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think of limburger cheese. In grade school an immigrant girl of respectable family sat opposite me. During school hours she continually ate limburger cheese, keeping a great smelly piece in her desk. I mentioned it to some friends. They laughed and said, 'Oh, well, she's a foreigner"."

In these cases the incidents were always brought up by the mention of certain words. One can only guess at the forgotten experiences, each doing its share toward determining our emotional attitudes, that are buried in our subconscious minds. It appears certain that much which our conscious minds seem completely to have forgotten still helps to guide our opinions and our prejudices. And the trail undoubtedly leads back to childhood experiences.

Bruno Lasker, of The Inquiry, has analyzed the results of a questionnaire on race attitude in children. The data seems to indicate that we are not born prejudiced. Nature does not plant in our hearts such convictions as one child expressed: "The Italians are an unclean, sneaking race. The Japs are a stealing, distrustful people.

Children acquire beliefs like this exactly as they acquire their language, their games. They learn from their parents, teachers, companions, and, as they grow older, from motion pictures, newspapers, magazines, and books. Being human, they learn what isn't so just as thoroughly as what is so and believe it just as firmly. Let a parent manifest race prejudice by a word or even a facial expression, and the child will imitate. In school, there is jealousy arising out of competition for marks and honors. The child of the "superior" breed learns that the child of the "inferior" should be kept in his place. Sharp social lines are drawn, and the chasm between black and white, or "American" and "Wop" is likely to become permanent. Even though in a fit of deliberate liberalism we try to bridge it in later life, we frequently cannot. Most of us don't try.

In the City Normal School, Rochester, N. Y., courses were given in the

history and culture of a number of races. They proved interesting and enjoyable. Hence the hate-and-fear reactions of the students, when given the Watson test, were abnormally low. Their former racial attitudes had been altered by a little judicially furnished information.

All this affords a hint as to how our opinions get into us. They are not made by heredity, or produced by ac curately digested facts. But what, aside from the natural interest in playing a game, is the use of knowing this? Simply that we may come a little closer to real thinking, the great. est game of all. It is not until we get out such a mental mirror as this test provides, that we realize how far we are from unbiased thought, and how fascinating the thinking process might be made.

I live, let us suppose, in a factory town. A strike is going on. I pass along a certain street and see the strikers brutally knocked about by the police. My emotions are aroused. I become pro-labor. But assume that I take another route and come on a crowd of strikers beating a "scab." In this case, too, my emotions are stirred up, and I may join the Chamber of Commerce. A crude illustration; yet the forces which actually do shape some of our most important beliefs are certainly no less haphazard.

On the theory that masses of people can and do make up their minds in a rational and purposeful way democracy rests. But if the line of thought we have been following means anything, nothing of the sort occurs. Remove the lid from a great political upheaval -remove the catchwords and slogans, the verbal insignia of class and occu pation and something like chaos appears beneath.

But what is necessary, I take it, is not the abolition of democracy. We need humility, especially among the so-called leaders of opinion. We need tolerance-tolerance that arises from a scientific recognition of the high percentage of fallacy and irrationality in our own beliefs. The wisest man at this stage of the world's affairs is he who knows that none of us is wise.

"Uncle Shylock" in Europe

Condensed from The Review of Reviews (September, '26)
Frank H. Simonds

HE past month has been marked

terness against the United States which has hardly any parallel in our own history. However much the several countries of Europe remained divided at the close of the War, however the passions roused by the peace treaties have continued to accentuate these hatreds, there is one point on which all agree: Uncle Sam has become Uncle Shylock from one end of the European continent to the other. The belief is general that the United States is deliberately, purposefully, holding Europe to ransom and taking advantage of European weakness to establish American financial and economic hegemony.

European countries are, at the moment, collectively, at the lowest point in their fortunes for several centuries. Every nation is staggering under a burden of unsolved problems and almost intolerable difficulties. The mass of the inhabitants of France, Britain, Germany, Italy, are confronted with present suffering, with acute questions of life and death. The threat of starvation, the possibility of general industrial and economic prostration, is posed in all these countries. Germany with nearly two million unemployed, Britain with perhaps twice as many, Italy with a rapidly mounting surplus of imports over exports and an increasing population which threatens to stifle the nation, all look across the narrowing Atlantic to see one great nation, prosperous as never before, with a people enjoying a universal well-being unequaled in all human history. But toward them this country seems to turn the hard face of an insistent creditor, refusing them the loans necessary to their existence unless they sign contracts which will for two generations involve tribute to

an extent which today seems almost unbelievable.

There

The war wrecked Europe. At its end every European nation was actually or practically bankrupt. were only losers. Among the great powers, apart from remote Japan, only the United States emerges now in an enhanced position, having the outward semblance of a victor.

