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found in two other places with the verb to keep, (now.) The dragon and the accuser made war with those keeping the commandments of God, and having the testimony of Jesus, the remnant of the seed of the woman clothed with the sun, (§ 291 ;) and those that keep the commandments of God and the faith of Jesus are also spoken of, Rev. xiv. 12, apparently as exercising patience, (§ 336.) In both these cases, we have considered the keeping in the sense of custody; and the personification, that of principles, keeping as watchmen, sentinels, or guards, the true elements of the plan of salvation by grace. This personification we suppose to be preserved throughout the whole book, and accordingly feel no hesitation in giving to the expression, "do his commandments," a construction similar to that of keeping his commandments. Here, those doing the commandments of God are said to do them that they may enter by the gates into the city, as well as have power over the tree of life. The two powers are apparently equivalent figures of the same privilege, indicating the congeniality of character between the elements entering by the gate and the city, and between the elements having power over the tree and the tree itself; as the good shepherd (John x. 1) enters by the door into the fold, while the thief or robber climbs over the wall. The congenial element has the freedom of the city; and, by the same token, has power over or upon the tree of life.*

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* Some editions of the Greek, instead of the words пolourtes tás értolás, doing the commandments, have the words πhúvortes tag orolás, washing the robes. Such is the reading preferred by Lachman, and said to be that of the Alexandrine version; it is also followed by Wiclif, "Blessid be thei that waischen her stoolis: in the blood of the Lambe that the power of hem be in the tree of liif and enter bi the gatis in to the citee, for with outen forth houndis and wicchis and unchast men and manquellers. and servynge to idols and ech that loveth and makith lesinge." So the Rheims version, "Blessed are they that wash their stoles," &c. The Greek words and letters in the two readings so nearly resemble each other, that the mistake of transcribers of manuscripts in the first instance may very innocently have been made, and the different readings once introduced, it depended upon other copyists to prefer the expres sion most in conformity with their own peculiar opinions. The transcriber influenced by legal views, without attending to the mere truism of the proposition in an ordinary sense, preferred the construction setting forth a happiness consisting in keeping the commandments; the more evangelical transcriber preferred that which placed the same happiness in the efficacy of the Saviour's atonement. If we interpreted the passage literally, we should certainly prefer the last reading, as most consistent with the whole tenor of divine revelation. But looking upon the expression as altogether of a spiritual and figurative character, we do not consider it of much importance which reading is adopted. The elements personified as disciples washing their robes, must represent principles assimilated by this process to the city and to the tree; the privilege they possess, therefore, is a result of congeniality of character. Whether as disciples keeping the commandments of God, or as disciples washing their robes in the blood of the Lamb, they represent doctrinal elements according with the character of the city and tree, and therefore possessing the power to enter the gates of one, and to participate of the fruit of the other. The city is a figure, and the gate is a figure, and therefore whatever enters by the gate into the city must be a figure

§ 536. For without are dogs and sorcerers,' &c.-These characters, with the exception of the first, we have already remarked upon (§§ 477, 478) as principles of false doctrine working abomination, and making a lie, (Rev. xxi. 27 ;) on that account not permitted to enter the city, and for the same reason subjected to the never-ending trial of the second deaththe trial as by unquenchable fire; the two figures (exclusion from the city, and everlasting trial or torture in the lake) being nearly convertible symbols-as we may say, to be excluded from the city is to be cast into the lake, and to be cast into the lake is to be excluded from the city.

The appellation dogs is very generally admitted to be figurative, but it is as generally almost literalized by being considered figurative of human beings of a shameless character. In a spiritual sense, however, we construe the term more exactly we suppose dogs here, as well as sorcerers, &c., to represent doctrinal principles; and we take the character of the principles represented by these animals more especially from the habits of these animals in eastern countries in respect to their food. The dogs of Western Asia are scarcely domesticated; in the cities and towns they herd together, and are almost as ferocious as wild beasts. They are regarded as unclean animals, and as outcasts amongst animals; and, having for the most part neither homes or masters, they subsist upon every species of offal coming in their way; generally preferring carrion, and vile and putrid animal substances, to attacking and killing other animals for food.* Thus, subsisting in preference upon unclean aliment, they represent, we think, principles specially of a self-righteous character; the dogs of the Apocalypse, as elements of doctrine, corresponding in character with the teachers of false doctrine, alluded to, Phil. iii. 2, under the same appellation. We do not imagine an essential difference between the doctrines represented by these excluded characters: they are all of them rather so many different figures of the same false principles; a self-righteous principle or doctrine, in its different relations, being in effect a dog, a sorcerer, a whoremonger or adulterer, a murderer, an idolater, and a thing defiling, working abomination, and making and loving a lie, in the sense already attached to these expressions.

so the tree is a figure, and the fruit of the tree is a figure, and therefore whatever has power over the tree is a figure. We have no authority for taking part of the representation in a figurative, and part in a literal sense.

