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like the mighty shade of Troy of bis it is said that the poor may sue in country's glory and independence, formâ pauperis. To what does this si dextra

privilege amount? First, it extends Defendi possent, etiam hâc defensa fu- to those only who are not worth above issent.

five pounds besides heir wearing apo I mention babe-sprinkling because parel; whereas a man may be worih the terms infant and baptism are not much more, and yet be a great deal sufficiently precise on a question wbich too poor to support a suit in Chancery. carries the diligent inquirer iuto eccle. But next suppose he is of the class of siasti, al antiquity, through ages and mere paupers; he obtains an exemp. countries, where they have described tion from the costs of stamps and such different persons and practices. counsel's fees and court fees; and we Learved Padobaptists acknowledge

shall suppose that his counsel exerts this, though Pudobaptism has been himself 10 the utmost; that no time assisted not a little by such ambiguity. is lost by his special plearler's slowHere, however, I leave the question,

ness or his counsel's laying aside his now happily narrowed into the autho

case, to make way for others upon rity of tradition, in the hands of two which his opinion is requested with disputants well prepared to exhaust peculiar dispatch. What chance has the subject. Should they proceed in he of an active and industrious atthe discussion, it will, I trust, speedily he has rich ones on his hands, as

torney to serve this poor client, while become a collatio anica worthy to be classed with that of Limborch and he must have if he be an able pracOrobio, or Price and Priestley, dis- titioner and a man who will let no playing all the coolness which the opportunity escape him? But this is subject seems, at first view, naturally not all—who is to pay for his witto encourage. Yet, however it has nesses ? Who is to advance him happened, on no question has more money for this most necessary expense,

when it unseemly warmth beer frequently

knows that he may gain excited. That controversy has, in

his cause, and yot not have enough to deed, abounded in “ words that burn,” pay it? This leads us to the much as if arguments, like some combus

more grievous case of a man pre tibles, flamed most fiercely in the vailing and yet being nothing the element of water.

better, nay, actually being a loser, by My learned kinsman will, I hope than that the recovery of a small debt,

his contest. Nothing is more certain allow me to take advantage of a pri. ority, due only to a much earlier or the successful resistance of a smali appearance on your pages, and hence demand, is more costly than acquiforth to subscribe myself

escing in positive injustice. Ii, for IGNOPUS-SENIOR.

example, a person is called upon by one he never saw or heard of to pay

fifteen or twenty pounds, and refuses, Grievous Expense of Law Proceedings. and suffers an action to be brought (From Edinburgh Review, No. LIV. pp. against him; and if he gain, as it is 356-358.)

to be presumed he will under such THE grievous expense of law pro circumstances, he will, in all probabi

of complaint among the vulgar; but he would have done had he at once they who are the best acquainted with paid the sum unjustly demanded. No the profession of the law, are best doubt he gains with costs, but the able to say (as they must if they speak actual costs always considerably es. the truth) that none of the complaints ceed the costs allowed; and in the ever made upon this trite subject are case of small sums the excess is greater in the least degree exaggerated. That than the sum in dispute. We think a poor man cannot obtain justice, is it enough at present merely to broach quite obvious, at least that he cannot this subjeot. It forms one of the most obtain it unless he finds some one to intolerable abuses known in the lavr; lend him the money without security, and no reform could be more whole which is next to impossible; or to some than one directed to remedy it. lend it him for a shuse of the property The share which the Government, at stake which the law prohibits. But bears of the blame does nat CORE

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under the head of extra costs, as all have it? Can these passages be other. stamps are allowed in taxing; but wise applied than to a person? Or, those imposts are not the less objec, what shall we say to Tertullian's ex. tionable upon other grounds. They pression in his treatise against Praxeas, are nevertheless favourites with weak where he speaks of God being alone rulers, aud flatter some ridiculous po- before all things'? Solus aiitem quia pular prejudices. Since the public nihil aliud extrinsecus prater iilum, cation of Mr. Bentham's work, no one cæterum ne tune quidem solus, habebat has ever pretended to doubt their enim secum rationem, hanc Greci Néyou iniquity and gross impolicy. Mr. dicunt is not a man alone with his Rose one day, in Mr. Hitt's presence,

own reason, as an attribrate? Besides took the author aside and informed that in the beginning of Christ's mihim that they had read the pamphlet, mistry the wisdom of God should exist, that its reasoning was uuanswerable,

seems a strange piece of information and that it was resolved there should to stand at the head of such a work be no more such taxes. Yet budget after bulget has since been formed, in jv nóyos be, as Mr. Lindsey would

as John's Gospel; after all, if Eis which those duties have made a part; have it, and God was wisdom,' God and Mr. Pitt himself was found to and wislom must be the same.

