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plications of the Doctrine of the Arians, which is a blessed compre. Trinity, &c. In a Letter to H. H.” hension." And again, “ he calls it Biographia Brit. iii. 29. Note II. The an opinion only like that of the Soci. Unitarian was soon followed by this nian and Arian." My author, on the foe of the Bishop's own house, whom contrary, determines that “ Catholick Burnet's biographers have left unno Faith," or, in plain language, his own ticed. He thus expresses his disap- opinion, was “ the Faith of the Unipointment, adding a charge of varia- versal Church (not the opinion of any tions, which requires for its support a party) in the beginning; and therebetter authority than his own. As to fore the contrary parties and opinions the charge of some particular practice arising since (of what «ut or size so darkly insinuated, it is sufficient to soever) pertain not to this holy body." recollect that the Bishop appears to Vindic. pp. 1-5. have set his accuser at defiance.
The Bishop in his discourse appears " When I saw the discourse as it to have encountered difficulties comcame new dressed from the press, I mon to all who are not satisfied with was quite confouded by a complication the apostolic belief of one God, even of passions and amazements at the the Father, and yet would avoid the changes made in it, especially by the language of Tritheism, or, if that be unfriendly usage of the Fathers,* and any hing less, of Sherlock's system gaudy character of the Socinian pro- of three infinite minds. Thus the bity, justice and charity. Being thus Bishop qualifies his creed by the foldisappointed, no wonder if my heart lowing declaration : “By Person is was heated within me. And here- not meant such a Being as we comupon l undertook to write to his Lord- monly understand by that word, a ship my grief at those passages which complete intelligent Being, but only offended me, and another particular that every one of that blessed Three practice of his Lordship not to be men- has a peculiar distinction in himself, tioned here. This letter bis Lordship by which he is truly different from resented very grievously as too free the other two." Discourses, p. 31, in and daring, and for that cause wrote Vindic. p. 8. The Vindicator objects to me, that he would admit of no dis- to this statement, aud remarks, with cussion of particulars with a man of a levity scarcely to have been exmy ill temper, who seemed made to pected, that “it being only such a exercise the patience of better men. diversity that one is not the other, it But had I come and modestly propo- will as well agree to two or three sed my exceptions, he could and tobacco-pipes, for these are truly difwould have given me satisfaction; ferent from each other.” Id. p. 16. but if I would to the press for want Still further to expose the Bishop's of such private satisfaction, (as I had qualified belief in a Trinity of persons forewarned his lordship) I might take in the Godhead, he supposes him to my course, so that this book comes hold the following dialogue with a out, even with his Lordship's licence." gentile candidate for Christian bap
This vindicator finds "two things tism. to urge against my Lord Bishop of “ CATECHUMEN. My Lord, I am Sarum-that he very defectively (to an heathen philosopher, and willing say no worse) states” the church's to be instructed in the principles of “ faith and doctrine, in the articles of the Christian faith; I pray what are the Trinity, and Incarnation," and they? Bish. First our received doc. that " he exposes the Fathers." My trine is, that in the single essence of author goes on to reproach the Bishop God there are three. Catech. Three because she foully states the faith of what, my Lord? Bish. Three really the divinity and incarnation of Christ, distinct from one another, more than and therein, of the holy Trinity." three names, modes and economies. This charge is brought against the CATECH. My Lord, you tell me what discourse for having described the Tri. they are not, but I would fain know, nitarian as one of “three opinions," or have some notion what they are; and thus " is an insinuation laid for and when you tell me there are three, the communion with Socinians and the rules of logick, grammar and
catechism require a substantive to • Preface to the lergy. determine the sense; I pray, my Lord,
