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which have sustained the mixed system-being themselves sustained by the element of self. The living deliciously of these kings we suppose to be a figure of the false position of rest furnished by the mixed system; an opposite of the true position found in Christ. To them the loss of Babylon is the loss of this rest. They are no longer able, through the instrumentality of amalgamated views of doctrine, to hold forth the promise of a position indispensable both to the safety and to the eternal enjoyment of the disciple.

· Bewail her, and lament for her,” (xdaúcovzu xai xówortor,)—crying and cutting themselves, after the manner of the priests of Baal;these chief principles perhaps standing, in relation to the mixed system of doctrine, as the priests of Baal stood to their idol-sustaining his worship for their own private advantage and enjoyment.

When they see the smoke of her burning ;' that is, when the evidence of her being destroyed is exhibited.

Standing afar off for the fear of her torment;' or rather, for fear of her torture—for fear of undergoing the same trial (as by fire) to which she is exposed-an intimation that, if brought to the same test, their fate must be the same.

It does not appear that they are involved in precisely the same destruction ; but, notwithstanding this, we find their judgment lingered not, (2 Peter iïi. 13.) They escape the fire, but they afterwards fall by the edge of the sword, as we learn from the conclusion of the next chapter.

For in one hour,' &c.-The lamentation is not merely over the fall of Babylon, but that it should take place so suddenly—a peculiarity we find noticed alike by all of the three classes of inourners described in the chapter.

Vs. 11-14. And the merchants of the Και οι έμποροι της γης κλαίουσι και πενearth shall weep and inourn over her; Joñou én avið, ön töv yöuor aviwy ovfor no

man buyeth their merchandise any more; the merchandise of gold, and Seis ayopušel oíxétiróuov zproov zad silver, and precious stones, and of pearls, koyupov, xui li 9ov truiov xui uagzapirov, and fine linen, and purple, and silk, and και βισσίνου και πορφύρας, και σηρικού scarlet, and all thyine wood, and all man- xai xoxxivov, xai zúr sílar Jürov zaj ner vessels of ivory, and all manner veseels of most precious wood, and of brass, έκ ξύλου τιμιωτάτου και χαλκού και σιδή

πάν σκεύος ελεφάντινον, και πάν σκεύος and iron, and marble, and cinnamon, and odours, and ointments, and frankincense, pov xai paguugov, xai xuróuopor zaì đạo and wine, and oil

, and fine flour, and jor, zoù I ruiduatu xoà uípov zvì hißuror, wheat, and beasis, and sheep, and horses, xaì oiror xai flacov, xai osuidudiy zai 07and chariots, and slaves, and souls of men.

και κτήνη και πρόβατα, και ίππων και And the fruits that thy soul lusieth after are departed from thee, and all things øsduiv za douútor, zai yrzus ir pótor. which were dainty and goodly are de. Και η οπώρα της επιθυμίας της ψυχής σου parted from thee. and thoυ shall find απήλθεν από σου, και πάντα τα λιπαρά them no more at all.

και τα λαμπρά απώλετο από σου, και ου

κέτι ου μή ειρήσης αυτά. $ 412. “And the merchants,' &c.--We have already contemplated these merchants as representing principles of the mercenary character,


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interested in sustaining the mixed economy, because they are themselves sustained by it; the earth representing the basis of man's position by nature, dependent for the means of life upon his own labour: these mercenary elements we suppose to be peculiar to this earthly basis. They are elements of doctrine belonging to a system of self-dependence, suggesting to the disciple no motives of conduct except such as result from a calculation of profit or loss-principles wholly inconsistent with a system of graceprinciples to be as thoroughly expurgated from the disciple's views of faith, as the original inhabitants of Canaan were to have been driven out to give place to the favoured people of God.

The appellation Canaan is said to signify a merchant or trader. The Canaanites were to have been driven out of the promised land, but certain of them, as we have noticed, were left to try the people. So, in human views of God's plan of redemption, certain mercenary principles appear to have been suffered to remain to try the disciple. But as the Israelites were led away by the ancient inhabitants of Canaan to worship idols, so these mercenary principles appear to have predominated in the minds of Christians, especially in sustaining their views of a mixed plan of redemption. Without such a mixed system these principles cannot be sustained. The merchants of the earth therefore weep and mourn over the fall of Babylon.