Now patronize them upon his return to office in 1804.

in ver. 14, Mr. Lindsey must have read

• wisdom was (or was made, or became) SIR, Nov. 10, 1817.

flesh; o' ayos capg éyéVETO ; conseTHE writer of the letter from quently God became fesh, and our which au extract is given in

point is carried.” your last Number (p. 601) is incorrect

From this it is evident either that in stating that Mr. (now Dr.) Nares's Dr. Nares never read Lindsey's Ob“ priucipal object in his book entitled servations on the Iptroduction of St. 'Eis @còs, 'Eis Mesitys, is to argne John's Gospel, or that he has comagainst the Plurality of Worlds, from pletely forgotten them. Suffice it to the fatal consequence that would arise remark, that Mr. Lindsey does not of the absurdity of the supposition, suppose the words áv osvezi to mean that the Creator of the worlds should in the beginning of Christ's ministry; go about dying for every set of his consequently, the Doctor might have rebellious creatures," The real object spared his note, p. 114 : and if he of this work is, to shew that the phi- wishes to know what we are to think losophical notion of the Plurality of of “wisdom coming to its own,” &c. Worlds is not inconsistent with the &c. he may consult any of the respect, language of the Holy Scriptures; that able advocates for the interpretation there is nothing in the expressions here ascribed to Lindsey. used by the sacred writers that necess

Dr. Nares states that “ he has a sarily limits their application to the high respect for Mr. Li's character human race; and that there are several and consistency, but that he cannat passages which seem to imply that bow down to him as a critic.” How the whole universe of solar and pła, is he enabled to estimate the merits netary systems will be affected by of Mr. L. in this respect? From the Christ's sufferings.

preceding extract, it would appear This mention of Dr. Nares induces that he is unacquainted with Mr. Li's me to make a few observations upon writings, since in most of them the the following passage, taken from p. Proem of St. John's Gospel is ex116, of his Remarks upon the Im- plained, and the Doctor's objections proved Version of the New Testament fully obviated. (Second Edition):

I trust no apology is necessary for “ If the Logos imply only wisdom, these remarks. Nares is generally as Mr. Lindsey pretends, what are considered a highly respectable writer. we to think of wisdom 'coming to its His statements receive an implicit own, and its owu receiving it not? assent from many. His errors are, What of Johu the Baptist not being therefore, the more pernicious. My that attribute of God. What of one aim in writing this is to guard the attribute being the only begotten or inquirer after truth against relying dearly-beloved, as the editors would too much on his assertions. I con

SELECTIONS AND REFLECTIONS MADE IN A COURSE OF GENERAL READING.

clude by observing that it must be a cation to those offices which really source of deep regret to observe how guide the state, from those which are generally the sentiments of Unitarians merely instrumental; or that sonie are misrepresented, and how, in the other and better tests may be put in works of most modern .divines, con- their place. tumely is substituted for a manly re- Letter to Sir Hercules Langriske

, futation of supposed error. B.

Bart. 1792. GLEANINGS ; OR,

No. CCCXX.

Methodist Electors.
One of the Minutes of Conference,

in 1787, deserves the attention of the No. CCCXIX.

Wesleians at the ensuing geveral elecBurke's Prediction of the Repeal of tion: it is to be feared that it is for the Test Act.

gotten. The act called the Test Act itself, “Q. How may we prevent bribery is, with regard to them, (Protestant at the ensuing election for Members Dissenters,) grown to be hardly any of Parliament? A. 1. Largely shew the thing more than a dead letter. When- wickedness of thus selling our country ever the Dissenters cease, by their con- in every society. 2. Do the same thing duct, to give any alarm to the govern- in private conversation. 3. Read every ment in church and state, I think it where the · Word to a Freeholder," very probable that even this matter, and disperse it, as it were, with both rather disgustful than inconvenient to hands. But observe, a voler may them, may be removed, or at least so suffer his expenses to be borne, and modified as to distinguish the qualifi. not incur any blame."

BIBLICAL CRITICISM.

Notes on a few Passages of the be Joshua. Geddes appears to have Scriptures.

followed a totally unauthorized and November 25, 1817.

improper reading—“ before you."

Judges vi. 8, -" the Lord sent GENESIS xlii.

