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This same week also did the cannons of the English beat down twelve windmills situated on the banks of the Loire, between the city and the new town. Therefore those of Orleans caused to be built, within the city, eleven mills for horses, which greatly comforted them. Notwithstanding the cannons and engines of the English, the French who were in Orleans made several sallies and skirmishes against them, between the Tournelles of the bridge of Saint Jean le Blanc, from the Sunday until Thursday the twenty-first day of the same month; upon which day the English attacked the boulevard, made of faggots and earth, placed in front of the Tournelles, which assault continued incessantly for four hours: for they began at ten in the morning and did not cease until two hours after mid-day, many valiant feats of arms being performed on either side. Of the principal French who defended the boulevard, were, the lord of Villars, captain of Montargis; Messire Matthïas, an Arragonese; the lord of Guitry; the lord de Couras, of Gascony; the lord of Sainctes Trailles and his brother Poton de Sainctes Trailles, also of Gascony; Peter de la Chapelle, a gentleman of Beausse, and many other knights and esquires, besides the citizens of Orleans, all of whom conducted themselves very valiantly. In like manner the women of Orleans afforded great succour; for they never ceased to furnish with diligence to those who defended the boulevard,

many necessary things; such as water, boiling oil and grease, lime, cinders and chausse-trapes.* At the termination of the assault many were wounded on either side; but mostly of the English, of whom more than two hundred-and-forty died. It so happened that during the assault, the lord of Gaucourt rode by Orleans, for he was the governor; but, when passing before Sainct Père Empont, he accidentally fell from his horse, and broke his arm; and was forthwith carried to the baths to have it set.

On the following Friday, the twenty-second day of the said month of October, the alarm bell was rung; the French believing that the English attacked the boulevards of the Tournelles from the end of the bridge, by the mine which they had dug, but they retired at this period. The same day the inhabitants of Orleans broke down an arch of the bridge, and constructed a boulevard to the right of the beautiful Cross which is upon the bridge.

The ensuing Saturday, the twenty-third day of the month, the citizens of Orleans burned and broke down the boulevard of the Tournelles, and abandoned the same; because it was undermined and no longer tenable by the said men at war.

On the following Sunday, the twenty-fourth day of October, the English attacked and took the Tournelles at the end of the bridge; because they were

* This term is not found in any Dictionary of Old French.

completely demolished and broken down by the cannons and heavy artillery which they had discharged against them: and on this account no defence was attempted, because no one dared stand upright.

On the night of this day (Sunday), the earl of Salisbury, having with him captain Glacidas (Glasdale), and many others, wished to go into the Tournelles, after they had been taken, in order to examine the situation of Orleans. But no sooner had he arrived, and occupied himself with looking at the city through a window of the Tournelles, than he was struck by a ball from a cannon, said to have been fired from a tower, called the Tower of our Lady; but never positively known from whence discharged, so that it is said to bave been an act of the Divinity. The blow from the said cannon struck him on the head, in such wise, that it carried away half of the cheek, and burst one of the eyes, which proved a signal benefit for this kingdom, for he was commander of the army, and the most renowned and dreaded of all the English. On this same day, when the Tournelles were lost, the French broke up another strong boulevard in the city; and in another quarter the English destroyed two arches of the bridge in front of the Tournelles, after they had taken them, and there constructed a very large boulevard of earth and faggots.

The Monday following, being the twenty-fifth day of the month of October, arrived in Orleans for

its comfort, succour and aid, many lords, knights, captains and esquires greatly renowned in war, the principal of whom were John, Bastard of Orleans; the lord of Saint Severe, Marshal of France; the lord of Bueil; Messire James of Chabanes, Seneschal of the Bourbonnois; the lord of Chaumont-sur-Loire; Messire Theaulde de Valpergne, Lombard knight; and a valiant captain of Gascony, called Stephen de Vignolles, otherwise La Hire, who, as well as the captains and those accompanying him, were all valiant and of high renown. And of these were captain de Vendosme, Messire Cerney, an Arragonese, and many others, accompanied by eight hundred armed combatants, such as archers, crossbowmen, with other Italian infantry bearing pointed stakes.

The Wednesday following, twenty-seventh of the month at night, died the earl of Salisbury at the city of Meung on the Loire, whither he had been carried from the siege, after receiving the wound from the cannon of which he died; whose death greatly stupified and discomfited the English carrying on the siege, for they mourned much thereat, wherefore they concealed the matter to the utmost of their power, fearing lest those of Orleans should become acquainted therewith. They caused his entrails to be taken out, and sent the body to England. The death of which Earl brought great harm to the English, and on the contrary, great profit to the French. Many since have said, that the earl of Salisbury thus met his end by divine judgment of God, and believe it: for that he had broken his promise to the duke of Orleans, held prisoner in England, to whom he had passed his word, that he would not injure any of his possessions; as well as, that he spared neither monasteries nor churches, all of which he pillaged when he could enter them. These are things sufficiently strong to make one believe that his days were abridged by the just vengeance of God. Among others was particularly pillaged the church of our Lady of Clery, as well as the town.

On Tuesday, the eighth day of November, was divided and removed the army of the English, the one part retiring to Meung on the Loire, and the other to Jargeau, leaving a strong garrison at the Tournelles and the boulevard of the bridge; amongst whom was captain Glacidas (Glasdale), and with him five hundred men to guard them.

This same Tuesday, the English burned and destroyed several houses, presses, and other edifices in the vale of the Loire; while at the same time the men of war and the citizens of Orleans acted with so much zeal, that they burned and threw down, by the end of the month of November, several churches which stood in the suburbs of the city; namely, the church of Saint Aignan, patron of Orleans, together with the cloisters appertaining thereto, which was

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