· For no one buyeth their merchandise any more.'—The illustration is the more happy, as it is a matter of experience in the operations of trade, that the seller is dependent upon the buyer rather than the buyer upon the seller. If these merchants had resorted to Babylon principally to obtain certain articles of luxury to be disposed of in other countries, the loss of her would not have been so important; they inight bave procured the same articles elsewhere, or have substituted others for them ; but here the misfortune is, that the consumer is destroyed—the chief consumer of the earth, not only a city but an empire, and one distinguished for its immense consumption of luxuries as well as of necessaries of every description. These traders are supposed to be furnished with their merchandise; their immense stocks on hand. As citizens, they would willingly forfeit their political and personal liberties to obtain a market for their goods. Babylon was to them the god of their idolatry ; but now their occupation is gone-no one buyeth their merchandise any more. They weep and mourn, not from sympathy for the sufferers by this fearful conflagration, but because their own pecuniary interests are most deeply affected by it. So we may say of the mercenary principles sustaining and sustained by the mixed system in contemplation, they are of a character altogether selfish ; a pure motive of gratitude or love to God, or of zeal for his glory, forms no part of their composition.

"The merchandise of gold,' &c., &c.—Here follows an enumeration of the different kinds of merchandise furnished by these traders, of which Baby

Ion was the consumer. Every particular, no doubt, might be enlarged upon, illustrating by a variety of figures the same general truths: the articles of which gold and silver are the materials representing earthly riches--opposites of the true riches, and of the gold tried in the fire : precious stones and pearls—upposites of the stone, elect, precious, and of the pearl of great price ;-the materials of clothing representing opposites of the garments of salvation, and of the robe of righteousness; the fine linen purchased of the merchants being something different from the fine linen, pure and white, which is the righteousness of the saints. The purple and silk and scarlet might have been employed in the tabernacle in the wilderness, under the legal dispensation, but they are not called for in the heavenly tabernacle. Under the legal dispensation, all that man could furnish was required, and this all was insufficient. The mixed system retains the requisitions of the law-even its temple is a house of merchandise. Accordingly we may suppose these vessels of ivory and precious wood, these spices, and odours, and incense, to be the materials of temple service-elements of divine worship; opposites of the one sacrifice of propitiation, and the one reasonable sacrifice of thank-offering peculiar to the Christian system. So the provisions of wheat, wine, oil, &c., may be taken as opposites of the bread of life, of the new wine of the Saviour's cup, and of the oil of his holiness or sanctification. As the beasts and sheep, or rather cattle and sheep, xtinn xui nousiero, constitute both articles of food and elements of sacrifice, they may bave their opposites in the Lamb slain from the foundation of the world, and in the spiritual flesh or righteousness of Christ, the true bread of eternal life. Horses and chariots are means of safety and protection-figures of supposed means of salvation. Slaves and souls of men, or more strictly bodies and souls of men, (σωμάτων και ψυχάς ανθρώπων,)-the body and soul of the slave constituting one article of merchandise,-represent elements of bondage of every grade. The language here employed being that of inspiration, we have no doubt that every term here employed has its mate, (Is. xxxiv. 16 ;) but an exact analysis would require more space than can be now allotted to it. Besides, we have already had occasion to notice the spiritual signification of many of these particulars elsewhere.

* And the fruits that thy soul lusteth aster,' &c.; or, more exactly, And the autumn or the autumnal fruits of the desires of thy soul are departed from thee: (ή όπώρια της επθυμίας της ψυχής σου ;) as if at the very moment when Babylon was about to obtain the fruit of her desires, it was taken from her.

· And all things which were dainty and goodly,' or, All things sumptuous and splendiil, (rui 21 mapie zai 2.40170,) all gratifications of appetite and vanity, are departed from thee, and thou shalt find them no more at all. A commercial emporium only partially destroyed may revive again ; but Baby

lon is utterly burned with fire. She is never to be resuscitated. The mixed system in contemplation, once exposed by a just application of revealed truth, can never again obtain credence.

Vs. 15, 16. The merchants of these Οι έμποροι τούτων, οι πλουτήσαντες απ' things, which were made rich by, her, auris, uno uaxpótev quiaoriui Siie zor shall stand asfar off, for the fear of her torment, weeping and wailing, and say: mai 189oiries, hijortes ovai, orui, i

φόβον του βασανισμού αυτής, κλαίοντες ing, Alas, alas! that great city that was clotlied in fine linen, and purple, and scar- πόλις η μεγάλη, η περιβεβλημένη βισσινον let, andl decked with gold, and precious και πορφυρούν και κόκκινον και κεχρισμένη stones and pearls! For in one hour 80 χρισίων και λίθω τιμία και μαργαρίταις, ότι great riches is come to nought.

μια αύρα ρημώθη ο τοσούτος πλούτος. .