“ Joseph's prophet,” &c. brethren-bowed down them

11, _" there came an adselves," &c. According to the LXX. gel of the Lord," &c. προσεκύνησαν κ. τ. λ.; the very same word which so frequently occurs, in

Perhaps the prophet and the angel,

or messenger, were one and the same the same connexiou, in the New being. The course of the history, Testament, and which has been ren- rather directs us to this opinioll

. dered by the ambiguous English verb, Nothing is said, in ver. 21, to counworship. Josephus, in his account of tenance the fancy that the angel vathis interview, adds, nadw's Edos Esty nished supernaturally from Gideon's αυτοις.

sight. A miracle was indeed per. Exod. vii. 20. “ _all the waters formed, to prove that he was an angel that were in the river, were turned to of Jehovah: but the miracle conblood.” Æschylus (Prometh. Vinct., sisted in the sudden destruction of the 811) attests the extraordinary sweet- sacrifice, by fire, and was not unlike ness of the water of the Nile, and calls to Elijah's, recorded in 1 Kings xvii. this river ευποτον ρεος.

33-39. -xi. 2,—“let every man borrow," Ps. cxxxvii. 3, _" they that car&c. In the LXX, cityOatw. And ried us away captives." So, too, the thus, agreeably to the usage of ancient French Genevan Bible, of 1805. The nations, Geddes, in his translation, translation lately proposed," is neither has, ask ; with which version, how correct nor elegant. What English ever, his note, in his C. R., is not ear can receive such a clause as the quite consistent.

following, “ those who captivated --xxxiji. 2, “I will send an

us" : angel before thee." Here Moses is ad

9, “ dasheth thy little dressed as the representative of the people of Israel. The angel I take to

• Mon. Repos. XII. p. 617.

ones," &c. Harsh as are the language

December 4, 1817. and the sentiment, criticism will not Sir, permit us to substitute any thing for

IS them, at the hazard of violating all

AM obliged to your Correspon

'dent A. X. (pp. 674, 675,] for the rules of analogy and evidence. bringing under review the subject of The original words cannot be fairly Epaphroditus. I will attempt to estatranslated, “ dash thy idols * to the blish the facts stated in my Eccles. ground :" and the propriety and spirit Researches, and I shall feel additional of the two concluding verses would obligation, if he or any other of your be destroyed by such an alteration. readers will refute my statement. The Besides, this part of the Psalm is not right plan is to place before the reader, imprecatory, but prophetic: it repre. all that is said about him, from which sents, in exact and lively colours, an

we can draw any conclusion. And event hereafter to take place, and thus says our apostle, Philip. ii. 25,wonderfully accords with Isaiah's pre

“ I thought it necessary to send you diction, xiii

. 16, of the same circum- Epaphroditus, my brother and fellowstance, “ their children also shall be labourer and fellow-soldier, your amdashed to pieces before their eyes." bassador and minister to my wants, See likewise ver. 18, of that chapter.

for he greatly longed after you all, and Philip. ii. 5-11, —" in the form of

was full of anguish, because ye had God." 'Why should we conceive that heard that he was infirm, and indeed an allusion † is here iutended, exclu- he was infirm, so as to be nigh unto sively or specifically, to " the trans- death; but God had pity on him, and figuration on the mount;' when the not on him only, but on me also, lest phraseology was justified and illus. I should have sorrow upon sorrow; trated by the whole series of our

receive him, therefore, in the Lord Saviour's miracles?

with all joy, and hold such in estimathought it not robbery," &c. tion ; because for the work of Christ Translate, with the Editors of the he was near death, having hazarded Improved Version, “ did not eagerly his life to fill up the deficiency of your grasp at the resemblance to God.”

service toward me." The verb jy no ato means, considered, esteemed, &c., and will not bear to be tian condemned Epaphroditus, his Se

Suetonius, Ch. 14—19, “ Domirendered by thought of, or meditated :

cretary, because he is supposed to nor is aparayua robbery, but something have assisted Nero in destroying himto be seized.

self: and finally, his own cousin, Flav. the form of a servant.” Here, Clement, a man of the most despicable again the allusion is general; agreeably inertness, he put to death, though he to what our Lord himself says, Matt. had as yet hardly laid down the ConXX. 28, “ The Son of man came not sulship.” Dion Cassius, Lib. 77–14, to be ministered unto, but to minister," and, in another passage, Luke death, with many others, Clement,

“ In this same year, Domitian put to xxii. 27, “ I am among you as one

the Consul, for the crime of impiety, that serveth.The form of a servant, and for having embraced the Jewish is resemblance to a servant: the form institutions. Epaphroditus, a freed. of God, is resemblance to God.