has your Catholick Church, or your similes, run out into much length and Church of England given them no confusion, while they talk of things to characteristick name? Bish. Yes, others which they understand not thenafter Patripassianism arose, she called selves. Catech. My Lord, if you them persons as a test to discover can teach me nothing of your faith in them. `CATECH. But why then had God, if you will reject the terms of you not thus stated the sun of your your church, to which you have received doctrine, that iu God's unity sworn your unfeigned assent, if you of essence there are three persons ? dissolve the sense of your Scripture For, if this were received before or terms into nothing, and renounce the since Patripassianism, 'tis received wisdom of your Primitive Fathers, into your Christian confessions. Per you force me to retreat from my haps the Catholick Church may not hopes, and to devote my soul to the really mean that they really are what society of the philosophers.” Id. pp. 19 she calls them, that is, persons; and --22. hence your Lordship thought fit to It would be very difficult to render omit it; I pray, my Lord, deal openly interesting a farther examination of with me, is it so, or how is it? B18h. this volume. In the second part, beTruly, sir, the church only means sides the defence of the Fathers, there is that one is not the other; that is all an occasional attack on Crellius, F. Socithat is intended in the term person. nus, (id. p. 136,) and “our countryman Catech. This looks very catachres- Biddle," who “ was so convinced of tical and inartificial; but do not your the errors of his Socinian Fathers, that Scriptures teach them to be persons ? be even scouts them, and roundly falls Bish. No, they only call them by the off to the elder enemies of the Holy names of Father, Son or Word, and Spirit, with whom he passed for a Holy Ghost Catech. But do not created person.” Id. p. 137. There is your Scriptures and your churches also a reference to “ that impostor Santeach, that the first of these is really dius!" Id. p. 168. It is mentioned, a Father, and the second really his not to the Bishop's praise, that he had Son? Bisn. This is one of the three “exposed for doubted, in his Letter opinions that the Scriptures do so from Zurich, that passage of St. John, teach. CATECH. And is this the opi- 1 Ep. v. 7." Id. p. 52. There is nion your Lordship will explain to me? also a passage quoted from “ Dr. Bur. Bish. Yes, sir. Catech. Are Father net's Letter of Remarks upon the two and Son then personal titles ? Bish. Strong Box Papers," id. p. 170. They Yes, sir, among men. Catech. But were attributed to Charles the Second, are they not so in the Deity? Bish. and are mentioned in Mon. Repos. X. Sir, they are not called persons in 226. This Letter, by the Bishop, was Scripture, but only Father, Son or not published till 1688. (See Biog. Word, and Holy Ghost; but we Brit. iii. 36.) mean no more by persons, but that The Vindicator thus solemnly con. one is not the other; there are three, cludes his labour: “And now I am sir, that you may depend on; but 1 resolved to end, though his divinity pray, sir, do not press me against affords much more corrigible matter. liberty of conscience to call them At the horror whereof I leave him persons, for I cannot tell what they to God's mercy and the Church's are, nor what to call them. Catech. prayers ; but his writings of this stamp, But, I pray, my Lord, why did your either to his own ingenuous recanta. Apostle blame the Athenian inscrip- tion, or canonical censure." Risum tion“ to the unknown God," and pro- teneatis? A simple priest thus remise to declare him unto them, if he proving a Bishop, and such an one as taught no more notions of him than Burnet!! that there are three I know-not-whats This Vindicator surely knew not in the God-head? I am in hope I what spirit he was of; and it was shall find better information from scarcely worthy of the Bishop to reyour Fathers; I pray, my Lord, what gard such a publication. Yet Wood is your opinion of them herein ? Bisu. says that “ Bishop Burnet, angry at Perhaps, sir, they have gone beyond this buok, complains to the Bishop of due bounds, contradicted each other and London (Compton) that his chaplain, themselves ; they use many impertinent R. Altham, late proctor of Oxford, SIR,
should licence such a book, full of the souls of all their brethren from scurrility; whereupon the said Mr. this place of punishment; and proAltham was forced to make a sub- bably a fast, or at least a day of abmission or recantation.” A. 0. 2nd stinence, might have been instituted ed. ii. 1000. According to Wood, on the occasion: but as this is only two answers to the Vindication imme- conjecture, I shall be glad to see a diately appeared : “1. Animadversion developement by any of your able on Mr. Hill's Book, entitled, &c. in a Correspondents. Letter to a Person of Qualitv." 4to.
ANTI-IMPOSITION. “ 2. Remarks of a University Man upon a late Book falsely called A Vin- On the System of Malthus. dication of the Fathers." 4to. A. O. Sir, 2nd ed. ii. 1000.
SEVERAL allusions have been reVERMICULUS.