* Dogs licked the blood of Naboth and Ahab, and devoured the body of Jezebel, 1 Kings xxi. 19, and xxii. 38. Amongst the Hebrews, the unburied carcasses of criminals appear to have been left a prey to dogs, as part of the sentence passed upon them. They, may be considered, in this light, instruments of judicial vengeance: "The sword to slay, and the dogs to tear," Jer. xv. 3; "Dogs have compassed me," said David ;-"Deliver my soul from the sword; my darling from the power of the dog," (Ps. xxii. 20.) That which was holy, or set apart, was not to be given to dogs, (Matt. vii. 6;) while flesh torn by beasts was not to be eaten by the Israelites; it was to be cast to the dogs, (Ex. xxii. 31.)


Vs. 16, 17. I Jesus have sent mine angel to testify unto you these things in the churches. I am the root and the offspring of David, (and) the bright and morning star. And the Spirit and the bride say, Come. And let him that heareth say, Come. And let him that is athirst come. And whosoever will, let him take the water of life freely.


̓Εγώ ̓Ιησοῦς ἔπεμψα τὸν ἄγγελόν μου μαρτυρῆσαι ὑμῖν ταῦτα ἐπὶ ταῖς ἐκκλησίαις· ἐγώ εἰμι ἡ ῥίζα καὶ τὸ γένος Δαυΐδ, ὁ ἀστὴς ο λαμπρὸς ὁ πρωϊνός. Καὶ τὸ πνεῦμα καὶ ἡ νύμφη λέγουσιν· ἔρχου. καὶ ὁ ἀκούων εἰ πάτω· ἔρχου, καὶ ὁ διψῶν ἐρχέσθω, ὁ θέλων λαβέτω ὕδωρ ζωῆς δωρεάν.

$537. I Jesus have sent,' &c.-In the sixth verse of this chapter it is said, "the Lord God of the holy prophets sent his angel to show unto his servants the things which must shortly be done." It is now as expressly declared, that the angel was sent by Jesus. The inference, therefore, is unavoidable, that Jesus and the Lord God of the holy prophets are different appellations of the same Being, the same source of truth. This book of Revelation, or rather the revelation itself, as it was made to the apostle, may be figuratively termed an angel or messenger; Jesus, therefore, may be said to reveal himself, in this messenger or message, as by an angel.

The same Jesus who was declared to be the Lamb of God, (John i. 29, 36,) and who, as the Lamb, is revealed to us occupying the throne or seat of God, is here declared to be the Lord God of the prophets; and the same Jesus who is called (Rev. i. 5) the faithful and true witness, testifies or bears witness in this revelation as through the instrumentality of a messenger. The same Jesus who first exhibited himself to the apostle in this vision, in the midst of the golden candlesticks, as one like unto the Son of Man, (Rev. i. 13,) afterwards reveals himself as the Lamb opening the sealed book, and consequently as the author of the whole revelation resulting from that opening. At the same time, as the Word of God, this Jesus is revealed in the rider of the white horse; first, as going forth to overcome, (Rev. vi. 2.) and subsequently as actually overcoming, (Rev. xix. 20, 21;) lastly, he reveals himself in the person of his bride, the holy city.

The name Jesus signifying the Saviour, God the Saviour must be Him by whom the angel here spoken of is sent; or, rather, dropping the figure of the angel, God the Saviour is the author of this revelation, as the book is entitled the Revelation of Jesus Christ, which God gave him, (Rev. i. 1;) so we may say God reveals himself in this book as the Anointed, the only Saviour, for there is none other. God was, in Christ, reconciling the world

unto himself. The whole testimony of the book is immediately from God. This declaration, "I Jesus," &c., is equivalent to a seal or signature. affixed to the whole instrument. God in Christ, manifest in the flesh, appeared to the apostles and others of their time, as one like unto the Son of man. In the Apocalypse he reveals himself as the Lamb, the Word, the Bride, and the Holy City; the bride being the image or representation of her husband, (the Lamb,) and the holy city being the representation in detail of all that is to be understood of the word or purpose of God.