Our prosperity finds expression in well nigh every speech of an American public man. These statements find ready echo in Europe, where the belief in American prosperity is such that even the shining reality is ten times expanded. Hundreds of thousands of American tourists flow annually to Europe, spending with careless gesture, giving confirmation of American prosperity. And something of illmannered disregard of the sensibilities of proud and suffering people is disclosed in the conduct of some of these tourists, which serves to fan the flames.

There is no longer any war or postwar division of sentiment. The German is not now angered at the Frenchman or the Italian because of the reparations he must pay, for he well knows that in the last analysis the money thus paid goes to America. The Frenchman does not attack the Briton because of war payments, because he has been told that the British are prepared to forgive all debts beyond the sums necessary to discharge British debts to America. The German knows that the huge burden of reparations would be abolished tomorrow, or reduced to insignficant proportions, provided America would cancel the debts of Britain, France, Belgium, and Italy.

As for the Frenchman, the Belgian, the Italian, they argue that the pay.

ments to the United States have no moral warrant because we were an ally and for at least a year after we were at war with Germany our unpreparedness made it impossible for us to bear any appreciable amount of the burden of human sacrifice. In the end, our blood tribute was insignificant by comparison with that of our associates.

Were it not for the fact that we have the present means of coercion, continental Europe would reject our debt claims with every evidence of sincere conviction. Not for a single moment has there been the smallest success in establishing in Europe the American contention of the moral validity of the debt. But Europe must have new loans in America, and these are to be had only on condition that the old war debts are liquidated by contracts to pay. Now, this coercion means to Europe blackmail, no more and no less.

This explosion precedes any considerable payment. Only Britain is so far making important payments. Even if the French debt settlement were ratified, the French contributions would, for several years, be inconsiderable.

Therefore one must calculate how much more passionate will be the resentments when the payments are actually passing in considerable volume-if they ever do.

The debt contracts so far written involve an extension of payments for two generations. During each of these years Europe collectively will be paying upward of $500,000,000, when all the contracts reach their maximum, to the prosperous nation across the water, whose losses by the war were relatively insignificant, whose recovery was almost instant, and whose further advance seems without limit.

Worse than useless to talk of actual reductions, when policy is based upon capacity to pay, because, as the European retorts: "If you insist upon payment up to our capacity, where have you granted anything? To abandon what cannot be collected, is that generosity?"

Now, looking forward, what are the

prospects? As long as Germany pays, France, Italy, Britain will obviously find it difficult to ask for any modifica. tion or cancellation. But suppose Ger. many begins to evade, either for legitimate reasons incident to national depression or because the mass of the German people refuse longer to bear the burden-what then? Shall we back our debtors in adopting a policy of coercion toward their debtor? Ob viously not, because this would mean the general disturbance of European markets and great loss of trade.

But if Germany "gets away" with repudiation, can we expect her creditors to continue payments? Certainly not while human nature remains human. Can we compel these nations to pay, although asking them to renounce coercion with respect to Germany? Patently not. Can we actually prevent the ultimate combination of Germany and her creditors, all of whom would be interested in eliminating the mass of German reparations, since it goes to America, and thus expanding German purchasing power in Europe? Can we actually prevent an ultimate European combination to abolish reparations and American debts, a com. bination which will be floated upon the universal European resentment of American policy and predominance?

I do not for a moment believe it. It is my settled conviction that the ultimate repudiation of the American debts by the European debtors is as inevitable as anything in human af fairs can be said to be inevitable. It is my conviction that Europe will not pay beyond the time when our position gives us the opportunity to exercise coercion, and that is, of course, temporary. I have neglected to deal with the arguments on our own side, not because many of them do not seem to me to have force, but simply because they cannot get a hearing or have an influence across the water.

I know it will be regarded as heresy to suggest that Europe can or will unite against us, even economically, or to suggest that Europe has the capacity for such combination. Yet it (Continued on Page 354)

The New Leisure

Condensed from The North American Review (Sept.-Nov. '26)

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Cornelia James Cannon

E are a nation of passionate inWork is in the saddle and rides our citizens. Suppose we are the biggest and busiest nation on earth, does it bring us any incentive save to become still bigger and busier? . . It is not without reason that the generations have reiterated that "all work and no play makes Jack a dull boy." Though we are a feverish nation and make a great deal of noise, must we not admit that we are somewhat like Jack at his worst? Circumstances are, however, conspiring against our remaining dull as a consequence of a continuing preOccupation with work. Almost unnoted, leisure is bearing down upon us from every side. The eight hour working day is rapidly spreading. The new sources of physical energy, which are being increasingly developed, are certain to reduce still further the hours of work necessary to supply the actual needs of the community. The shortened hours and the substitution of mechanical power will, in addition, more and more remove physical fatigue as an accompaniment of work. Men and women are beginning to return from their daily tasks, no longer so jaded as to require complete inactivity or abnormal stimulus as a counter to the exhaustion of toil, but fit to fill their leisure hours with activities of a different kind.