to the system of population which July 21, 1817. Mr. Malthus has laboured to develope N your Repository for April, [p. and enforce. Sonte of these have
209,) your Correspondent Otiosus served more strongly to convince me mentiuns a publication of 1745, in of the fallacy and the unhappy tenwhich the author asserts that at that dencies of that celebrated scheme. It time it was usual for the poor to go is, I fear, calculated to exert no genial from one village to another begging iufluence on the character of the presoulcakes, and asks if any of your sent age. It sends a chillness into our readers have witnessed this. His “ heart of hearts.” It represses the question 1 answer in the affirmative, involuntary risings of our kindest and and that the custom prevailed in that most charitable emotions. It defends part of England of which I am a na. the extravagant luxuries of the rich, tive (Staffordshire), about thirty-seven while it represents as criminal the years ago, but I never knew any other most sacred affections of the poor. It than children go on this errand. Once gives a ready apology to the selfish, on the occasion the little supplicants and covers the unfeeling bosom with treated me with one of their cakes, the additional steel of a philosophic which were made of oatmeal and armour. water, in the way in which crumpets
But, I am well aware that to exare made, and was the kind of whole. press repugnance to a theory as a some bread chiefly eaten on those matter of feeling or taste is not to days in that part." Mentioning this disprove it. To some, indeed, it may to a female friend, she told me it was seem a sufficient objection to the new practised there as recently as fourteen doctrine of population, that it contraor fifteen years ago, and by adults as dicts the first of the Almighty's well as children, and that they were blessings. There is, however, no nenot restricted to the little cakes, but cessity to stop here. I trust I shall received fruit or any thing that the be able to shew not only that the good folks were pleased to give them. iuferences derived from it are absurd,
The supplicative song I have heard but that the premises on which it them make use of was merrily run
rests are unfounded. over, and is as follows:
Mr. Malthus and his disciples main
tain, that the vast majority of human Pray you, good dame, a soulcake, a soul- miseries arises from the increase of cake,
population being much more rapid An apple, a pear, a plum, or a cherry, Or any good thing to make us merry :
than that of food; that while the forOne for Peter and two for Paul,
mer has a tendency to multiply in And three for Him that made us all.
geometrical, the latter can only be
augmented in an arithmetical proWhatever gave rise to the custom gression; and that either the natural I know not, but I understand that the progress of the species must be Roman Catholics did, on 'certain days, checked, or war, disease and famine invoke their saints on behalf of some must remove those who are intruders of their friends in purgatory, and I at the banquet of life, and have no suppose on this day (All-Soul's) they place allotted to them at nature's besought them for the restoration of table,
Now, if these propositions are true, The diseases produced by luxury are it is “passing strange" they should so far more numerous than those which long have remained a secret. Men are arise from want. Aud yet, in defiance usually rather prompt in discovering of these facts, we are called on to give the immediate causes of their sorrows. our assent to a system which ascribes And yet the exuberance of population the miseries of the world to the perwas never, uutil the present age, found petual tendency of the species to to be the master-spring of human increase beyond the means which
On the contrary, in ancient Providence has ordained for its suptimes the main strength of a nation port. was supposed to consist in the number This mode of establishing theories iu of its citizens. And it is impossible defiance of experieuce is strikingly exfor the most perverted ingenuity to emplified in the conclusions which your trace any large portion of the ills of Correspondent Homo has drawn from life to an excessive population as its the system of Malthus. t He states
Even in the severest times bis principles, and then draws as a the death of a human being by famine, practical inference from them, that life or even by disease arising from want, is for the most part a scene of wretchis a comparatively rare occurrence. edness, and that existence is a curse. The far greater part of the miseries Now it is almost too evident to be of life have their origin in the artificial mentioned, that the question of the desires, the inconsistent hopes, and happiness or the misery of the species the guilty passions of man. For the is one to be determined by the examimost part, they are altogether inde nation of facts, and not by the dispendent of the scantiness of the ar- cussion of theories. If, on the whole, ticles absolutely necessary to sub- it should appear that good is more sistence. Even the calamities of want prevalent than evil, that human beings which actually arise, may be traced in general feel existence to be a bles. to much more obvious causes than a sing and cling to it with fondness to disproportion between the people to the last, no reasoning, however appabe fed and the means of feeding them, rently conclusive, can alter a convicexcept in years when the usual pro- tion founded on such a basis. And if, duce fails. Instances of national dis- on the other hand, an impartial survey tress are occasioned by the stagnation of this earthly sceuc should lead us of trade, the pressure of taxation, the to the dreary belief that sorrow is Auctuations of credit, or more fre. more abundant than joy, no developequently by the employment of large ment of the causes of misery couid numbers of active men in foreign wars, deepen the gloom. It is, indeed, the who are to be supported from the tendency of the scbeme of Malthus to produce of lands which they do not chill all our hopes for the future imassist to cultivate. In all the annals provement of man, by representing of carnage, Mr. Malthus cannot pro- the springs of his distresses as necesduce an instance in which a king has sarily coeval with his nature; but it made war in order to dispose of his cannot aggravate the actual evils superfluous subjects. The evils of of our condition. If the hope, the bloodshed arise from the ambition of love and the joy which surround man, not from the deficiency of corn : us are inconsistent with the conseand they would rage with equal fury quences which follow from that sys. though food were ten times as plentiful. tem, the error must be in the
reasonings which lead to an impos* The sentiment expressed by the Chorussible conclusion. The most ingenious in Edipus Tyrannus is in unison with all argument could not persuade us that the ideas of ancient statesmen :
the sun does not eulighten the world, “Ως, έιπερ άρεεις 7ηδε γής, ώσπερ κραTeis,
+ See Mon. Repos. p. 151. This writer Eù ayopáru nánasov ij nevis xpæn side of human affairs. His views of society
is certainly eloquent in describing the dark
are extensive ; but be seems to have caught Ως εδέν έσιν έ7ε πύργος, έτε ναύς, them through a gloomy medium. They Ερημος ανδρών μη ευνοικέτων έσω. . “sicklied o'er with the pale cast of
Soph. Edip. Tyr.54. thongbt."
