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against so vile a cheat, and when he

SIB, not met with the eneiny. But Gold. A LADY has communicated in me

some remarks on the letter which smith had met with him, and being you did me the favour of inserting in examined by the Doctor, found to his your interesting Miscellany (p. 153], confusion that Goldsmith had given on the rites of the Romish church as him all he had.

they are celebrated in the grand seat Above two months ago, died at of Christian idolatry, But before I Boston, Mr. Kirk Root, born at give them to you, I must take the Derby, who had resided there above liberty of correcting one or two typothirty years, and by his industry had graphical errors, which arose probably acquired a handsome fortune. He froin the incorrectness of my handwas a generous Englishman, and writing. In line 35 of page 15+, alieutive to the wants of his fellow wafer is printed instead of water. In creatures, particularly to those who the 5th line from the bottom of the were strangers in distress. Many same column, is Transted instead of such he found, and cheerfully re- Transtih, a word meaning beyond lieved them, and at the same time the Tiber. The lady abore-mendiscovered that his circumstances tioned, observes that I have omitted were constantly meliorating in pro- the blessing of the horses on the 17th portion to his liberality. Nay there of January, and the blessing of two be many such, many who will be- lambs on the 21st, with whose wool come truly wise and happy for ever. the cloaks sent by the Pope to the

I long to hear of the progress and Archbishops are trimmed. The rolto the speedy publication of Mr. Well- santo is explained by her in the folbeloved's Bible, and hope that it will lowing manner. According to the be a great improvement of our present Papistical faith, as Christ was ascend translation. 'The word hell in our ing Mount Calvary, Saint Veronica present copies of the Old Testament, gave him her handkerchief to wipe in the original means the grave, and his face, and the impression of the I hope will be so rendered by this features remained on it. This handingenious translator. Another thing kerchief if you can believe it, is now to be considered is, whether the in existence, and has been sacredly curses in many places of the Palms preserved since that time. In line 17 and of the Prophets, should not be of page 155, the images of the Virgin placed in the future tense instead of Mary, should have been the resemthe imperative mood; as when it is blances of the Virgin Mary, and in said, may such or such curses coine line 19 read in representation of the tipon him, will not the original bear to eternal feast. To the exposition on have it rendered, such particular curses the 29ılı of December, is to be added will come upon him?' Thus the Old that of the finger of the Apostle and New Testament will perfectly Thomas. agree. I need not mention the text, Since writing my last letter to you, thought it nat robbery, c. besides I have becoine possessor of a most many others which must occur to the invaluable relic, namely, a piece of reader.

the bone, what bone I do not know, The letter which you have tran- of the holy Apostle St. Thomas.lt scribed froin a Cork paper, (p. 123), is so small that it might almost escape inust have been written by

heretical eyes, but I shall have great He who rendered reconciliation atone- pleasure in shewing it to you and to mnent, now proceeds farther and deno- some of your readers. If either you nivates Unitarians Deists. His at. or they have any doubts upon the tempt may impose upon ignorant subject, I will do all that I can lo moderns, but in the end will prove an remove them, by shewing you the antidote against imposition.' When testimonial of a venerable' bishop men learn righteousness they will who has signed it with his seal of become lovers of truth, for every office, and if you think it worthy truth leads :o righteousness, which is of a place in your Miscellany, I the case with all the truths of the will send you a copy of it, with a blessed gospel

translation. W. H.

CHRISTIANUS.

GLEANINGS; OR, SELECTIONS AND

No. CCXCIX. 4. REFLECTIONS MADE IN A COURSE

Perfect Allusion. OF GENERAL READING.

An allusion pleases, by presenting

a new and beautiful image to the No. CCXCVIII.

mind. The analogy, or the resemMessuliran Pilgrimage. blance between this image and the * Mount Arafat is the principal ob- principal subject is agrecable of itself, ject of the pilgrimage of the Mussul-, and is indeed trece sary, to furnish men; and several Doctors assert, an apology for the transition which that if the house of God ceased to the writer makes; but the pleasure exist, the pilgrimage to the foriner is wonderfully heightened, when the would be completely meritorious, and new image thus presented is a beautiwould produce the same degree of ful one. The following allusion in satisfaction. This is my opinion like- one of Mr. Home's tragedies, appears wise.

to me to unite almost every excelIt is here that the grand spectacle lence : of the pilgrimage of the Mussulmen

