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posite directions. By 1804 he completed and began running what was not only the first steamboat of importance on the Hudson river, but also the first twin-screw steamer in the world.

Crowds collected daily at New York's Battery, to watch her dash across to Hoboken and back. Dash is the right word, considering her date, because her engine drove her eight miles an hour; whereas the boats that followed her a few years later, upon the Hudson, such, for example, as Robert Fulton's Clermont, claimed no more than five or six miles.

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When the Phoenix was completed, in 1808, Stevens found himself blocked by the grant of a Hudson river monopoly to Livingston and his partner, Fulton. "Then I'll send her around to the Delaware," said Stevens. But his friends protested, "No man would dare to venture down the coast with that kettle."

"Yes, one man would-my son, Robert." Heavy winds came up, and many had given up hope of seeing the Phoenix again, but she finally anchored in the Delaware, safe and sound. Robert Stevens, just 21 at the time, had poked her nose into history as the very firs ocean-going steamer on record. h

As the black cloud o.12 began forming, John Stevens suggested to the government that our war vessels should be equipped with engines. "Let us give our ships the incalculable advantage of choosing their own time to fight," said he. He was striking, of course, the keynote of naval strategy; yet he found those in authority stone deaf. It was some years before his suggestion came in

to favor for expeditions against the pirates of the West Indian seas.

Always with Robert as chief assistant, he next made tests of cannon balls, fired into heavy oak targets and also against such targets after covering them with iron plates. Out of those experiments came two inventions of enormous importance. First, Robert developed the elongated shell, filled with explosive, more accurate and far more deadly in effect than the old round shot. Next, the target experiments convinced the Stevenses that gunfire of the day would not be effective against ships protected by four-and-one-half-inch iron plates. Some 40 years later, this was adopted as the average of the iron-clad fleet built for Napoleon III.

With steamboats and railroads John Stevens laid the foundation for the commercial progress of the Unit ed States. With projectiles and ironclads he and his sons-proposed the best method of protecting the nation. And still his record of farsighted vision is not complete.

"New York," he declared, "will be come, at no distant day, one of the world's greatest cities. It will not suffice that we be able to reach it by slow moving ferries." So he drew up careful plans for building bridges over the Hudson and the East river. At first he proposed floating bridges, with draws; later bridges on piers, with spans to be so high that any ves sel could easily pass under them. In both cases, however, short-sighted men opposed him, insisting upon the delays to river navigation which would result from any sort of bridges Almost immediately, Stevens cam out with still another brilliant idea He suggested building cylinders, and gave complete details for joining these cylinders together in a lin across the Hudson, sinking them in to the river-bed, pumping them out and lining them with brick or stone Here was the first proposal for th vehicular tunnel, on a principle ac tually patented only about 15 year ago.


First Aid to the Physician

Condensed from The Century (August, '26)
Morris Fishbein

HE American Medical Association was organized primarily to raise the standards of medical educaion. In 1847 a diploma from a medcal college carried with it the privlege of practising medicine. Out of hat situation arose the numerous candals in medical education that have been disturbing legislators and health officials since that time.


1904 the association established the Council of Medical Education, with a Full-time secretary, to survey the situaion and to indicate possibilities for eform. This Council has promulgated aigher standards from time to time, until today the number of medical schools has decreased from almost 200, including all sorts of fly-by-night diploma-mills, to less than 80 reputable Institutions.

The Council on Medical Education is now gathering statistics regarding the hospitals of the United States, and classifying hospitals into groups, inluding those capable of giving competent medical service, those efficient In the training of interns in general practice, those available for the study of various specialties in medicine, and inally those which are conducted primarily for profit and without regard to ethical standards. The Council has found that there are 294 institutions which, because of clearly unethical reasons, such as criminal practice, admission to their staffs of members who are unqualified either morally or professionally, and flagrant methods of advertising, are deemed unworthy of inclusion in any list of reputable institutions. In its publication of the list of hospitals, the names of these 294 institutions have been omitted.

The early nineteen-hundreds revealed the acme of secrecy in proprietary medicines; moreover the publication of

inaccurate and misleading formulas was frequent. The association promptly established a chemical laboratory, in which are employed four full-time chemists, to verify the composition of remedies offered to physicians, and of secret nostrums purveyed to the public. When the ingredients of the remedies were established, the Council on Pharmacy, consisting of 15 eminent physicians, determined whether or not the claims made in advertising were justified on the basis of the contents. The facts thus made available were published in the Journal of the American Medical Association. Advertising disappeared page by page. The times were ripe for general reform. It was then that the Pure Food and Drug Act became a law, truth-in-advertising campaigns a national endeavor, and advertising a legitimate profession.

