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profession of lawyer. Before the war he sold his practice and retired from active life. Mademoiselle Duflos was sent to England to learn the English language and to complete her education in a select school for young ladies.

The enterprises in which the fortune of her father was invested have never paid dividends. One of the investments was particularly unfortunate. As is usual with French families of position, a certain sum had been set aside for the daughter's marriage portion, and this sum was in bonds of the old Russian Government.

In her direct French way Mademoiselle Duflos states frankly that she would prefer a home and marriage to a life of business. But conditions in France are hard. She might have cared for the young journalist, but his salary was only $40 a month. There was the charming professor, but he did not earn even that much. Always, one sees, there is need for a marriage 1 portion; but the Soviet Government of Russia shows no present indications of redeeming the obligations of its predecessor, and, unhappily, Mademoiselle Duflos will be 30 years of age on her next birthday.

The Grocer

Although he has not yet passed his 27th birthday, Monsieur Georges Criadon is proprietor of a prosperous grocery store near the Rue La Fayette in Paris and takes in every day more than 1500 francs. Two years ago, when he bought the grocery store, it averaged less than 600 francs.

To comprehend Georges' story one must know something of French business methods. In France it is almost universal that business men retire as soon as they have a safe competence. When the gentleman who formerly owned the grocery store near the Rue La Fayette was ready to make his retirement, he naturally looked for a suitable young man as purchaser of his business. Where should he be most likely to find such a young man? In the establishment of his friend, the big grocer in the Place de la Bastille, of course. It is a matter of French

business ethics that such requests be honored. The big grocer recommended Georges Criadon, then 24 years old and risen to position of head sales


Still, there was the matter of money. The invoice value of the grocery store was 67,000 francs. In France, where it is such a general custom for business men to retire as soon as they have a competence, there are organizations whose function it is to assist in these dilemmas. The gentleman applied to a company of investigation for information about Georges Criadon.


The first question was whether Monsieur Georges had saved money out of his salary. This was vital, because business men believe a person's selfcontrol is shown by his economies. The company of investigation learned that Monsieur Georges not only had an account in the savings bank but that during a period of more than a year he had not failed each Tuesday to deposit a portion of his wages. was found also that Monsieur Georges had never been known to go to the races; he did not frequent cafes; his landlady stated that he kept reasonable hours and that she had never found a betting slip in his chamber during all the years he had been her lodger. When the gentleman had paid the company of investigation its fee he had in his hands practically every detail, financial and social, of the life of the man to whom he intended to offer his grocery business on credit terms.

Already Monsieur Georges has the establishment more than half paid for, which is not remarkable when one recalls that the receipts have increased from 600 francs to 1500 francs a day. Only lately he has been offered 100,000 francs for the business. Some day Monsieur Georges will sell, for he has an ambitious plan. He intends to make a practice of acquiring, one after the other, establishments that are a little run down and selling them st an advance after he has built them up again.

The Retired Business Man When one is never sure that the money in one's pocket will be worth

as much tomorrow as it is today, what is the natural tendency? Why, to get rid of it as soon as possible, of course, so that the loss, if any, may fall on someone else. For this reason business in France at present is splendid. Everyone is anxious to exchange his money for articles of permanent value. People buy furniture, diamonds, Oriental rugs, antiques. Department stores expand their premises. Owners of factories purchase machinery and equipment for future use. Even the printing trade booms, as business firms place huge orders for printing, anticipating their requirements for years to come.


Monsieur Rageneau, of Bordeaux, is sorry that he sold his printing plant just before the war, although at the time it seemed the thing to do. 1914 Monsieur Rageneau was 55 years of age, and the money he received for his business, invested in government bonds, yielded him an income of 6000 francs a year, or about $1000 in American money. On this it was possible to live splendidly, even to keep a horse and carriage.

Monsieur Rageneau has always received interest on his bonds promptly;

his income is still 6000 francs a year. But the 6000 francs now buy less than one-fifth as much as they did before the war. Based on American money, the present income of Monsieur Rageneau is $18 a month. His former printing business is more prosperous than it has ever been. The present owner has an automobile and chauffeur, while Monsieur Rageneau long ago had to give up his horse and carriage. Monsieur Rageneau has in fact had to give up all his luxuries. He has not had a new suit of clothes in more than three years, and his wife has not had a new dress during that time. He no longer goes to the cafe afternoons to meet his old friends, because to do so it is necessary to purchase at least a cup of coffee and he cannot afford to spend the three cents.