“ Hope and fear, alternate, sway'd must be seen, an innumerable crowd

his breast; of men from all' nations and of all “ Like light and shade upon a waring colours, coming from the extremities field, of the earth, through a thousand “ Coursing each other, when the dying dangers, and encountering fatignes of clouds every description, to adore together “ Now bide, and now reveal, the sun." the same God, the God of nature. Here the analogy is remarkably The native of Circassia presents his perfect ; not only between light and hand in a friendly, manner to the hope and between darkness and fear; Ethiopian, or the Negro of Guinea ; bui between the rapid succession of the Indian and the Persian embrace light and shade and the momentary the inhabitant of Barbary and Mo- influences of these opposite emotions : tocco; all looking upon each other as and, at the same tine, the new brothers, or individuals of the same image which is presented to us, is family united by the bands of religion ; one of the most beautiful and striking and the greater part speaking or under. in nature. standing more or less the same lan

Dugald Stewart's Elements, 1. 316, guage, the language of Arabia. No,

317. there is not any religion that presents to the senses a spectacle more simple,

No. CCC. affecting and majestic ! 'Philosophers Maxim of Ecclesiastics. of the earth! permit me, Ali Bey, to St. Austin hås well expressed the defend my religion, as you defend maxim of all sound Churchmen in spiritual things from those which the Orthodox or Catholic, that is, the are material, the plenum against a more powerful, Church. The saint vacuum, and the necessary existence having laid down the gospel according of the creation.

to his own liking, (Ad Marcellin.) Here, as I remarked in the narra- adds, very significantly, His qui contive of my voyage to Morocco, is no tradicit, aut a Christi fide alienum est, interinediary between man and the aut est. Hæreticus ; that is in plain divinity; all individuals are equal English, He that contradicts me is before their Creator; all are inti- a Heathen or a Heretic." mately persuaded that their works alone reconcile them to, or separate

66

No. CCCI. them from the Supreme Being, with

Frugality of Nature. out any foreign hand being able to Nature (says Fontenelle) is a great change the order of immutable jus- housewife, she always inakes use of tice! What a curb 10 sin! What what costs least, let the difference be an encouragement to virtue! But ever so inconsiderable: and yet that what a misfortune that, with so many frugality is accompanied with an advantages, we should not be better extraordinary magnificence, which than the Calvinists!

shines through all her works; that is, Trwels of Ali Bey, II. 66. she is magnificent in the desiga but

frugal in the execution.

VOL. XII.

REVIEW.
“ Still pleased to praise, yet not afraid to blame." _Pore.

pp. 448.

THE

Art. I.--Ethical Questions ; or Specu- is a natural and useful introduction to

lations on the Principal Subjects of the ensuing speculations. Il must Controversy in Moral Philosophy. By be read with pleasure by every man T. Cogan, M. D. Author of a Phi- who respects human nature and values Josophical Treatise on the Passions, truth, and with profit by those espe&c. 8vo.

Cadell and cially who are entering on the study of Davies. 1817.

moral and mental philosophy. The THE mutual dealing of mankind is arrangement is clear, the expression

so similar, that it might lead us luminous, the reasoning sound, and it to infer, that there is not much differ- is altogether a powerful antidote to ence in their opinion of human nature; universal scepticism; and on this acyet it is certain there is no subject upon count it deserves the attention of those which men, plain as well as speculative, who, finding that they have much to think more differently. While some unlearn, are half inclined to excuse see in it only what is corrupt and base themselves from the labour of enquiry, and proper to be exterminated as soon

by rashly concluding that nothing can as it is created, others find in it capacity be known by man. of every virtue and predominant dispo - There must be," says our author, sitions, generally to goodness, and often “ such a thing as truth. This assertion to great moral excellence. It is a little will be acknowledged by every man, exceptreniarkable, that the sceptical philoso- ing a most determined sceptic; and it is pher and the Calvinistic theologian, impossible for bim to confute it. He who ihough at variance in most of their would persuade us that truth does not exist, opinions, have laboured together in the is still attempting to establish the truth of degradation of our common nature; for

his own position."-P. 4. while one declares that man has no

“ Truth is, and must be, beneficial in moral worth, the other maintains that i

its nature; crror must be pernicious. The his intellectual faculty is wholly inade- which we must build to be secure.

one is a sure guide ; the foundation opon

We quate to the discovery of truth. Thus must know that things are, what they are, virtue and knowledge are both beyond how they are, and what powers they posthe reach of his nature; and from the sess, before we can act in a manner correhands of these spoilers man comes, not spondent with their natures. Error must surely as he comes from the hand of be perpicious, as it cannot be acted upon; his Maker, without a trace either of it always deceives and disappoints. the intellectual or moral image of the

