The Philosophy of Education

D. Appleton, 1886 - 286 páginas

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Página 278 - Our Need of it. — Is there a Social Science?— Nature of the Social Science. — Difficulties of the Social Science. — Objective Difficulties. — Subjective Difficulties, Intellectual...
Página 12 - ... in order to distinguish these. "Breaking" consists in producing in an animal, either by pain or pleasure of the senses, an activity of which, it is true, he is capable, but which he never would have developed if left to himself. On the other hand, it is the nature of Education only to assist in the producing of that which the subject would strive most earnestly to develop for himself if he had a clear idea of himself.
Página 21 - ... when deprived of the antithesis of an earnest, set task, but he undermines his respect for real existence. On the other hand, if he does not give him space, time, and opportunity, for play, he prevents the peculiarities of his pupil from developing freely through the exercise of his creative ingenuity. Play sends the pupil back refreshed to his work, since in play he forgets himself in his own way, while in work he is required to forget himself in a manner prescribed for him by another. —Play...
Página 11 - Mind is in itself free ; but, if it does not actualize this possibility, it is in no true sense free, either for itself or for another. Education is the influencing of man by man, and it has for its end to lead him to actualize himself through his own efforts. The attainment of perfect manhood as the actualization of the freedom essential to mind constitutes the nature of education in general.
Página 33 - The youth is generally whipped, and this kind of punishment, provided always that it is not too often administered or with undue severity, is the proper way of dealing with wilful defiance, with obstinate carelessness, or with a really perverted will, so long or so often as the higher perception is closed against appeal.
Página 20 - This activity of the mind in allowing itself to be absorbed, and consciously so, in an object with the purpose of making it his own, or of producing it, is Work. But when the mind gives itself up to its objects as chance may present them or through arbitrariness, careless as to whether they have any result, such activity is Play. Work is laid out for the pupil by his teacher by authority, but in his play he is left to himself.
Página 32 - ... it has to deal with adults, whom it elevates to the honorable position of responsibility for their own acts. The state must not go back to the psychological ethical genesis of a negative deed. It must assign to a secondary rank of importance the biographical moment which contains the deed in process and the circumstances of a mitigating character, -and it must consider first of all the deed in itself. It is quite otherwise with the educator ; for he deals with human beings who are relatively...
Página 22 - ... foreign to its own nature. This identity of consciousness, and the special character of anything done or endured by it, we call Habit [habitual conduct or behavior]. It conditions formally all progress ; for that which is not yet become habit, but which we perform with design and an exercise of our will, is not yet a part of ourselves.
Página 74 - For the very reason that the shadow-side is not wanting here, and that we find envy, vanity, evil desire, ingratitude, craftiness, and deceit, among these fathers of the race and leaders of " God's chosen people," have these stories so great an educational value.
Página 74 - The b^st literature for children from their seventh to their fourteenth years," says Rosenkranz, "consists always of that which is honored by nations and the world at large, "and if the books I have mentioned are objected to, choose at any rate others that have stood the test of time and a jury that may be said to comprise universal humanity.

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