man of Nero, whom he had before Given him a name;" &c.- banished, he then slew, under the “ that in the name," &c. The word charge of not having supported Nero." name has no double sense in this pa- In the beginning of his Antiquities, ragraph, but signifies throughout it, Josephus thus writes :—“ There were " the mediatorial character of Jesus

some who, from their love to this subChrist;" to which effect is the clause

ject, have encouraged me to undertake “ that every tongue should confess," it, and especially Epaphroditus, a man &c. Concerning the doctrine of the who excels in every branch of litera. final restitution of all men to virtue ture ; more particularly in the know. and to happiness, the passage before ledge of history; having been himself us is profoundly silent; every tongue engaged in the management of imporand every knee signifying " the whole tant affairs, and experienced many human race," Gentiles as well as Jews.

vicissitudes of fortune: in all which N.

he displayed a mind wonderfully pow* Mor. Repos. XII. p. 617. + Ib. erful, and an inflexible adherence to

virtue." Now my position is, that the the living, for you withheld your Epaphroditus here spoken of is one History above twenty years, thus de. and the same person : for be had the clining the testimony of all those who, same name, was at the same time, from their own kuowledge, were able was in the same place, and was marked to sanction its truth. But now, they by such peculiarities of character as being no more with us, you have yenare sufficient to prove his identity. tured to publish it, as no longer tiable

The opinion of learned men is, that to refutation." . From this passage, Josephus bad published all his Works connected with the date previously before the death of Domitian : but given by himself, it is evident, that in Photius, Biblioth. Cod. 33, has the the 13th year of Domitian, Agrippa following passage respecting Justus of was not among the living, though it be Tiberias, the rival of Josephus.“ Jus- evident also, that he survived the tus begins his history from Moses, and event of the Jewish War about twenty closes at the death of Agrippa, the cars. He must, therefore, have died seventh that ruled in the family of about the middle of the reigo of DoFlerod, and the last that reigned over milinn. the Jews, who received his dominion The books against Appian were under Claudius, had it augmented by composed after the Antiquities, and, Nero, and still more amply by Vespa- as it appears, immediately so. And sian : he died in the third year of the interval between the 13th of Dom:Trajan, where his history terminates." tian and the close of his reiga, pamels,

Josephus notices this history of the space of three years was assuredly Justus in his Life, and if it were not sufficient for their production. For published before the third of Trajan, learned beyond example as that work the remaining Works of Josephus, is, it required only the arrangement namely, his books against Appian must of the materials which the author bad have been written at a later period. amassed while cotuposing his AntiquiThese books are dedicated to Epa- ties. Josephus spent about twenty phroditus, who, if the Secretary of years in the composition of the works Nero was put to death the fifteenth of dedicated to Epaphroditus, and he Domitian, must have been another of expressly declares, that he undertook the same name, contemporary with that performance by the advice of his Trajan. Influenced by this reasoning, friend and patron. At that period, Grotius supposes that the Epaphro- Epaphroditus was already distinditus here meant was a procurator guished by learning, integrity and peunder Trajan. But history is quite litical wisdom, aud this testimony silent respecting such a person, and necessarily refers him to the reign of his existence is a mere assumption to Nero, in whose court, as Stretonius meet the dates given by Photius; asserts, he flourished as a Secretary of which dates are set aside as false by State. Josephus himself.

From Suetonius and Dion Cassius The Life of Josephus was origi it seems probable that Epaphroditas nally a part of the Antiquities, being was a believer: for both these jom an Appendix to it, and composed and his death with that of Clement, who published at the same time with it. suffered for his conversion. From JoAt the close of it, he bespeaks the in- sephas we might also conclude that dulgence of his readers for introducing he was a convert to the Jewish instia short Memoir of his own Life, and frutions, as the gospel was then called. expressly states, that he concludes his The Heathens who rejected ChristiAntiquities in the 13th of the reign of anity, rejected also, with affected Domitian. In Section 65 he thus ac- contempt, the true bistory of the costs Justus : “ If you are confident Jews, and adopted with avidity the that you have related these things falsehoods propagated by Appian and better than any other writer, how others respecting their origin. Ner came you not to bring your narrative can we find a criterion by which we before the public, while Vespasian and can ascertain with more probability Titus, the generals-in-chief of the war, the feelings of a Heathen respecting and while Agrippa and his kindred, Christ, than the part he took with men extensively acquainted with the regard to the history of the Jews. literature of Greece, were yet among Al the enemies of Jesus adopted the

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