“ Truth is important, because it respects Creator.

existences and relations which may have The author of the present volume an influence upon our well-being; and is well known to niost of our readers without which well-being can never be as an advocate of human nature; and

obtained."-P. 5. having formerly defended it ably against On the attempt to discredit the evithe charge of innate and hereditary dence of the senses it is acutely redeprarity, he has in the work under marked : review entered his plea against the “ In a word, the strange hypothesis degradation of our intellectual nature, confutes itself. It is supported by an arby asserting its sufficiency to explore gument which destroys the objection. truth. In both he appears the zealous, How can the objector know that our senses enlightened, and, we think, victorious deceire us at any time? It can alone be advocate, in a carise which is not bad, by the accurate discoveries of these very though it has been accidentally and in

Thus is he compelled to place bis dustriously perplexed. We learn from confidence in a testimony which he prothe Doctor's preface that the present

fessedly rejects.”—P. 9. volume, with the exception of the The same reasoning is applied to the Strictures on Dr. Beattie's Essay on evidence of testimony: Truth, is an off-shoot

from the Analysis « We cannot know that falsehood and of the Passions. The first Enquiry, error exist, but by the discovery of a truth. On the Sources of Rational Conviction, Every one who belieres that falseboods are

senses.

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detected, must beliere in the fact's which danger it is not to escape the danger, but have led to the detection. We must there to be released from the fear? or when we fore believe in the existence of a truth, rejvice, it is not on account of the good in though we may in many cases he ignorant contemplation, but because of the pleasant wbcre it is to be found.”-P. 18.

effects of the joy itself?"-P. 95. In the same manner it is argued re

The object of the passion suggests the specting knowledge, regained through

motive for action, and not the desire to inthe medium of memory:

dulge, or to be exempt from, the sensation

peculiar to the passion. If this be the case “Here we may also urge, that there can in every instance which concerns ourselves, be no method of detecting a delusion in a parity of reasoning requires us to expect some cases, but by being convinced of the same law of human agency respecting realities in others. We could not form an others ; particularly as this niode of reasonidea of a deception, if we were always ing so perfectly coincides with the condeceived. It is a deviation from the usual sciousness of every benevolent mind, which tenor, wbicb convinces us of a possibility the other system so strangely opposes."'-. in some cases, and an impossibility in P. 97. all." --P. 31, On self-evidence our author asks:

The third Enquiry respects the Ex

istence of a Moral Sense, to which it “Strictly speaking, can any thing be is objected that “ if a moral sense exsaid to be self-evident, exclusive of sensi- isted, of the nature, and for the purposes ble objects? A man can advance no argu- supposed by its advocates, a dispute ments to prove that he sees, hears, smells, and feels, stronger than the report of his concerning its existence could not have senses; but whatever is not an immediate been as obvious as any of the corporeal

arisen. The mental sense would have object of sepse, requires a certain degree of thought. It requires a process, to which senses. The man whose olfactory self-evidence cannot be applied, in its lite

nerves are in such a healthy state that ral sense, though. it is by courtesy as ex- he can distinguish odours, never calls pressive of extremely quick perception. their existence into question. Every Should the truth of this observation be one knows that he has optics to see and doubted, we may still assert, without the distinguish objects, and an ear to disfear of confutation, that numerous axioms tinguish sounds. The reluctance with which are currently received as first pria- which the doctrine of a sixth sense is ciples, and as it were prior to all reasoning, received by one party, and the incabave originally gone tbrough a process pacity of the other to demonstrate its which has escaped the memory.”—Pp. 53, existence, fully prove that the cases are 54.

not perfectly parallel, and lead us to It would be gratifying to ourselves suspect that there may be an essential had we space to present our readers discrepancy.” On this objection it with an analysis of this disquisition on seems just to remark, that the advocates Rational Conviction, with which the of the moral sense never could intend volume opens, and of that with which to use the word in precisely the same it concludes, On Moral Obligation, as meaning, as when it is applied to the they form wgether a masterly view of faculty of perceiving external objects the nature of man in his double capa- through the corporeal organs. They city of a creature formed both for con- applied it analogically to the mental templation and action.

power of distinguishing between moral The second Speculation is, On Dis- good and evil, and analogies do not reinterested Benevolence, and we agree quire that the cases be perfectly parallel. with the author that“ what seems to We extract the following passage, bedecide this question is the fact, that, cause it presents briefly and at once in no one instance, is the pleasure de- the Doctor's theory of moral sentirived from the excitement of a passion a motive for the indulgence of that pas

