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on each others' water sheds. New York has already approached the Mohawk Valley, hundreds of miles upstate. Highway traffic is another indication. The regional plan of New York presents a traffic map, showing by the thickness of black lines the number of cars using the main roads in approaching or leaving the city. In 1965, on the basis of the statistically estimated growth of population, the lines become so broad that the map is almost all black.

The carriage of food and persons shows a similar progression. Terminal charges and trucking now account for a much larger part of the retail prices of food products than the freight charges to the city even from points across the continent. Analysis of the dollar spent on the truckman shows that only 26 cents pays for productive time. On transit lines, trips per capita increase more rapidly than the population, and the average length of the haul stretches out as the city grows. More people being carried further more often. That means more time in getting to and from work, more time taken from work by messengers, salesmen and all who have to go from place to place. Decreased efficiency for the population. And it means heavier and heavier investment in subways, with taxes to match. Higher cost of living, higher rents. Higher costs of production.

Similarly it costs more to house people, and they are not housed as well. The more the people, the higher the land values. The higher the land values, the larger proportion of the cost of housing has to go into land. High land value leads to multifamily construction and overcrowding. Families per dwelling and per acre increase as the population grows, and open space per person decreases. go risks of sickness, death, fire, crime, accident. Up go costs of sanitation, institutions, police, courts, hospitals, fire protection.

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The rapidly increasing cost of local government is one of the inevitable accompaniments of overdone urbaniza

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Mere momentum is carrying the cities beyond the point of diminishing returns. But there have been placed in our hands two powerful instruments of change. Transportation and power the villains of the original piece, are appearing in new forms. The time is rapidly passing when a factory need get coal. In fact, more plants today take electric power from high voltage transmission lines. these lines can and do go about any where. Therefore the factories need not be dependent on the railroad for power. And for shipping its materials and products to and from the railroad it can, if its products do not weigh too much, use the motor truck. Many factories in big cities have tɔ depend on cartage anyway. Further. more the working population need not be so closely concentrated; it is easy to substitute buses and flivvers for trolleys and subways. We now have not only the motive for industrial decentralization, but the means.

It is not likely that we shall go back to the small, scattered, self-sustaining communities. But with proper regional planning, we may perhaps have medium-sized, non-congested towns surrounded by farming and recreation regions, in which land values, crowding and costs do not progress beyond the mark of economic and social inefficiency.

For the development of these ideas we must look to such bodies as the Commission of Housing and Regional Planning in New York state, from whose researches many of the facts in this article are derived. The task of geographical planning is a gigantic one with many aspects, and we shall hear more and more of it as time goest

on.

Our Silent Ambassadors

Condensed from The Independent (June 12, '26)

C. J. North

F an American abroad drops in at a "cinema," the chances are better than nine in ten that he will see a gripping drama of the great open spaces or of domestic tribulation in the effete East, portrayed by screen stars long familiar to him. In other words, the American motion picture commands a general average of 90 per cent of the showings of pictures everywhere.

In the Anglo-Saxon countries-the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, and South Africa-95 per cent American productions are shown, while in certain of the Central European countries where the people incline more toward German films, the average is about 70 per cent. The one complete exception which proves the gen eral rule is the case of Japan, which has built up a vigorous film production based on plot themes and delineated by methods particularly adapted to Oriental ideas of entertainment. While these pictures do not command any market outside of Japan-except occasionally in China-they do supply about 50 per cent of the local demand. Even so, the other half of the pictures used are nearly all from America.

Now this foreign trade in motion pictures has grown from an acorn into an oak within the short space of 12 years. Significant of this growth is the fact that one company which in '' 1913 had five foreign branches now has 106 at least one in every country of any size at all; two others have nearly 70; and a fourth company, which wasn't in existence before 1920, has established 42 offices abroad, ten in Far Eastern regions where American pictures before 1913 were few and far between. Indeed, the acorn of 12 years ago is now a giant, standing

proudly as the fourth largest industry in the United States.

It is estimated that rentals from the exhibition of American pictures abroad reached about $75,000,000 in 1925, this sum representing over 30 per cent of the total film revenues obtained from all sources. Of this total, nearly 70 per cent comes from Europe, with about 14 per cent each from Latin America and the Far East, and the remaining two per cent from Africa.

American movies suffer little real competition from the product of other nations; although there is film production in Germany, England, France, Italy, Japan, Denmark, Sweden, Czechoslovakia, Spain, Argentina, and Brazil, with scattered attempts from a number of other countries. For example, we show 94 per cent of our productions in the United Kingdom as against four per cent British pictures, 80 in France as against 15 per cent of theirs -and so on down the line.