Each day Monsieur Rageneau bor rows a newspaper from a neighbor and reads anxiously the latest news as to the value of the franc. If the franc should go lower, he hardly knows what he will do, for one cannot live on much less than $18 a month, and in France at 67 years of age it is difficult for one to make a new start in life.



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On the Summer-School Campus

Condensed from Scribner's Magazine (July '26)

Raymond Walters, Dean of Swarthmore College

T scores of American colleges and universities there are assembled summer-school students numbering well over 300,000. Here is an educational development that has shot forward in the past decade with possibilities undreamed of 30 years ago. The possibilities concern every adult, because the university summer school supports the theory that education is E not an affair of youth alone, but of adult life as well. More appealing still, to all parents, is the fact that the university summer school concerns their John and Mary through the teachers of John and Mary. For, although there is an increasing number of miscellaneous students, the majority of the 300,000 summer-school students are teachers. If democracy is dependent upon public education, the summer school is important because it peculiarly serves the publicschool teacher.

It has been in the past ten years that the tremendous summer-school development has come. Great as has been the post-war tide of regular students at colleges and universities, it has been surpassed by the summerschool tide. For example, at 27 universities having summer schools the total enrollment of the regular year increased 70 per cent from 1915 to 1925. In the same ten years the total summer-school enrollment of these institutions increased 140 per cent.

If we were to follow Elizabeth Smith, who teaches your Mary in the third grade, through a July day at Columbia we should find her an eager sharer in a session that offers more than a thousand different courses to 13,000 students. She delights in the atmosphere of Teachers College. She

learns that, far from being cold or stilted or "pedantic," the new educational methods are intensely human and that the instructors are worthy expounders of them. She studies hard and gains, as the weeks go by, a zeal for technic as a means to an end. She is becoming a professional.

It isn't all grind. There are tennis and sightseeing tours about New York, receptions and dances, and meetings of the State alumni clubs into which the Columbia summer-session students organize themselves. And then there is the steamer trip up the Hudson and the review of the cadet corps at West Point and a dance afterward.



In recent years there has been an increasing proportion of non-teachers attending summer schools: practising lawyers, journalists, business clergymen, and, at Cornell last summer, one member of Congress. largest of the non-teacher elements is the undergraduate group. Some of these are repeating work failed in the regular term; the vast majority are excellent students, usually older than the average, who take advantage of summer instruction to complete early their requirements for the bachelor's degree.

Nevertheless, it probably is fair to say that the most far-reaching effect of the summer school, its great social significance, lies in the betterment of the country the public schools of through the betterment of the professional training of its teachers. "No other enterprise in the United States," Professor W. C. Bagley maintains, "is so important to its future welfare as its teacher-training." Professor Bagley has reported that "in at least one

half of the States a majority of the teachers have less than standard training (two years of college or normalschool education or better)."

Summer schools afford the untrained teacher a chance to become trained. To stop teaching to obtain a better education is impossible for many of them. Consider that, in the prosperous Middle West area of the North Central Association, the typical salary of the high-school teacher is $1800 a year; for the entire United States the average annual salary of all teachers is $1243.

What about the standard of summerschool work? It is the concentrated effort of these mature and professionally ambitious students which offsets the disadvantage of a six weeks' course in a given subject, one hour daily, as compared with two separate hours a week in that subject for a semester of 15 weeks. Among professors who really know summer-school work there is pretty generally a rating of the standard as equivalent to that of the academic year.

Statistics tabulated by the writer in 1921 showed that 15 of the largest summer schools of the country then had 38 per cent of the total enrollment of the 241 colleges and universities having summer schools. The likelihood is that this concentration of summer-school attendance at the great universities will increase rather than diminish. It is difficult for small colleges to draw summer-school students in competition with the widely known professors and the prestige of the State institutions and with the metropolitan attractions of New York, Chicago, Boston, and Philadelphia.

