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pressure unimpaired until practically all of the oil has been expelled.

Briefly stated, Mr. Ranney's method is this: a shaft is driven down through the oil sandstone into the shale or other impervious rock below it. From the bottom of the shaft, a series of tunnels is driven through the underlying gas-tight shale. Holes are drilled at short intervals through the roof into the sandstone, and they are connected with an oil pipe-line within the tunnel. The gas pressure is maintained by means of compressed air pipes which lead into the upper portion of the sandstone. As the lower parts of the sand are drained, the oil settles down from above under the influence of gravity and air pressure. The oil is led to a vacuum pump, by which it is lifted to the surface.

The main shaft of the system is driven in the center of a 40-acre tract, which is the unit of operation. The tunnels with their mine wells are placed around the edge of each unit, and since these little oil drainage wells are spaced about ten feet apart, it follows that there are 528 wells through which the oil from 40 acres may be recovered.

In view of the naval, military and industrial interests involved, it is positively appalling to realize that the oil industry is literally "living from hand to mouth." We have been using up our oil as though the supply were an ever-flowing river instead of a cistern of absolutely limited capacity. Under the present free-for-all scramble, the rate at which the cistern is being emptied is increasing at an ever accelerating pace.

It required 41 years to produce the first billion barrels of oil; it took only eight years to bring in another billion barrels, and only one year and seven months were required for the seventh billion to be brought to the surface.

Let us remember this: there are five states-Pennsylvania, West Virginia, Ohio, Indiana and Illinois-whose oilbearing areas gave as rich promise for the future as does the area we have left. Nevertheless, although the rate of

consumption was then but a fraction of the consumption of today, these prolific fields were drained out in a comparatively few years. No one can offer a sound reason for believing that we shall get a greater proportionate yield from the oil-bearing territory which is left. And it is reasonable to believe that under the exploration, for years, of thoroughly trained oil geologists, the most promising fields have already. been exploited and the richest pools drained away.

The fact that the supply of oil has hitherto kept pace with the rapidly increasing demand, is due to the acciCental finding of some enormously rich pools, such as those in California and the midwest. Over 300,000 wells are producing about 2,000,000 barrels a day, but about 25 per cent of these wells are dry holes and it is said on good authority that in the banner year-1923-over $91,000,000 was spent in drilling dry wells throughout the United States. In 1924, James McIntyre, writing in the Oil and Gas Journal, showed that in Kansas, Okla. homa, Texas, Arkansas and Louisiana, 4779 test wells were drilled on untested leases, and of these, 2382 failed to bring up any oil. In 1924, Marland, writing in the National Petroleum News, stated that the American petroleum industry, since its beginning, has sold its oil for $4,900,000,000 less than it cost to drive the wells and lift the oil.

The continuity of the oil industry is dependent upon the accident of bringing in a flood of oil from wells of enormous production. "In August, 1923," says J. D. Sears of the U. S. Geological Survey, "half of the production of the United States was coming from only 3500 wells in eight oil fields. The other half was coming from 275,000 wells scattered throughout the rest of the country." Less than two per cent of the wells yielding 50 per cent of the oil.

If that two per cent had not fortuit ously been brought in at the "psycho logical moment," where would our industry have been?

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Nipping Trouble in the Bud

Condensed from The American Magazine (August, '26)

Lena K. Sadler, M. D.

OST disorders of health can be prevented, if taken in time, and it is the purpose of this article to point out how many of our health troubles can be "nipped in the bud."

Take such a little thing as dandruff. If dandruff persists year after year, you can be pretty sure that baldness will come apace. Any treatment that will help the scalp rise above the dandruff level is pretty sure to be helpful in saving the hair.

Take loss of weight. While worry and nervousness can bring about a very sudden loss of weight, it would be safer to suspect that some real physical disorder was responsible, and a thorough examination should be made to locate the basic trouble. Sudden loss of weight between 40 and 50 might indicate malignancy somewhere in the body. Earlier in life it might suggest tuberculosis, and that is a disI ease which, if taken in time, is one of the most easily cured of humanity's major afflictions.

Now, about fatigue: Nine times out of ten fatigue is merely the physical manifestation of brain lag and nervous exhaustion. However, as diabetes, tuberculosis, and many other diseases are often accompanied by fatigue, an investigation should be made to find out what is its cause.

Take rheumatism, which, like headache, is not a disease, but merely a symptom of certain disorders. Rheumatism is a danger signal, which, together with neuralgia and neuritis, means that infection is harbored at some place in the body, and an effort should be made to find the source of this infection, and remove it. Rheumatism usually suggests infection either in the teeth, tonsils, sinuses, appendix, gall bladder, or some other place.

While warts are entirely harmless, moles and other skin tumors which are easily irritated should be promptly and properly removed, as sometimes in later life they may become malignant.