$413. "The merchants of these things which were made rich,' &c.Our remarks upon the eleventh verse of this chapter, have already anticipated the observations to be made here. Mercenary principles depend for their currency, and for their appreciation in the sight of men, upon the legal and upon the mixed system. The legal system we suppose to be out of the question ; and if it were not, the law strictly put in force, as illustrated by the action of the ten horns upon the harlot, ($ 397,) would not adınit of a mercenary or selfish principle in the sight of God; for the law applies to the heart and to the motive, as well as to the outward conduct. Mercenary principles, therefore, in effect depend altogether upon the mixed system, As if the professing Christian, while he expressly repudiates the idea of receiving eternal life as a compensation for his faithful services, still supposed the design of the economy of grace to be that of placing him in a position in which he may consider the favour of God a reward for his good conduct. Eternal life he admits to be the gift of God, and death to be the wages of sin ; but he argues, ' Eternal life having been given me, I am now to receive a reward for the duties 1 persorm.' Under this apprehension, whatever his professions may be of unworthiness and of love to his Redeemer, he is actuated by mercenary principles, and these principles depend upon his mixed system of faith. His chief discrimination between the law and the gospel seems to be, that whereas the first demands a purity of motive as well as an exactness of service to escape punishment alone, the last is not so rigid in either of these respects; and not only so, under the gospel dispensation, however imperfect his services, and lowever tainted with selfishness his motives, he may now expect a reward pro rata for every act of obedience. The apprehension of the advocate of these views appears to be, that the motive of gratitude for eternal salvation is not sufficient; and that accordingly the prospect of some specific reward must be held out to stimulate the disciple to obedience.

Mercenary principles depend upon the reputation of the mixed system, as the artificers of Ephesus depended upon the credit of the great

goddess Diana. As it was said by Demetrius, “Sirs, ye know that by this craft we have our wealth,” (Acts xix. 25.) If the temple of Diana came to be despised, the craftsmen · lost their employment. In like manner we sometimes find subverted views of gospel doctrine sustained, lest the avocations of those interested in their support should come to nought.

* Alas! alas ! that great city that was clothed,' &c.—The language is that of astonishment as well as of regret, that a city so important, whose inhabitants were so richly clad, and were in possession of such great wealth, should be so suddenly destroyed. The mixed system of faith holds out the promise that all dependent upon it are clothed with garments of salvation, obtained by their own works, and robes of righteousness of their own fabric, or at least of their own ornamenting. An astonishment, like that of these merchants, may pervade the breast of the disciple, who has been laboring to establish a claim of reward for his own faithful services, as he esteems them, when he finds that his garments are moth-eaten, and his gold and his silver cankered. Light is thrown in upon bis mind, he perceives his folly, but he cannot be otherwise than astonished that so plausible a theory of faith should be thus suddenly demolished.

Vs. 17-19. And every ship-master, and Και πας κυβερνήτης και πας και επί τόπον all the company in ships, and sailors, and πλέων, και ναύται και όσοι την θάλασσας as many as trade by sea, stood afur off, and cried when they saw the Emoke οι εργάζονται, από μακρόθεν έστησαν, και her burning, saying, What (city is) like čxpažuy phénormes töv xanvòv iis arpce unto this great city! And they cast duet σεως αυτής, λέγοντες· τίς ομοία τη πόλει on their heads, and cried, weeping and τη μεγάλη ; Και έβαλον χούν επί τας χε. wailing, saying, Alas, alas, that great city, polis aitīv, xai čxpušruv xhuiovies xoà wherein were made rich all that had ships 189ourtes, hiyovteş: ovai, orai, i gólış in the sea by reason of her cosiliness! for in one hour is she made desolate.

η μεγάλη, εν ή έπλούτησαν πάντες οι έχοντες τα πλοία εν τη θαλάσση εκ της τιμιότη

τος αυτής, ότι μια ώρα ήρημώθη. $ 414. • And every ship-master,' &c.; or, And every pilot, and every one sailing from place to place, and the sailors, and as many as were engaged in maritime commerce, (oooi tiv Ochaorav šeydçorrai.)— The enumeration may be fairly said to comprehend the whole shipping interest of the earth; the ship-master and supercargo, or travelling merchant, being in ancient times part owners of their vessels.

We may suppose these to represent something of an auxiliary class of mercenary principles. The merchant is interested in Babylon directly by the sale or exchange of his commodities; those connected with shipping are interested, because they are the instruments of effecting this exchange, and are compensated for it by the merchants. They represent mercenary principles, although somewhat of a different grade: the ship-master labours for his freight, the supercargo for his commission, the sailor for his wages, the shipmechanic for his pay, and the merchant for his expected profit. The motive

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