An interchange of professors prevails at most institutions; the University of California, for example, calls half of its summer staff from other universities. To the instructors thus invited, there is the stimulus of new surroundings and contacts. To administrative officers is afforded a chance to weigh the qualities of the visiting instructor as a possible permanent instructor.

A spread of the summer-school idea to fields other than university study has come about in the past few years. At mountain, seashore, and other resorts there are hundreds of religious institutes and Chatauquas of all denominations, dozens of social-service groups and library-training courses, and a series of regional army training. camps for young civilians.

Certain privately endowed colleges have developed a form of summer work distinct from regular academic instruction. Most celebrated of these is the Williamstown Institute of Politics, conducted at Williams College for three weeks each summer. Specialists from all parts of the United States, Europe, and Asia assemble for roundtable conferences and lectures. The annual proceedings are forming a con tribution to the literature of politics and international relations. The Summer School for Women Workers in Industry at Bryn Mawr College is in its sixth year. The course of eight weeks includes instruction in science, art, and history. The young women workers are encouraged to carry on in winter classes in their own communities the study begun at Bryn Mawr, and to teach their fellow workers.

With the financial support of Mr. Otto Kahn, Princeton University began last year a Summer Institute of Fine Arts for teachers of art and advanced students of art. The one summer session at Yale is that of the Yale Law School, open to teachers of law and to practising lawyers. Mention may also be made of the distinctive work done in the summer session of the Modern Language Schools of Middlebury College.

Hundreds of Americans, largely teachers of French, go abroad for the Vacation Courses for Foreigners, given at the University of Paris and at the ten provincial universities of France.

No humdrum nor conventional en terprise this-the university summer school-but rather, for the individual and for the democracy, a chance for high endeavor.

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Is a War with Japan Possible?

Condensed from The Forum (June '26)

Sir Frederick Maurice

Y article XIX of the Limitation of Armaments treaty, the United States, Great Britain, and Japan agreed that the status quo at the time of the Washington Conference should be maintained. The two British naval bases within the Western Pacific, Hong Kong and (temporarily) Wei hai Wei, were both out of date and unsuitable for use by battleships, so that under the terms of this article the nearest effective bases would be for Great Britain, Singapore, when completed, and Sasebo for Japan, these being 2600 miles apart; for the United States, Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, and for Japan, Yokosuka, these being 3300 miles apart.

The agreement has prevented that kind of competition in preparation for war, which each side regards as defensive for itself and provocative in its neighbor. Without it the United States might well have insisted on the necessity of having a base for battleships in the Philippines as a means of assuring the safety of those islands, and Japan might equally have found, that the erection of such a base required her to establish one in Formosa. Dangerous rivalry of this nature has been prevented, while as long as the status quo is maintained it is out of the question for Japan, no matter how large her army may be, to invade the mainland of the United States, and it is equally out of the question for the United States to invade the main islands of Japan. It is probably Japan's growing sense of complete security in the Western Paeific which has caused her to reduce her army from 285,800 to 212,643 since E 1913. These figures certainly do not indicate that Japan's policy is to rely

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upon the strength and efficiency of her land forces to compensate her for the relatively inferior position as re gards battleships which she accepted at Washington.

As long as the present situation lasts, a war between the United States and Japan must be in the main a naval and air war, and though it is not at all impossible that Japan should be able to seize the Philippines, yet the decision of the war must be at sea. As compared with the Great War, the loss of life in such a war would be small, and therefore the immense superiority of the man power of the United States would not be a factor of prime importance. But the wear and tear of material would be tremendous. It would be a war fought over vast spaces of ocean, and the chances of damaged ships being able to crawl home for repairs, as they did from the battles of the North Sea, would be small. Since neither side could follow up the victory at sea by a blow at the other's heart, the war would only be brought to an end by one side deciding that it was not worth while to continue it, or more probably when the power of one side to replace losses at sea had come to an end owing to the exhaustion of manufacturing resources and of raw materials.

It remains to consider the most important of the Washington agreements, the Four Power Pact, concluded between Great Britain, the United States, France, and Japan. These powers agreed to "respect their rights in relation to their insular possessions in the region of the Pacific Ocean." They also agreed that "if

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