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One other factor is certain to an important role in the future. Prohibition is doubtless here to stay, and will be more effectively enforced as the will of the majority makes itself increasingly felt. That means that the chief anodyne of idle hours is being eliminated. We shall no longer be able to delude ourselves into thinking we are having a pleasant and profitable time when we are merely a little befuddled by alcohol. We shall

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These large social changes are bring. ing about a condition for which we find ourselves unprepared. In our devotion to labor, we have neglected the Our uses and significance of leisure. educational system, which is a barometer registering the pressure of our enthusiasm, has for years stressed vocational training. Efficiency has demanded results, and we have allowed the pay envelope of the graduate to become the criterion of a school's success. We have ignored germinating enthusiasms, we have not cultivated a love of life's diversities, and we have subordinated training in appreciation of the beauties and mysteries of the world about us.

The dictionary states that a hobby is "any favorite object, pursuit, or topic; that which a person persistently pursues or dwells upon with zeal and delight." What better way is there for us to meet our changing social and working conditions than by cultivating hobbies to fill our lives with new interests, and to give richer service by the aid of a refreshed and invigorated personality?

The British have much to teach us in the wise use of our leisure hours. With them the hobby is a mark of distinction. To be without a hobby is to be a sodden creature, the victim of commercialism. Unlike the American Who's Who, the British has a special division in which are entered the recreations of the men whose names are listed in the book. Every Englishman is interested to know how every other Englishman spends his free time.

Earl Grey confesses to a love of birds, which leads him into the woods many days in the year. A commissioner on industrial poisons is an au

thority on stained glass windows; the passion of a professor of medicine is sketching; an eminent jurist combines travel and geology as his forms of recreation; the Governor of Fiji fills his free time with art photography; Sir Robert Hart softens the rigors of official life in the Orient by enthusiastic acquisition of a knowledge of Chinese embroideries and lacquers; Tyndall becomes a mountain climber; a great financier finds music the solace of his idle hours.

How can our people be helped to sweeten their days and better their lives by the acquisition of hobbies? The schools would find it difficult to accomplish the task unaided, for a hobby is like a disease, most readily acquired by contact with one already infected. Fortunately some teachers ride hobbies of their own, and others pursue their specialties with such "zeal and delight" that they can qualify as inspirers to hobby riding as they follow their vocations. The community has its amateur enthusiasts, sufficiently unprofessional to give courage to the timid, who must be impressed into the service, invited to speak in the schools, urged to form clubs of young people to exchange stamps, or collect rocks, or practice decorative book binding, or press weeds, or study the constellations, or make marionettes, or design book plates, or hunt for Indian remains, or learn the spider webs, or study rug patterns, or make paintings of the eggs of birds.

These potential teachers of our illequipped heirs of leisure are all about us. The private secretary who culti vates dahlias; the stenographer who makes fairy gardens in a flower pot; the banker who keeps bees in his attic; the minister who corrects his social theories by observations on his glasscovered hill of ants; the salesman who raises goldfish in the back parlor and dreams of developing a new type of fantail to display at the fish show; the tanner who uses his daily walk to the tannery as his opportunity to learn the songs of the birds in every

season; the lumberman who hunts with a camera; the lawyer who collects carvings of elephants in every ma terial and from every quarter of the globe: these are the men and women who have priceless gifts to give the children in our schools. No one in the world is so generous with his enthusi. asm as the amateur. You have to pay men to talk about their vocations, but it is hard to prevent them from talk. ing about their hobbies.

Think of our allowing the artists sole suzerainty in the field of art, when each one of us should be a joy. ous sketcher of the changing face of nature. Why should only the musical. ly trained be expected to sing when every man's child of us can get pleas ure out of near-harmonies and a sense of rhythm? Why should wood carv ing be confined to the specialists, when any hand can use a tool, and every human being feels joy in seeing a purposed shape emerge from a block of wood?

The hope of the physical directors in some of our colleges is to train young men who will no longer get their exercise and their fun sitting on the bleachers, but will find rowing, cross country runs, quoits, squash and volley ball, horseback riding, golf, tennis, swimming, skating, skiing, adapted to undergraduate needs and suitable to carry on into middle age as some of the accessory joys of life.

We can judge whether we are a truly civilized nation, recognizing fundamental values in life and satisfying other needs than the purely ma terial, when we are as eager as the British to know not only how our dis tinguished men work but how they play; when our schools place training for hobbies at least on a par with training for vocations; and when the achievement of the amateur becomes of moment to each of us, since we all desire a standing in that unexacting but joy-inducing fellowship of free ex plorers in a world of wonders and de lights.

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