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-(a) pious feeling, (6) enjoyment of religious symbols, (c) interest in the dogmas as such—to which he adds the three practical stages of (a) self-consecration, (6) performance of church ceremonies, (c) the attainment of a pious trust in the divine government of the world —these distinctions are thorough-going. What he says (p. 167) on the dangers of unduly hastening the child from the stages of religious feeling to religious thought and reflection, or, on the other hand, of unduly repressing religious reflection in those who have begun to ask questions and suggest doubts, is very instructive to religious teachers, whether in the Sabbath-school or in the family. So, too, is the distinction (p. 170) drawn between the provinces of morality and religion.

The entire third part of the work is taken up with a history of education, based on the philosophy of history. It is rather an outline of the history of human culture than a special history of schools or of pedagogics. As such, it is highly valuable, not only for the teacher or parent, but also for all who desire to see in a condensed form the essential outcome of human history.

In this brief survey of the philosophy of history the reader will take note, first of all, of the deepest contrast -that found between the Oriental and Occidental worldprinciples. The former is that of obedience to external authority, the latter that of independence in all its forms. The educator will here find practical hints on all points of school management. In China, for instance, he may see exactly what kind of education will make conservative citizens-mere mechanical memorizing will do this (p. 197). He may see how too much stress on education for one's vocation may lead to castes like those of India (p. 200), while abstract asceticism in education may produce something akin to Lamaisi. The enlightened reader will find it of great interest, in these days of the study of Buddhism (“ The Light of Asia”—as well as the so-called “Esoteric Buddhism ”), to read the distinction between Buddhism and Christianity (pp. 205 and 256), i. e., the distinction between the renunciation of selfishness and the annihilation of selfhood itself.

The “active" or restless peoples of Western Asia are of very great importance in the history of culturemediating as they do between the extremes of the East and the West (p. 212). But, above all, we of modern times are most eager to study the three kinds of individuality which Europe has furnished us (p. 218) in the Greek, the Roman, and the Teutonic peoples. For these three elements of individuality, dominated by the spiritual idea which we received from Judea—the idea of God as a Divine Person—are the elements that enter our civilization and compose it. We have to study these four strands of our civilization in order to know ourselves. What is said about the religious significance of the games to the Greeks (p. 220) and the interpretation of Nature by the unconscious poetic power of the Greek mind (p. 223), as well as the characterization of the Roman principle (p. 230), will be recognized as a new elaboration of Hegel's insight given in his “Philosophy of History”—a work which alone would give its author a rank among the foremost of the great thinkers of the world. The Roman idea of genus humanum and its relation to the ideal of the Hebrew prophets —the Messiah, Prince of Peace, to be worshiped of all nations—is the key to the explanation of the adoption of Christianity as a world-religion (p. 249). The spirit of modern history is characterized as that which seeks to realize the good of all men in each man (p. 251).

The reader will find a mine of important ideas by following out the lead of any one of these thoughts. Especial mention, however, should be given to the application of the principle of self-estrangement in explaining the study of the classics (pp. 277, 278), and to the remarks on Rousseau (p. 283).

Omissions.-Occasional references to contemporary educational literature, to German customs, and to local or temporary interests have been omitted, and the fact of omission has been indicated by ... ... , or, if it is of the slightest importance, by express notice inserted in the text. Nearly all that is omitted may be read in the first edition of the work.

W. T. HARRIS. CONCORD, Mass., August 18, 1886.




PART 1.-Education in its General Idea :
Possible only to self-active beings.

19 A. Its Nature. Education by Divine Providence, by experience, or by

. $S 13–32.

21 Relates to body, intellect, and will ; must be systematic;

conducted in schools.. B. Its Form. Self-estrangement, work and play.

27 Habit. S 23-45.

30 Authority, obedience, punishment.

38 C. Its Limits. Subjective limit in the pupil's capacity..

47 SS 46-50. Objective limit in the pupil's wealth and leisure.

48 Absolute limit in the pupil's completion of school-work... 49 PART II.- Education in its Special Elements : A. Physical. • Dietetics..

61 88 53–79. Gymnastics..

Sexual comitted),

Imaginative-fancy and memory

82 Logical

94 of development of the pupil

96 Of development of the subject

97 Logical order.


101 B. Intellectual. Of demonstration.. Synthetic..

101 88 80-136.


102 Pupil's capacity..... Pupil's act of learning-mechanical. 115

dynamical.. 115 Instruction.

assimilative 116

living example .. 120 Method of instruction-text-book. 121



143 Moral TrainThe Virtues.

151 Discipline...

154 ing. C. Will-TrainCharacter.

155 ing. $$ 137–

a. Feelings ; b. Symbols ; c. Dogmas.. 160 174. Religious

a. Self-consecration ; b. ceremonies ; c. education. reconciliation with one's lot..

165 a. Family worship; b, union with church; c. religious insight..

175 PART III.- Education in its Particular Systems : Family-China.

196 Passive. Caste-India..

200 Monkish-Thibet.

206 A. National. Military-Persia...

207 Active. $$ 178-226. Priestly-Egypt.

211 Industrial-Phænicia.

214 Æsthetic-Greece..

218 Individual. Practical-Rome.

229 Abstract individual-German tribes. 240 B. Theocratic. Jews

249 SS 227-233. Monkish

253 Chivalric..

258 C. Humanita

For special
Secular life.

263 rian or

Jesuitic. callings.

270 Christian.


272 88 234-260. Citizen. To achieve an Humanist

276 ideal of culture. Philanthropist. 279 For free citizenship..


Social usages.


INTRODUCTION.—& 1. The Science of Education, a mixed sci-

ence-presupposing and using others—resembling medicine. What

other sciences it presupposes—its place in a complete arrangement of

all the sciences (p. 1). § 2. The shallow character of educational

treatises due to the vagueness of the definition of the province of

education (p. 9). § 3. Business competition in education increases

charlatanism (p. 10). § 4. The science of education belongs in the

same department as the ethical sciences. It begins in the family

(p. 10). $ 5. The science of education contains the principles—the

art of education relates to the devices of applying them, taking into

consideration the local circumstances (p. 12). 86. The local circum-

stances must not be elevated into general principles (p. 13). $ 7. The

science of education unfolds the general idea of education, and shows

the divisions and the historical systems that have prevailed (p. 13).

§ 8. The general idea different from the system (p. 13). 8 9. The

divisions into physical, intellectual, and moral education (p. 14).

§ 10. The history of civilization shows the various ideas of education

that have prevailed (p. 14). $ 11. How the present one has arisen

(p. 16).

The FIRST PART considers the general idea of education. 12.

(1) The nature of education in general, (2) its form, (3) its limits (p. 19).

CHAPTER 1.—The Nature of Education. Education is possible be-

cause (§ 13) the mind is self-active (p. 19). Hence the human being

is ($ 14) the only fit subject of education (p. 20). The guidance of

the race by Divine Providence (8 15) may be called education (p. 21),

or (§ 16) the molding of the individual by the influences of life

(p. 21), or, in the narrowest sense (8 17), the influence of the teacher

on a pupil (p. 22). The general problem of education (8 18) includes

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