We should feel no hesitation in pro- ing calm, like a breeze from some nouncing the reasoning sophistical, happier world. It brings with it gloeven though we could not discover rious hopes from afar, and innumethe precise point of its fallacy. So if rable thoughts of joy, as airy and a man finds himself surrounded with bright and unearthly, as the fleecy plenty, Mr. Malthus will fail to con- clouds at sunset. It sheds its gentle vince him that he is in the midst of influence over all the affections, as famine, even though he should seem spring throws a soft green over the to prove that the human race increases visible creation. It steals upon us at faster than the means of subsistence, that period of life when the heart is and to shew that men are born to be most in need of those cherishing and starved by all the triumphant progress ennobling joys which it wever fails to of a geometrical progression.
supply. Too soon we find the pleaBut to return to the system itself, sures of our early days goue, and their which is represented as casting so innocence ready to forsake us. The dreary a shadow over all earthly high and noble beatings of the youthhopes. It seems to me to be founded ful soul are stopped by the chilling on the most fallacious principles. Its influevce of the world. The bright main defect is, that it sets out with visions of romantic virtue and sweet regarding mau as a mere animal. It dreams of spiritual excellence, which takes his high instincts, his dear affec- encircled infancy like a charm, are tions, his most mysterious emotions, as dissolved as the kuowledge of life, matter of calculation, to be cast up with its evils increases. Our percepin the gross, and estimated by the tions of things which are unseen berules of arithmetical series. It applies come dim as we grow conversant its mean and wretched standard to the with the grosser realities of existence. human heart. It is built on the sup. We descend from the high range of position that the love between the imaginary good to the lower scenes sexes is altogether low and sensual. where an engrossing selfishness preIt assumes that man, in the tenderest vails. Evil thoughts crowd upon the and most universal of his sympathies, mind hitherto unconscious of gust, is in no way distinguished from the which too often leave a stain behind beasts that perish. Its fundamental them, even when their immediate principles could be correct only as temptations are most successfully reapplied to creatures, animated solely sisted. We are now in imminent by ferocious instinct, and destitute of danger of losing that fine polish and reason, sentiment, imagination and exquisite enamel of the soul, which is hope. To such a level does the first not only beautiful in itself, but the calculation of Malthus reduce his best safeguard of the loveliest virtues species. It is but consistent that a and the best and purest affections. system which ultimately throws a The debasing spirit of commerce, the shade on the goodness of God should wretched pursuit of gain, the exclubegin by debasing the character of sive ambition of earthly advancement, man.
and the allurements of worldly joy, The whole of this witbering theory tend to deaden our feelings and to is founded on a comparison between harden our hearts. At this critical the tendencies of the human race to period it is that love comes to our aid multiply, and the progress of the with protection as potent as that of a means of subsistence, If the prin. " thousand liveried angels!" It opciples of these calculations be erro- poses all selfish desires by making neous, all the consequences deduced another the sharer in our fondest from them must fail. This I shall hopes and giving to us an object more now endeavour to establish.
dear than our earthly being. It And first, the mutual affection be- awakens again our perceptions of all tween the sexes is not subject to the that is great and good around us, reasoning applied to it by Malthus. within us and above us. When its Who shall dare assert that it has no sweet light dawns on the mind, “ the relations but to time and sense? It splendour in the grass, the glory in is not of the earth, earthly. It comes the flower,” almost sparkle in their over the soul with a sweet and ravish- original lustre. We catch another VOL. XII.