“ We have attempted to prove that the sion; or the pain which it occasions, the sole motive to liberate ourselves grand characteristic of virtue consists in

its being an energy of mind, designedly from it."

exerted by a roluntary agent, productive “ Can there be more propriety in the of personal or social advantages, accordassertion, tbat when we feel distress at the ing to certain invariable principles; and distress of another, we relieve him merely to that vice, notwithstanding its personaj get rid of our own sufferings, than in the gratifications and temporary advantages position, tbat when we fear and tly from is in its owo nature inimical to permanent

nients.

serves

happiness. We have also shewn that our with moral agency, where the agent feels** love of good, and our hatred of whatever that he has a will in the action; and it: appears to be an evil, enstamps a value leads the opponent, or the libertine, upon every thing which contributes to into conclusions which are erroneous or good; and we approve of the intentional immoral. agent : whereas we bate whatever we The phrase which is sometimes used deem injurious in its tendency, and se to distinguish the necessity for which it verely censure a designing agent. We is contended, from the others, is in itself have shewn, moreover, that the degrees an acknowledgment that there is a dif. of our approbation or censure, are always ference; but it does not state in what proportionate to the perception of degrees the difference specifically consists. It is in the merit or demerit of an action, termed philosophical necessity. If philoconnected with the extent of good or of sophical were thought to be the same as evil produced. These pleasant or un- physical necessity, the epithet would not pleasant sensations may rise to very strong bave been prefixed. But this phrase is emotions; from simple approbation, which not explicit or peculiarly appropriate. seems to be the decision of the judgment, Strictly speaking, physical necessity is as connected with a certain sentiment of philosophical as the other; although the feeling of the heart, they may swell to mural philosopher claims an exclusire enthusiastic applause; and from the right to it, without informing us on mildest censure they may become indigua- what this claim is founded. Should he tion and horror. Thus we commend allege that moral conduct is of a superior prudence nd discretion; we applaud character to physical impulse, and deincorruptible integrity; and we admire an honourable distinction, the with raptures the extraordinary exertions answer is, that this superiority consists or sacrifices of benevolence. We disap in the possession of a will, and a power prove of imprudence, condemn injustice, to act according to this will. It is this and hold acts of cruelty in detestation. prerogative which characterizes human There are, in like manner, the nicest agency; constitutes the excellency, digo gradations observable in our complacen- uity, and importance of moral conduct, tial affections. A certain degree of worth and ought to place it at a due distance attracts our esteem; we say the character from a word which insinuates the rererse, is cstimable. The characters of others every tine it is uttered."-Pp. 164, 165. call forth respect and veneration ; and of “ If the necessarian will not be so others our warmest admiration. On the very tenacious of the words must, cannot contrary, displacency, at some actions, act otherways, &c. &c. when he speaks if they be more strongly marked with folly of any particular or specific act of the will, than with rice, will produce the not the advocate for free agency will be disa unpleasant, but the satirical and cor- posed to admit the graud principle, that no rectire emotion of irrision ; while others man has ever acted without a motive; that create disrespect, contempt, disdain, &c. the strongest inducement became the according to our perceptions of meanness, motive; that it became the strongest at or peculiar bascuess of character and the time, by appearing to be most adopted conduct. We have remarked that in to bis purpose ; that this purpose cunthese affections a bad opinion of the agent sisted in the possession of some good. is inspired by the love of virtue, united He will acknowledge that no with an inward consciousness that we are desire greater freedom, than that of superior to these vices."- Pp. 123-125. following his own inclinations." - Pp.

165, 166. The fourth Speculation is on the “ Nor arc the designs of the neces.' long contested Doctrine of Philoso. sarian so well auswered by the pertinacious phical Necessity: What especially and partial use of the favourite expression. demands notice in this Essay is the It is the professed object to enforce the author's opinion, that the opposite hy- doctrine of an extensive and invariable potheses might be in some sort recon. concatenation. But as the human will ciled, if their advocates would agree in fornis so important a links in the chain, the rejection of certain terms, such as it ought to be perpetually noticed and 'must,' and 'necessary,' and in the respected ; and its powers of choice should substitution of others less liable to be be carefully distinguisbed from erery mistaken.

species of physical agency;"-P. 166. “ It (the word Necessity) has a ten

If the two hypotheses differed but in dency to confound two things which difer words ; or if a change of terms could essentially. It places mechanical or plıy- change the nature of the facts, or prove sical agency, over which the will may not that the difference has been only in bare any power, upon the same line words, we should rejoice to see a con

man can

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