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There are two reasons for this. mention the least important first, the real strides in the development of motion-picture production and distribution began about 1914. For at least seven years afterwards, our chief movie rivals-England, France, Germany, and Italy-were either at war or in the throes of reconstruction, while at no time did the war check Hence, our motion-picture business. when those other countries were able to resume the production of motion pictures, they found themselves entirely outdistanced.

The second answer really gives the key to the situation. There are nearly 20,000 motion-picture theaters in this country with an average nightly attendance of fifteen million-more

than the whole of Europe can boast; five times as many movie theaters as there are in the United Kingdom, six times as many as in Germany, and nearly ten times as many as in France or in Italy. Naturally, our producers find it far more worth while than European producers to put a great deal of money into the preparation of pictures. Besides building more expensive sets and making more spectacular mob scenes, they have been able to secure, irrespective of country, the services of those people-whether stars, directors, scenarists, cameramen, or technicians -who know how to make the kind of movies that people want to see. Hence, although some productions of excep. tional artistic merit appear from other countries, as a year-in and year-out proposition the American picture is the one that draws the crowds. For while a picture which costs $500,000 to produce is not necessarily either more artistic or more profitable than one costing a tenth as much, the tendency is nevertheless all that way. Nationalism plays only a small part in the mind of the pleasure-seeking public. British, French, and German audiences often flock to an American picture when a picture produced in their own country is being shown on the next block.

What sort of American films are most popular? In general, the lower classes everywhere-lower as to intelligence and education-lean strongly toward slapstick comedy, Wild West melodrama, and serials. So do the people of all classes in practically every country of the Far East except Australia and New Zealand. Even the high-class Orientals cannot appreciate Occidental ways of living and loving, while the direct action of the broad comedy and of the Western drama appeals at once. Slipping on a banana peel needs no interpretation; neither does the cowboy's dash to save the damsel in distress.

The cultured classes of Latin America have always liked pictures which are primarily concerned with wealth, fashions and jewels. This same type of film has a considerable vogue in

Europe, too, though there the historical plots and the light, subtle comedies have an even greater following. The peoples of Central Europe and Scandinavia evince, particularly with regard to their own productions, a flair for grim realism. The unhappy ending— anathema to most American audiences -is frequent, though generally only too logical, and humor is only occa sional. At the same time, America's premier movie comedians are almost unbelievably popular. The Latin races are strong for romance, but they do not seem to object to unhappy endings. In France and Italy, particularly, the costume and historical drama, if faithfully portrayed, is very popular.

Apparently, the movie has girdled the earth and taken a sure hold on the masses. The American movie will take the lead for some time to come. The gravest danger that now confronts it is a movement on the part of the European Governments to limit artifi cially the number of American films which can be shown within their borders. In Germany for every American film presented for censorship a German film must likewise be presented. Great Britain is considering a plan by which every British exhibitor must show a certain proportion of British-made films in each three-month period. There is more than one reason behind this agitation against American films. The film is a silent salesman of great effectiveness, and by that method much trade is being diverted to America. Moreover, through American motion pictures the ideals, culture, customs, and traditions of the United States are gradually undermining those of other countries. The film industry of these countries must be built up as a barrier against this subtle Americanization process. Much of the motion-picture work of the Department of Commerce in the past year has been devoted to reporting new developments along this line, but the American motion-picture industry can be assured a ready market so long as it produces the brand of films that people really want to see.

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Vittles and Vitality

Condensed from Collier's Weekly (June 12, '26)

Lulu Hunt Peters, M.D.

RE you getting bald? Are you too fat or too thin? Stomach bother you? Joints a little stiff? Tubercular, perhaps, or suffering with kidney or heart trouble, or diabetes? Lost your pep?

Now, that I have practically the whole human race lined up, I am going to convince you, I hope, that a very large proportion of your troubles may have been brought about by faulty foods and faulty feeding habits. The idea that we can prevent premature decay and disease by our manner of living is not so spectacular as certain much-discussed rejuvenation methods, and it has not yet reached the public mind that such a thing is possible. But it is possible and it is being done.

For instance, certain races in the Himalayas are of "magnificent physique, preserving until late in life the characteristics of youth; they are unusually long-lived and endowed with nervous systems of notable stability." I quote Lt. Col. Robert McCarrison, a noted British military surgeon, who worked with these people at Hunza for nine years.

