Spain or Britain, is, to say no more, extremely doubtful. And if he once more made an Asiatic tour, there seems not time enough for his accomplishing the western journey, as he suffered martyrdom on his return to Rome in 64 or 65. He could have had no great pleasure at Jerusalem ; every thing was there hastening to ruin. No man was ever possessed of a more genuine patriotic spirit than this apostle. The Jewish war, which commenced in 66, would have much amicted him, had he lived to see it. But returning to Rome about a year before, he fell in with the very time when Rome was burnt, and Christians were accused as incendiaries. He now found no mercy in Nero, who would naturally be displeased at the effect, which he had observed his preaching had produced in his own family. A cup-bearer and a concubine of his had been, through Paul's means, converted to the faith, as Chrysostom assures us ; and this hastened his death. He was slain with the sword by Nero's order.*
Of St. Peter we have by no means so large an account as of St. Paul. The last view we have of him in scripture presents him to us at Antioch.
This was probably about the year 50. After this he was employed in spreading the gospel principally among his own countrymen, but one cannot suppose exclusively of Gentiles, in Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia, and Bithynia. His two epistles were directed to the Hebrew converts of these countries. And if he was far less successful than Paul
the Gentiles, he was much more so than he among the Jews. He who wrought effectually in the one among the former, was mighty in the other among the latter.f It should ever be remembered, who alone did the work, and gave the increase. Peter probably came to Rome about the year 63.
Thence a little before his martyrdom he wrote his two epistles.
Of the labours of nine apostles, nothing in a manner is recorded, James, Andrew, Philip, Bartholomew, Thomas, Matthew, Jude, Simon, and Matthias.
Order. Some historians affirm, that he was beheaded on the same day in which Peter was crucified, in the beginning of the year 66, when he was upwards of 70 years
of age, at Aquæ Saleræ, three miles from Rome, and was buried in the Via Ostensis, on a spot whereon Constantine the Great erected a magnificent church to his memory.
+ Gal. i. 8.
Of John the apostle a few valuable fragments may be collected. He was present at the council of Jerusalem, which was held about the year 50, nor is it probable, that he left Judea till that time. Asia Minor was the great theatre of his ministry, particularly Ephesus, the care of which church remained with him after the decease of the rest of the apostles. The breaking out of the war 'in Judea would probably oblige the apostle to bid a total farewell to his native country. While he resided at Ephesus, going once to bathe there, and perceiving that Cerinthus was in the bath, he came out again hastily. Let us flee, says he, lest the bath should fall, while Cerinthus, an enemy of truth, is within. Tertullian tells us, that by order of Domitian, John was cast into a caldron of boiling oil, and came out again without being hurt. The miracle softened not the heart of Domitian, who would probably suppose the apostle to have been foruified by some magical incantations. He banished him into the solitary isle of Patmos, where he was favoured with the visions of the Apocalypse. After Domitian's death he returned from Patmos, and governed the Asiatic churches. There he remained till the time of Trajan. At the request of the bishops, he went to the neighbouring churches, partly to ordain pastors, and partly to regulate the congregations
. At one place in his tour, observing a remarkably handsome young person, he warmly recommended him to the care of a particular pastor. The young man was baptized, and for a time lived as a Christian. But being gradually corrupted by bad company, he became idle, intemperate, and at length so dishonest, as to become captain of a band of robbers. Some time after, John had occa. sion to inquire of the pastur concerning the young man, who told him, thai he was now dead to God, and inhabited a mountain over against his church. John, in the vehemence of his charity, went to the place, and exposed himself to be taken by the robbers. “ Bring me," says he, “ to your captain," who beheld him coming. As soon as he knew the apostle, he was struck with shame and fied. The aged apostle, following him, cried, “ My son, why fly. est thou from thy father, unarmed and old? Fear' not, as yet there remaineth hope of salvation. Believe me, Christ hath sent me.” Hearing this, the young man stood still trembled, and wept bitterly. John prayed, exhorted, and brought him back to the society of Christians, nor did he leave him, till he found him fully restored by divine grace.
We have yet another siory of St. John. Being now very old, and unable to say much in Christian assemblies, “ Children, love one another," was his constantly-repeated sermon. Being asked why he told them only one thing, he answered, thát nothing else was needed.
John lived three or four years after his return to Asia, having been preserved to the age of an hundred years for the benefit of the church of Christ, a pattern of charity and goodness, greater than I know how to describe.