At the same time medicine began to evolve new methods of treatment, improving the drugs of the past, developing vaccines and serums and extracts of the body glands, such as adrenalin, insulin, and pituitrin. The Council kept pace with these new problems. It continues to publish its reports week after week, and to make available to physicians each year a book containing remedies that have been found useful. It has been the means of saving to the medical profession and to the public an incalculable amount of money and inestimable years of life.

The public has been an easy victim for any sort of claims made for a proprietary medicine. Coincident with the establishment of the Council of Pharmacy, there came into being the Bureau of Investigation. Year by year, in this department, there has been collected information concerning patentmedicine makers, quacks, and all sorts of medical mail-order fakers.


card-indexes listing material available contain 125,000 cards devoted to med. ical quackery. The information collected in this Bureau is made available to the public and to the medical profession through articles in the Journal, in Hygeia, a magazine of health published by the American Medical Association, and through pamphlets circulating directly to the public.

Moreover, lantern-slides, posters, and charts are made available to physicians who may wish to lecture before schools, or other groups interested in the prevention of quackery. Each year the correspondence of this departraent includes some 6,000 answers to advertising groups, better-business bureaus, newspaper and magazine editors, who are interested to know the facts concerning various preparations before permitting them to be advertised in their pages. At one time suits for libel totaling almost $13,000,000 were filed against the association for its courage in bringing to light the schemes of unprincipled promoters. Only one of these suits ever came to trial; the court damages amounted to but one cent, and the plaintiff paid his own costs.

The Bureau of Medical Legislation informs physicians and lawmakers concerning the status of health legislation. It has concerned itself particularly with such problems as the current lye legislation, in an attempt to protect the housewife against the dangers of caustic substances; it has fought constantly the fanatical opponents of vaccination and animal experimentation, who place personal prejudice above sanity and progress; it has aided in the fight for a minimum standard of education of all those who would treat the sick.

The activities which have been mentioned yield no income to the association. Their cost is great, but it is borne by the medical profession as its contribution to honest medicine. The income of the association is derived primarily from one of its publications, the Journal, which has a weekly circulation of 90,000 copies. The income

from the Journal, in subscriptions and advertising, is more than one and a quarter millions of dollars. It is this income that has enabled the associa-P tion to establish its numerous services, that has permitted the erection of a headquarters office, with a staff of almost 400 people engaged in carrying on the work of education and the editing and printing of its publications.

There was a time when medical science was shrouded in mystery and was practised in secrecy. But times change. Today the association disseminates information to thousands of lay news papers and periodicals. The radio is used from many centers to broadcast medical information.

The publication of a Spanish edition of the Journal was undertaken in co operation with the Rockefeller Founda tion, which bears half the loss, so that the physicians in Spanish-speaking, countries may be kept aware of med ical progress in the United States. The association also publishes some sever journals devoted to various medica specialties.

Leaders in American medicine to day are concerned more than anything else with plans whereby the man it the ranks of the general practitione may be kept abreast of the knowledge of our time. The services of the library department of the association are de voted essentially to such medical educa tion. More than 300 of the leading medical periodicals of the world are received by the association, and in dexed. Significant articles are ab stracted. Virtually every county has it county medical society which meet regularly to hear papers read by it members or by visiting physicians. T assist in the preparation of such papers, a package library was estab lished, which carries to physicians service of great value.

This then is the work of the organi zation which fanatics call the "medica monopoly." In view of the nature o the organization and the service i renders, the gibe simply cannot b made to stick.


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A Professor's Fortune Made on Broadway

Condensed from Pictorial Review (August, '26)
Lawton Mackall

TTO HARBACH is the world's
most successful writer of musical
comedies; author of nearly 40 big
hits-ranging all the
way from
Madame Sherry, produced in 1909, to
Rose Marie, No, No, Nanette, Song of
the Flame, and Sunny..


Forty years ago in Salt Lake City there lived a poor Danish watchmaker and his wife and their nine children. One of these sons, Otto, had a passion for the theater. It had ten times the fascination for him that the circus has for most boys. And Mrs. Harbach, perhaps with an intuition of Otto's future, gave him many a 25-cent piece, that he might sit in the "peanut gallery." At 13 he and his mother thorEoughly believed that some day he would write a play himself.

At 14, he entered Collegiate Institute, a Presbyterian school, and paid his tuition by selling newspapers, mowing lawns, and playing a violin. (Every

member of his family sang and played Bome instrument.) When graduation time drew near, the principal of the school interested Otto in Knox College. Having only $30 in the world, he earned his transportation to Galesburg, Ill., by acting as Pullman porter to three car-loads of sheep. During his four years at Knox he paid his way by doing odd jobs, and working in his vacations. He captured all the prizes in English and public speaking, and won the finals of an interstate oratorical contest in which 80 colleges were represented.

