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The“ new Jerusalem” is “ heavenly Jerusalem." So that, wherever the name Jerusalem occurs, as denoting the Church or spiritual kingdom of Christ, it is employed in a figurative and spiritual signification.
The name Judah is also used in a figurative sense (as Jerusalem and Zion also are), to denote the kingdom of Christ : “ Judah shall abide for ever, and Jerusalem from generation to generation.—The Lord dwelleth in Zion z.”
The Jews,' the remnant of the temporal kingdom of Judah, are opposed to that spiritual kingdom, of which their former temporal kingdom and capital were figures. They are not members of the spiritual Judah and Jerusalem. Christ crucified, is to them a stumbling-block a. “ He is not a Jew which is one outwardly—but he is a Jew which is one inwardly"; " the former is the temporal Jew, the latter the spiritual Jew, the dweller in the heavenly Judah and Jerusalem, a member of “ the Israel of God.” But the name Israel is used, in its generic signification, to denote the temporal Jewsd; while, in the same signification, used figuratively, it denotes the people of Christ's spiritual kingdome. Israel, then, used in its generic temporal signification, stands opposed to Israel employed in a generic spiritual sense. Thus, St. Paul says,
* Joel, iii. 20, 21. Isaiah, ii. 1.
a 1 Cor. i. 23. Isaiah, vüi. 14.
b Rom. ii. 28, 29.
Hosea, i. 10. Gal. vi. 16.
They are not all Israel which are of Israelf;" in which passage, the first Israel denotes “the Israel of God,” and is, consequently, used in a generic figurative sense; whereas the second Israel is employed in its generic temporal sense, to denote, the seed of Jacob. “ They are not all Israel, which are of Israel ;” or, in other words, they are not all Christ's people who are of the seed of Jacob; for the true Israel is “ the Israel of GoD;” the true Jew is the spiritual Jew; the true “ children of Abraham" are they who have faith in Christ 8.
Thus Israel, in its generic temporal application, corresponds with temporal Judah,; while Israel, in its generic figurative sense, corresponds with spiritual Judah ; and the two latter are opposed to the two former.
As Israel (used specifically) and Judah, the two housesh of the Israelites, comprehended all the seed of Jacob; so Israel (used specifically) coupled with Judah, comprehend, in a figurative sense, the whole “ Israel of God.”
Thus we find, that the patronymic Israel, as denoting a people, is employed in the following different and opposite significations :
h Isaiah, viii. 14.
i Rom. ix. 6.
In it3 TEMPORAL application,
1. In a generic sense, it comprehends all
the descendants of Jacob without distinctioni, in this sense it corresponds with the name Jacob, which is sometimes iemployed& to denote the seed of thạt pa
' the temporal kingdom of Judah, and it
kingdom of the ten tribes.
it denotes all the children of Israel, the whole seed of Jacob. 1. In a' generic sense, it denotes the people
of Christ's kingdom P without distinction. 2. In a specific sense, it is opposed 9 to spi
ritual Judah. In this sense, it corre
sponds with Ephraim' and Samarias. 3. In a specific sense, coupled with Judah,
it denotest all the spiritual children of Abraham, the universal church of Christ.
In its SPIRITUÁL application.
i Exod. xiv. 30. Isaiah, p Isaiah, xlvi. 13. Jere. Ivi. 8.
Rom. x. 1; xi. 7. xxxi. 1. Hosea, i. 10. Rom. 1 Cor. x. 18.
ix. 6. Gal. vi, 16. k Numb. xxii. 7. Psalm 9 Jere. iij. 11. Hosea, iv. xiv. 7.
15; xi. 12. 1 1 Kings, xii. 19, 24, 28; " Isaiah, xi, 12, 13.
8 Ezek, xvi. 46. m Isaiah, vii. 2, 17.
? Isaiah, xi. 12. Jere. n i Kings, xii. 32.
xxiii. 6; xxxiii. 7. Hosea, Psalm cxiv. 2. Isaiah, i. 11. v. 7. Jere. v. 11.
Thus Israel in its temporal application; temporal Jerusalem, or the “ Jerusalem which now is ;” the remnant of the temporal Judah, or the temporal Jews ; stand opposed to, generic Israel, used in a spiritual sense ; spiritual Judah ; spiritual Jerusalem, "new Jerusalem," “ Jerusalem which is above,” “ heavenly Jerusalem;" the spiritual Jews ; the church, or kingdom of Christ.
The prophecies which foretell the re-establishment of dominion in Jerusalem and Zion relate to the establishment of the heavenly Jerusalem ;” the new Jerusalem being the spiritual kingdom of Christ : “ Unto us a child is born, unto us a son is given, and the government shall be upon his shoulder, and his name shall be called Wonderful, Counsellor, the mighty God, the everlasting Father, the Prince of peace. Of the increase of his government and peace there shall be no end, upon the throne of David and upon his kingdom, to order it, and to establish it, with judgment and with justice, from henceforth even for everu." “ The Lord of hosts shall reign in mount Zion and in Jerusalem, and before His ancients, gloriouslyw.
“They shall call Jerusalem the throne of the Lord, and all the nations shall be gathered unto it, to the name of the Lord, to Jerusalemt." “ And thou, O
* Jere. ïïi. 17.
Isaiah, ix. 6,7; xvi. 5.
tower of the flock, the strong hold of the daughter of Zion, unto thee shall it come, even the first dominion. The kingdom shall come to the daughter of Jerusalem y." “ Again I will build thee, and thou shalt be built, О virgin of Israelz." “ Sing and rejoice, 0 daughter of Zion; for lo, I come, and I will dwell in the midst of thee, saith the Lord; and many nations shall be joined to the Lord in that day, and shall be my people, and I will dwell in the midst of thee, and thou shalt know that the Lord of hosts hath sent me unto thee. And the Lord shall inherit Judah, his portion in the holy land, and shall choose Jerusalem again." ransomed of the Lord shall return, and come to Zion with songs, and everlasting joy upon their heads; they shall obtain joy and gladness, and sorrow and sighing shall flee awayb.” Lord will comfort Zion, he will comfort all her waste places; and he will make her wilderness like Eden, and her desert like the garden of the Lord ; joy and gladness shall be found therein; thanksgiving and the voice of melodye.” “ They shall call thee the city of the Lord, the Zion of the Holy One of Israeld;” “ they shall call thy walls salvation, and thy gates praisee.”
y Micah, iv. 8.
Zech. ii, 10-12.
Isaiah, li. ;3; lii. 1, 2, 9.
Isaiah, Ix. 14, © Isaiah, Ix. 18.