Of the apostle Barnabas nothing is known, except what is recorded in the Acts. There we have an honourable encomium of his character, and a particular description of his joint labours with St. Paul.
Thus have we seen the most astonishing revolution in the human mind, and in human manners, that was ever known in any age, e!fected without any human power legal or illegal, and even against the united opposition of all the powers then in the world ; and this too not in countries rude or uncivilized, but in! the most humanized, the most learned, and the most polished part of the globe, within the Roman empire; no part of which was exempted from a sensible share in its effects. This empire, within the first century at least, seems to have been the proper limit of Christian conquests.
ADDENDA. The Christian reader will probably wish to know when, and by what means, the gospel was introduced into Britain. Of this various accounts have been given, but the following seems entitled to the best regard of any we have seen.
The most calamitous events are often, through the wise direction of a superintending Providence, productive of the most important and happy consequences. Caractacus, King of the Britons, was, through the treachery of Cartismandua, Queen of the Brigantes, betrayed into the hands of his enemies, and carried captive to Rome. His father, Bran (or Branus,) his wife, children, and brothers, shared in this calamity, and remained prisoners there for seven years, while the great apostle of the Gentiles was successfully planting the standard of the gospel in the capital of the world. An opportunity thus afforded to those illustrious Britons, of attending the first preachers of Christianity, Branus, and others of his family, were converted to the faith, and on their return introduced the gospel into Wales. On this account, Bran (or Branus) is called, in the venerable and uncorrupted chronicles of Wales, one of the three blessed sove. reigns of Britain. Cyllin, or St. Cyllin, son of Caractacus, and Eigen his daughter, were also among the first to establish Christianity among their unenlightened countrymen. The latter is accounted the first female saint in Britain. On their return from Rome, they brought with them, A. D. 70, Ilid a Jewish Christian, and Cyoday, another convert, to assist in preaching the gospel.
Towards the close of the second century, Lleirwg, the son of Coel ab Cyllin Sant, called Lleuver Mawr, and Lles, or Lucius, prince of the Silures, formed the laudable design of diffusing the knowledge of the Christian faith generally over his dominions. In order to further the grand design, he sent over to Rome for the assistance of some able teachers ; whereupon Eleutherius sent Dyvan, Fagan, Medwy, and Elvan for that purpose. The first Christian church was built by Lleirwg, at Llanday, “ under national protection, right, and privilege.” On this account, Lleirwg was ranked with Bran and Cadwaledr, under the appellation of the three blessed princes of the isle of Britain.
The place where Elvan taught was Yans y Vallon, or the present Glastonbury. Fagan has a church dedicated to him in Glamorganshire. The following wise saying of Fagan is still preserved, “ Lle taw Duw nid doeth yngan;" “ Where God is silent, it is not wise to speak.” Dyvan was great-grandson of Manawydan, son of Bran. Of Medwy we have no further particulars, but that he came over with the other three from Rome. *
This account is found in authentic documents still extant in the ancient British language, called, “ Trioedd Ynys Prydain,” the Welsh Triads; and “ Bonedd y Sant,” the Genealogy of the British Saints. It adds to the authenticity of these ancient records, that they were composed before the introduction of popery among the Welsh. See the above names in the Cambrian Biography, by Mr. W. Owen, F. A. S. Evan. Mag. November 1806, p. 506, 507. See also Tertullian contra Judaeos, Venerable Bede, Gildas the Briton, and Fox in his Martyrology, who all agree, that the gospel was planted in Britain at a very early period, and, most probably, during the first century.
Ι Ν D Ε Χ.
Ahaziah, king of Israel, 507.
Moses, 183....makes the golden calf, Ahaz, king of Judah, 551.
Ahimeleck slain by Saul, 412.
41....defeats the kings, 44.....meets Ahikam, king of Judah, v. ii. 12.
Keturah, 71....dies, aged 175. Alexander the Great, 89.
Alexander Jannæus, 130.
venty brethren, 346....destroys She. Amalekites, account of, v. i. 215....they
takes Thebez, and is there killed, 348. Gideon, 340.
Ammonites, 350....defeated by Jepthah,
Amon, king of Judah, v. ii. 4.
Anna, the wife of Tobit, v.i. 556.
Israelites' hearts, 447....rebels against Andronicus, 95.
Antioch, capital of Syria, 121, and 141.
Antigonus, king of Judea, 129....is be-
headed at Rome, 153.
the Jews....and defiles the temple, 95,
Antipater, father of Herod, 135.
A pelles, Antiochus' general, 105.
v. i, 425.