The diet of these people, Dr. McCarrison believes, is the greatest factor in the preservation until late in life of the characteristics of youth. What is their diet? It is what McCarrison calls the unsophisticated foods of Nature-whole grains, milk, eggs, fruits and vegetables. They have meat only on feast days. He states that not one in a thousand ever saw any canned goods or a chocolate, and not as much sugar is imported into their country in a year as is used in a moderate-sized city hotel in a single day.

Their foods are not-as too great a

proportion of ours are-polished, or purified until they are lacking in those elements so necessary for health, the vitamins; nor in the equally vital mineral elements. Their foods furnish a balanced diet and contain sufficient roughage for cleansing the intestines.

Now let us consider Denmark. During the war, Denmark was blockaded. In other blockaded countries there was partial starvation and many extra deaths. But in Denmark there was a decrease of 34 per cent in the death rate.

Now, why was this? Unsophisticated foods of nature, again! The supply of meat and animal fat soon gave out. With practically no meat and animal fat (and alcohol) for the masses, the green vegetables, potatoes, whole grain cereals, milk and bread made of unrefined coarse ground grains were consumed in greater amounts. And on this diet the death rate decreased 34 per cent. The great improvement is the health of the people and the consequent sudden lowering of the death rate were so striking that Dr. M. Hindhede, the government official enforcing food restrictions, gave to his medical colleagues of the world this startling statement: "The principal cause of death lies in food and drink. Overnutrition, as a result of the palatable meat dishes, is one of the most common causes of disease."

Let me give some data from my own experience. I specialize, more or less, in my writings, on weight reduction, for I believe that by so doing I can prevent more needless disease and unhappiness than I can do in any other way. Three-fourths of the adult population of the United States is overweight. And I have had letters from

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thousands telling me that with the reduction of the weight there was a great improvement in the general health. Many have actually recovered from serious disorders, particularly high blood pressure, inflammation of the joints, kidney disease and heart afflictions. The main reason for the improvement is the reformation of the dietary habits.

Medical science today knows what a deficient diet can do. For example, 2000 persons died of pellagra in the United States last year. The U. S. Public Health Service has definitely established the fact that a correct diet will prevent and cure the disease without any medication whatever.

Scurvy is a serious disease which used to be very prevalent among seamen and soldiers and babies. It is due wholly to diet, and a correct diet will both prevent and cure the disease. Beriberi is a destructive disease in Oriental countries among the poorer people who live on an almost exclusive diet of polished rice. Again, rickets is largely due to lack of lime, phosphorous and vitamins in baby diets. Goiter is due to a deficiency of the normal amount of iodine in the foods. Gout, diabetes, high blood pressure, obesity, malnutrition-all are known to be due to wrong diets, in a very large proportion of the cases.

In the last 15 years or so we have learned more about scientific nutrition than we did in the hundred years previous. The chief reason is that we have used the biological method of study much more than formerly. (This means the study of the effects of foods on animals and man.) This advance began with the discovery of vitamins.

The revelations brought out by the scientific work in nutrition laboratories are almost revolutionary. We are forced to believe that we have been paying too much attention to germs as the cause of certain diseases, and not enough attention to the soil upon which they grow. We have found

that animals with lowered resistance from deficient diets, living under exactly the same conditions as their brothers or sisters placed on normal diets, will develop infections to which they are exposed, while those on the normal diets will not.

This must not, of course, make us go to the opposite extreme and say that germs have nothing to do with infection, because we know that germs themselves, if they are virulent enough or in sufficient numbers, can also lower tissue resistance-and do so frequently. And we know that there are other factors besides the diet which lower resistance.

The average life expectancy has increased to 56, a gain of 15 years in the last 55 years. This gain is largely brought about by the saving of baby and child life and the lowering of the tuberculosis death rate. The results in these cases have been brought about by better sanitation and improvement in the diet. But while the average life expectancy has increased, cancer and the degenerative diseases of the heart, blood vessels and kidneys are greatly on the increase. Can we attribute this marked increase to defective diet and incorrect habits of eating? There are many of us who believe that, in a large percentage of cases, we can.

The average American dietary consists largely of white bread, meat, potatoes and sweets. This is a diet deficient in vitamins, mineral elements and roughage a diet which is alto gether too high in acid-forming elements. These acids, in conjunction with the acids thrown off by normal metabolism of the cells, lower the slight alkalinity which the cell fluids and blood must maintain for health, and cause what we know as acidosis. And acidosis makes a mighty good foundation for most any adventurous germ scouting around for a homestead, besides being pretty rough in itself on all the tissue cells, especially the delicate lining cells of the blood vessels, heart and kidneys.

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