In passing, let me say that there are many "false alarm" symptoms which, as a general rule, do not mean anything. Insomnia, for example, is seldom indicative of any serious disorder. Dizziness is a common symp

tom, but nine time out of ten it means nothing serious. Numbness is another. Queer feelings in the head and wandering pains frighten others. Now, pain can't be very serious if it moves around. Minor pains in the heart, more particularly palpitation, are usually merely the result of stomach gas pressure.

It is in connection with the symptomless or so-called "old-age" diseases that trouble is able to sneak up on us unawares, and undermine our health. Hence, the desirable habit of going to your doctor and dentist for a thorough examination once a year. Most "oldage" diseases cast their warning shadows ahead, so that a physician can detect the tendency in time to do something of real value by way of prevention.

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People are criminally careless of their health. What would you think of an engineer who never inspected his machinery until a breakdown curred? And yet you can replace neglected machinery. But when your vital organs once go stale, if an organic change has taken place, you are up against it. The set of vital organs you are born with are those you will die with.

An old schoolmate, Mr. Brown, dropped in to see us socially one evening. He said, "What a fuss you doctors make about examining well people!"

I told him about men who thought they were in perfect health, until the life insurance doctor turned them down. Finally, he asked to be examined the next morning, although he assured us he was in splendid health. The examination the next day disclosed two serious facts: his blood pressure was 190, and he was suffering from Bright's disease. He refused, however to believe that anything serious was wrong. He went right on with his business, and in less than six months stricken with apoplexy, and died-43 years of age. From what Mrs. Brown told us later, it was perfectly apparent that Mr. Brown died prematurely from three preventable causes: infected teeth and tonsils, habitual overeating, and kidney trouble.

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I believe that overeating has far more to do with high blood pressure and kidney trouble than the eating of any particular kind of food. High blood pressure sufferers should not only cut down on their meals but should also subsist entirely upon oranges or milk one or two days a week.... The kidneys are often crippled during some affliction like the "flu." It is advisable, after any spell of sickness accompanied by fever, that the urine should be examined, to see if the kidneys have come through all right. Kidney trouble is often caused by going out too soon after a cold with attendant fever. The drinking of too little water also brings about premature kidney trouble.

Probably the greatest influences operating today to bring about premature hardening of the arteries and death from old-age diseases are to be found in the teeth and in diseased tonsils. Rheumatism and subsequent diseases of the arteries, kidneys, and the heart can often be traced to poorly crowned teeth, imperfect dental bridges, and faulty pivoted teeth.

Lastly, I want to summarize personal practices which increase your vital resistance to disease.

Bathing: Keep the skin clean and active. In the case of low vital resistance, train the circulation to react to the morning bath.

Nutrition: Keep your weight normal. If you are overweight, you are predisposed to pneumonia and many other disorders. If underweight, you are likely to invite the attack of colds, and other disease-producing germs.

Exercise:

Seasonable exercise increases vital resistance. Overwork and fatigue invite disease, and greatly lower it.

Outdoor Life: Proper periods for work or play in the fresh air and sunshine are of inestimable value in increasing resistance to disease.

Pure Water: An abundance of good drinking water throughout the day assists in keeping the blood purified and the white blood cells in fighting trim.

Avoid Taking Poisons-either in the form of drugs or as part of your food and drink. I refer to alcohol, tobacco, and even tea and coffee, when excessively used.

Courage and Confidence: Fear and depression are disease-producers. A clear conscience is a wonderful health asset.

The White Blood Cells: Human blood contains two forms of cells-the red cells for carrying oxygen, and the white cells, which seek out and destroy germs. The germ-destroying function is interfered with by over-acidification of the blood. Excessive meat eating and most all of the forms of drugs which are used, contribute to the over-acidifica tion of the blood. The toxins absorbed from bad digestion and chronic constipation also serve to lessen the ac tivity of the white blood cells.

On the other hand, the white cells are encouraged in their action by short cold baths, and by improving the alkalinity of the blood. Hence, in case of eolds and other minor infections, we advise patients to take a level teaspoon ful of soda stirred into a glass of lemonade or orangeade. The soda habit however, should be regarded only as ar emergency measure. The proper main tenance of the alkaline reserve of the blood should be preserved by a die which allows the liberal use of dairy products, fruit, and vegetables.

College Men in Big Business

Condensed from The Atlantic Monthly (July, '26)
A. W. Armstrong

F Big Business protests mainly against the college man's manners and his impatience to advance [See "Are College Men Wanted?" Reader's Digest, July, page 199], the college man's charges against Big Business are more numerous, if not always so substantially founded.

The first jolt the college man receives is when he finds he is no longer in college. Cut loose from a set curriculum and marks, he flounders around in the chaotic world of business, assailing it for the lack of direction it gives him. He complains, "What's ahead of me? That's what I can't see?" Not a glimmer has yet reached such a man that his 1 power to see this will be the measure of his progress; that business leaders have largely developed their strength through hewing their own paths, and through just such a dark maze as he himself faces.