To testify these things in the churches;' or, rather, upon or concerning the churches, ¿zì vùs èxxλyoíais, (§ 234 ;) the seven churches of Asia, to which the book is inscribed, being put for the whole, or for the seven parts of a whole. These churches we have supposed to represent so many assemblages of docrine, each affected by certain peculiar errors; the errors of the seven comprising, as figures, perhaps all erroneous views incident to matters of Christian faith or doctrine. In the introductory epistles these errors are directly reproved. In the subsequent revelation they are indirectly set forth by allegorical representations, in which true and false systems are contrasted with that which alone is true. The whole testimony borne in these representations may be said to be concerning the churches, because, although not expressly declared, it is intended to correct the errors to which those systems were subject.

But whether we render inì by concerning or in, the expression confines the testimony spoken of to matters of Christian doctrine; it is something in or concerning the Christian system, and is not intended for application out of that system. Errors in the churches, and not out of the churches, are the subject of reprehension; and the illustrations of the truth as it is in Jesus are intended for those already nourished with the milk of the word, and now supposed capable of receiving stronger food. On the other hand, as the Apocalypse is not addressed to those out of the church, it is addressed to all in the church, without restriction of time or place, age, denomination, sect, or country; all naming the name of Jesus, whether human beings or systems of faith, come within the sphere of the totality designated by the number seven.

§ 538. I am the root and the offspring of David.'*-The root and that which springs from the root, together, must constitute the whole plant. The expression, therefore, is equivalent to the declaration; I am the spiritual David; the terms root and offspring being both understood in a spiritual sense. Here, then, is that root of Jesse of which it is said, (Isa.

*The angel just spoken of having discharged his functions, that figure may now be considered as dismissed; Jesus speaking in this and in the subsequent verses in his own proper person.

xi. 10,)" It shall stand for an ensign of the people; to it shall the Gentiles seek and his rest shall be glorious." Here, too, there is that offspring of the same root, of which it is said, (Is. xi. 1,) "And there shall come forth a rod out of the stem of Jesse, and a branch shall grow out of his roots.” Of this offspring it is also predicted, that "he shall judge the poor and reprove with equity for the meek of the earth; and he shall smite the earth with the rod of his mouth, and with the breath of his lips shall he slay the wicked." Such reproof, and such action of the mouth and lips, we suppose to be administered by Jesus in this revelation.

To the same root and stem, stock and offspring, beginning and ending, we apply the prediction, (Zech. iii. 8, and vi. 12, 13,) "Behold, I will bring forth my servant the Branch, (Sept. ý úrazolý, the rising,) and he shall grow up out of his place, and he shall build the temple of the Lord; and he shall bear the glory, and shall set and rule upon his throne, and he shall be a priest upon his throne, and the counsel of peace shall be between them both." So Is. liii. 1, 2, "Who hath believed our report, and to whom is the arm of the Lord revealed? For he shall grow up before him as a tender plant, and as a root out of a dry ground. He hath no form nor comeliness, and when we shall see him, there is no beauty that we should desire him ;"—this being the same root of which we are assured, as above, His rest shall be glorious.

In the offspring or race of David we meet with the seed or fruit of the woman which was to bruise the serpent's head, depriving the accuser of its power, and sin of its sting, and death or condemnation of its prey, by his own vicarious fulfilment of the law. In this anointed, consecrated root, we meet too with the parent stock of the good olive tree, (Rom. xi. 16,) from which, as engrafted branches, the disciple derives the unction of divine holiness; as it is said, if the root be holy, so are the branches; and (John xv. 4, 5) "As the branch cannot bear fruit of itself, except it abide in the vine, no more can ye, except ye abide in me. He that abideth in me, and I in him, the same bringeth forth much fruit; for without me ye can do nothing;" the imputed merits of Christ being to the adopted disciple as the fruit of the tree is to its branches. In allusion to this arrangement of sovereign grace it is said, (Is. lx. 21,) "Thy people shall be all righteous; they shall inherit the land for ever, the branch of my planting, the work of my hands, that I may be glorified;" the fruit borne by this adopted or engrafted branch being, as we apprehend, the imputed merits or righteousness of Christ, the purchased inheritance alluded to Eph. i. 14.

The bright (and) morning-star; or, the resplendent early morning-star, ὁ ἀστὴρ ὁ λαμπρὸς ὁ πρωϊνός, or ὀρθρινός, according to some editions. I shall see him, but not now, said Balaam; I shall behold him, but not nigh. There shall come a star out of Jacob, and a sceptre shall arise out of Israel,

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