Upon graduation, he received an appointment as professor of English and public speaking at Whitman College, where he taught for six years. His talks and readings were so popular that he was sought after as a lyceum lecturer. Next, he came to New York, on a year's leave of absence, to study for a Ph.D. degree at Columbia Uni

versity. But within a few months, his eyes failed him, and he was told that to continue his career might cost him his sight. Poor, 26, and threatened with blindness!

First he tried life insurance; but without friends that was a fizzle. Then he worked as a newspaper reporter— till one day the paper he was on was "merged" from under him. Next he tried the advertising business, and be fore long he was the head of both the copy and art department of one of the leading agencies. But, as always, he still wanted to become a playwright. The hours after six o'clock at night were his only chance. Unaided, unguided, with nothing to go on but the elusive thing called hope, he spent ten years teaching himself the a-b-c of play construction. Whenever one of his manuscripts was rejected Harbach would rewrite it, perhaps for the 20th time. Such persistence inevitably wins


One piece finally convinced Whitmark & Co., the New York music publishers, that Harbach had ability. So they gave him the chance to write the lyrics for a new musical comedy. For these verses they paid him $100, which was the sum total of his receipts from The Three Twins, one of Broadway's outstanding successes for two or three years.

When his next opportunity came along, which it soon did-that of writing the book as well as the lyrics of Madame Sherry-he insisted on a royalty arrangement. And this time he was rewarded. Madame Sherry brought him a fortune. And it made him a full-fledged playwright.

Followed in rapid succession such successes as Girl of My Dreams, Dr. De Luxe, The Firefly, High Jinks, Katinka, Going Up, Wildflower, Mary, and Kid Boots. In fact, his career is un


equalled in the annals of the theater. He has written nearly 40 tremendously successful shows, ranging all the way from farces to light operas. some nights his plays have literally girdled the world. No, No, Nanette is now being played by no less than 16 companies: six in America, five in England, one in Vienna, one in Paris, one in Budapest, one in Australia, and one in South Africa. He has made over $10,000,000 for his producers and has himself become the most soughtafter and influential playwright in the musical comedy field.

Yet Harbach has remained in the shadow of his own achievements. He has never tried to step out into the limelight. On Broadway, however, there is scarcely a composer of any distinction with whom he has not collaborated. There is hardly a star or comedian for whom he has not written a part and directed. There are few producers of any note who have nɔt received part of the golden stream which his talent has brought forth.

Harbach is primarily a most painstaking craftsman. His operettas and musical comedies are not mere haphazard affairs made up of song-anddance numbers interspersed with jokes and patter; they are full-fledged plays enhanced with music. The songs are not just "pinned on" the story; they belong in the story.

Creating, suggesting, writing, rewriting, rehearsing, and rewriting over and over: such is Harbach's constant occupation. Even after the show is actually running he will continue to make changes-strengthening a scene here, cutting a speech there, giving the comedian crisper lines.

"Genius" has been defined as "an infinite capacity for taking pains." Harbach's genius also includes an infinite capacity for enduring strains. He can put in a fortnight of highspeed, high-power strenuosity would kill five average men working in relays, and at the end of it you'll find him standing in an easy attitude in the center of the stage, with his back to rows of empty orchestra seats,


speaking to a cast of a hundred or so and telling them in clear, effortless voice that they all did splendidly this evening, and that he has thought of one or two more little changes that may help the show. No wonder he has hits!


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He is not only a playwright, he is a stage-director, artist, and general show "doctor." When a producer hires Harbach to write a show he does not secure the services of merely one he secures the abilities of four. And because of his amazing success record, coupled with his reliabil ity, he is so beset by managers that he is not able to take on more than a tenth of the contracts that are offered him.

After nearly 20 years of success in the theater he is the theater's most earnest student. The result is ar amazing versatility. So great is the confidence in his genius that the secre tary of one of the big theatrical man agers, glowing over the fact that Har bach was to have a hand in som show, recently said to me, "We're al right now. Everything Harback touches turns to gold!"

Nanette, by the way, is Mrs. Har bach's. Before the show opened h made her a present of the royaltie which, up to May 1st of this year had paid her $216,549.40!

The biggest song hit in the entire Harbach list was Love Nest, of which 1,750,000 copies were sold, and which brought him $65,000. For a man wh calls himself merely a dramatist, Har bach has certainly made a remarkabl record as a writer of lyrics.

Anyone who has been present in hi home would know that there is n possibility of Harbach's ever becomin a blasé Broadwayite; would know tha the sentiment in Harbach's romance set to music is written sincerely, an would understand why his shows ar found to ring true by audiences a men and women on both sides of th Atlantic and on the far side of th Pacific.

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