It is, I imagine, the illusion that he is still at college that leads the college man to ask, during his business novitiate, for many special privileges. He is accustomed to а more flexible institution. Being of the age when his friends are marrying, he often, for example, asks for a few days off to run out to some city near or far, to act as groomsman. To the Big Business executive, the young man's innocent request assumes, especially if made in the busy season, almost monstrous proportions. Only the college man, he declares, expects such privileges. The college man, not yet thoroughly acclimatized, has not learned that the trivial may loom large in the inner life of a great organization. I know one unusually capable young college graduate who seriously, if not indeed irreparably, damaged his future

when, on being offered a post in a distant city, one that marked definite advancement, asked whether he might not delay two or three weeks in order to act as attendant at a local wedding.

Not the least of the shocks from which the college man must recover is his discovery that even Big Business is unbusinesslike. He has been led to believe that great business organizations proceed almost invariably by well-thought-out policies, by virtually error-proof methods, from triumph to triumph, instead of, as in fact, muddling along with one flash of insight and then another to carry them through their welter of waste and costly mistakes. For four impressionable years the young collegian has heard Big Business exalted; and the wounds of his first disenchantment are slow to heal.

In many directions he is all at once let down. In nine cases out of ten he finds his work too easy. Most colleges have courses sufficiently stiff to exercise the best brains. A fair proportion of the "best brains" are passing each year from college into Big Business, and with a starting business schedule so light in comparison with the work previously expected of him that the college man quickly becomes restive.

Of his illusions, the very first, however, to be shattered is in regard to the loyalty he has assumed existed and to which he has so often heard glowing reference. The college man, the first day, is turned over to Mr. X, a minor executive. Mr. X turns him over to subordinates who are to familiarize him with the work of the department. Before closing time the college man has heard half a dozen times what is considered more important than anything else

that the newcomer should find out: "Believe me, there's no chance for a man in this company.' By the end

of his second day he has learned that Mr. X himself has little faith in the company's opportunities.

If filled too full of "disloyal" talk, he becomes discouraged, severs his connection after a few months, and enters another huge and famous organization where he finds, to his surprise, exactly the same thing. In the course of several years, if he continues to change from Big Business to Big Business, he has ceased to be affected by talk of the sort, and has begun to realize that men who fail to rise rapidly must blame something, and can most plausibly blame "the company." He has begun to realize too that the number of men of first-rate ability whom Big Business fails to recognize is negligible. He sees, on looking back, that the men who sneered at "the company" on his first day were men who had gone as far as their own limitations permitted. These discoveries, however, the college man makes after he has been somewhat seasoned, instead of during his first year, when they would have been of most value.

A Big Brothers Association as a part of Big Business would, I fancy, pay dividends. For one thing, it might make the college man understand why a dull ear is so often turned to his cherished proposals. Every year young men enter Big Business genuinely competent το show it where it may save or make thousands upon thousands of dollars. But to secure and hold the attention of an executive long enough to convince him of the value of a proposal, and convince him to the point where he is ready to act on it, is a vastly different matter. Could the college, along with its courses in cost accounting, the psychology of advertising, economic geography, statistics, and merchandising, have placed more emphasis on a human and personal art vitally important to the colleg, ian's future?

Solely chargeable to the college

man's youth is his tendency to regard any given Big Business as more or less a finished product. Deceived by its mass and momentum, he can hardly conceive himself making a dent on its stratified surface. He studies the organization chart and pictures his own progress as conditioned by the death or removal of a long line of superiors on the same branch to which he adheres, as yet a mere twig. What he does not see are the changes that will be wrought in this chart, the branches to be grafted where branches never grew before. Even less does he vision those potentialities within himself that may alter the chart's whole aspect. No superhuman task. After all, Big Business is not the growth of ages. It is barely emerging from its own first year.

The most serious indictment the college man brings against Big Business in its present stage of development is that the men who have shaped Big Business have themselves been shaped into forms he wishes to escape. The college man is still keenly sensitive to human values, not easily taken in by mere outward importance. He examines his leaders, their views and their ways, with detachment and frequently with distaste. But has the college man sufficiently discerned that the authors of "Business is Business" missed his own early unclouded chance to perceive that Business is Life? It would be a pity if the college man, with his broad outlook, and Big Business, with its rich experience, should grow in distrust of each other.

"But there is no adventure in Big Business," the college man still insists. "There is too great certainty." On the contrary, there is no certainty at all, but a heroic hazard for the man who is determined that, if it shapes, it shall not misshape him. And if he decides to take a hand in reshaping Big Business itself, he will find play for all the inventiveness, the courage that has gone at any time into human achievement.

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